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A 15-year-old girl presents to your office because she has been having vaginal discharge. In the course of the history, she informs you that she is sexually active with her boyfriend who is also 15 years of age. The examination reveals mucopurulent cervicitis, but no lower abdominal, cervical motion or ad-nexal tenderness. The most appropriate intervention is to a. Notify the department of social services b. Obtain parental consent for treatment c. Provide counseling, testing, and...

Aids

Which of the following factors carries the greatest risk for transmission of HIV to the health care worker b. Stage of illness of the source patient c. Presence of visible blood on the needle d. Use of gloves during the procedure e. Entrance of the needle into a vein or artery of the source patient 159. Which is the most appropriate course of action for this health care worker a. Reassure her of the low risk of infection and offer no prophylaxis for HIV infection b. Offer single-drug...

Items 310312

A 50-year-old man presents to a health center for routine care. His last visit was 5 years ago and he has no complaints. He has been smoking 1 pack of cigarettes a day since he was 15 years old. When counseled about his smoking, he says he has no intention of quitting and feels fine. He drinks two alcoholic beverages per week. Records show that his blood cholesterol is 235 mg dL, with an HDL level of 40 mg dL and an LDL level of 140 mg dL. He has no family history of coronary artery disease...

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The overall infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined in the United States since the beginning of the century. In some U.S. cities in 1900, up to 30 of infants would die before reaching the age of one. Overall rates have dropped from over 800 per 100,000 to less than 10 per 100,000 in 1998. 322. Which of the following is the main factor responsible for the decline in IMR during the 1990s a. Improvements in medical care b. Reduction in sudden infant death syndrome c. Reduction in...

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A 53-year-old woman presents to your office with questions about hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). She has been experiencing hot flashes and night sweats. She has not menstruated for one year. She has no risk factors for cardiovascular disease. She is 5'6 and weighs 120 lbs. Her gynecological examination is normal as well as her Pap smear. Her breast examination and mam-mography are also normal. She wonders about the risks and benefits of HRT given her health status. 367. Which of the...

M

A 68-year-old man with controlled hypertension complains of gradual impairment of vision. His history further reveals that he was recently diagnosed with mild adult onset diabetes that is also well controlled. He is a retired fisherman. The most likely cause of his visual impairment is This pyramid is representative of which population structure 393. A 2 2-year-old female presents with a history of abdominal cramps, diarrhea, weight loss, and blood and mucus in the stools. Which of the...

Answers

The answer is b. (Wallace, 14 e, p 100.) The decision to provide fluoride supplements (prescribed as drops or tablets) is based on the fluoride content of the drinking water and the age of the child. The latest recommendations from the AAP 1995 are as follows. No supplements are necessary before 6 months of age. If the water supply has levels less than 0.3 parts per million (ppm), the recommended dose is 0.25 mg day for children aged 6 months to 3 years, 0.50 mg day for children aged 3 to...

Radium

Environmental and Occupational Health 233. The answer is d. (USDHHS, MMWR 45 SS-1 , 1996.) Cryptosporidium parvum was responsible for illness in 403,271 persons, the greatest number of cases of illness due to outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States in the 1990s. During an outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993, an estimated 403,000 persons became ill and 4,400 were hospitalized. Although the actual number of outbreaks as opposed to number of cases is about the same for C. parvum and G....

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A 50-year-old woman comes for her periodical health examination. Her body mass index is 29 kg m2. Her blood pressure is 120 80. She has no family history of cardiovascular disease. Her total cholesterol is 200 mg dL (5.2 mmol L), her HDL is 35 mg dL (0.9 mmol L), and her LDL is 100 mg dL (2.6 mmol L). 328. This patient is at highest risk for developing which of the following conditions c. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes 329. This patients weight increases the risk for which of the following...

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A 27-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his friends because he has delusions about being followed by the FBI and has paranoid thoughts and behaviors. 355. Which of the following drugs is most likely to be causing this psychiatric presentation 356. For what minimum length of time should this patient be enrolled in a drug treatment program for positive outcomes to occur 357. Which of the following factors is associated with decreased drug use among young adults 358. You are employed...

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A 4 5-year-old quarry worker presents with a history of progressive nonproductive cough and dyspnea. He has no fever or weight loss. The complete blood count is normal. The chest x-ray is as follows. (Reproduced, with permission, from LaDou J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2nd ed., Stamford, CT,Apple-ton & Lange, 1997 320.) (Reproduced, with permission, from LaDou J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2nd ed., Stamford, CT,Apple-ton & Lange, 1997 320.) 264. The most...

Technique Used To Maximize Compliance With Allocated Regimen

Which of the following statements is correct a. The predictive value of a positive result is 31 343 b. The predictive value of a positive result is 79 312 c. The predictive value of a negative result is 578 (578 + 31) d. The predictive value of a negative test is 578 657 e. The incidence rate of cholera in this population is 343 1000 19. The RAC test achieves widespread acceptance. However, with improvements in hygiene, the prevalence of cholera gradually falls from 35 to 5 of hospitalized...

Biostatistics And Methods Of Epidemiology

Answers, Explanations, and References 34 Epidemiology and Prevention of Communicable Diseases Answers, Explanations, and References 92 Environmentaland Occupational Health Answers, Explanations, and References 135 Epidemiology and Prevention of Noncommunicable and Chronic Diseases Answers, Explanations, and References 174 Answers, Explanations, and References 205 Answers, Explanations, and References 223 Many changes have been made in this book from the last edition. I hope it will be helpful...

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The National Cholesterol Education Program has developed a two-step diet plan for persons with high cholesterol. Persons are considered at moderate risk of developing cardiovascular disease if their total cholesterol is between 200 and 239 mg dL (5.26.2 mmol L) and at high risk if their total cholesterol is 240 mg dL or more (> 6.2 mmol L). 373. Which of the following dietary restrictions could be associated with a decrease in HDL d. Total dietary polyunsaturated fat 374. After one of your...

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A 34-year-old woman is brought in from a sporting event complaining of headache, nausea, and weakness. She had been jogging outside in sunny weather where the temperature was 90 Fahrenheit with a relative humidity of 70 . She had started a training program two weeks before. She is hyperventilating, her skin is moist, and her core body temperature is 38.8 Celsius. 247. She most likely suffers from 248. The most appropriate cooling measure for this patient is c. Ice packs to groin, axilla, and...

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A 42-year-old welder is brought in the emergency room complaining of a sore throat, headache, and myalgias. He also started feeling a tightness in the chest and shortness of breath. He works in an electroplating operation brazing and cutting metals. Pulmonary function tests reveal a reduced forced expiratory volume. The chest x-ray is normal. 242. Which of the following exposures is the most likely cause of the workers symptoms 243. The most likely source of absorption is 244. Which of the...

The answers are 402e 403a 404b Wallace 14e pp 811 814 Health belief model the likelihood of taking a health action is

Mined by the perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers. The social learning theory behavior change and maintenance are a function of expectations about the outcomes that will result from engaging in a behavior outcomes expectations and expectations about ones ability to engage in or execute the behavior efficacy expectations . The theory of planned behavior or reasoned action variables important in determining whether an individual will attempt to perform a behavior include...