Terms Commonly Used In Substance

a. Drug Use. Drug use is the infrequent or recurrent use of any substance that has effect on the body, often used for social or recreational purposes.

NOTE: Drugs may be taken into the body by any route (for example, oral, inhalation, rectal, or injections).

b. Drug Abuse. Drug abuse is the frequent or recurrent use of any substance to:

(1) Achieve a state of intoxication (condition of "being drunk" or a "drunklike" state).

(2) Escape from reality or problems.

c. Tolerance. Tolerance is the physical condition in which, after repeated exposure to a given drug, larger doses of the drug are required to achieve the desired effect.

d. Withdrawal. Withdrawal is a consistent pattern of physical responses that appears when regular drug use is discontinued. In general, drug withdrawal reactions tend to produce the opposite effect of the ingested drug (for example, alcohol [a depressant] causes hyperactivity in a withdrawing abuser).

e. Drug Dependence/Addiction. Drug dependence or addiction is the use of a drug to the extent that usage becomes more frequent, tolerance increases, and stopping would result in withdrawal. Disruption of normal social patterns occurs.

(1) Psychological dependence. In psychological dependence, a drug becomes necessary in order for a person to achieve or to retain a sense of well-being. Withdrawal of the drug results in compulsive drug seeking behavior.

(2) Physical dependence. In physical dependence, a drug becomes necessary in order for a person to function physically. This exists only if withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug use stops or if tolerance to the drug has developed.

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