Radiation Exposure Ebooks Catalog

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Read more here...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary

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Author: Lloyd Burrell
Official Website: www.electricsenseinterviews101.com
Price: $67.00

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My How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Review

Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Currently, the main roles of MR are for the investigations of aortoiliac disease, visceral arteries, and extent of arteriovenous malformations. In addition, as it involves no ionizing radiation, MR is the most appropriate imaging modality for young patients requiring long-term follow-up, such as those with aortic dissection, aortic root replacement surgery, or aortic coarctation. Although MR is not widely used at the moment as the primary imaging modality for vascular disease, with further advances in software and hardware designs expected in the future, it will become an ideal imaging tool.

Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

Been recommended for establishing migration, but this is best performed on CT. Triple-phase CT examinations (nonenhanced, arterial phase, and delayed venous phase) allow serial measurements of aneurysm sac diameters, monitoring of the integrity and position of the device, and detection of an endoleak (reperfusion of the aneurysm sac) (Fillinger, 1999). Three-dimensional reconstruction with volume measurements is the most sensitive method for detecting aneurysm sac size changes, but requires expertise in image segmentation or outsourcing to a commercial entity. It may allow earlier detection of problems that require intervention after EVAR or earlier reassurance to the patient and less frequent surveillance in successful repairs (Fillinger, 1999 Kay et al., 2003). Duplex ultrasound is a useful adjunct for the detection of endoleak, without the risk of contrast nephrotoxicity and ionizing radiation. However, it may not show the source of endoleak and is unable to assess stent-graft...

Measurement of Visceral

Radiographic imaging is the only in vivo method available to quantify visceral fat. Measurement of visceral fat in vivo has stimulated great interest because a plethora of data consistently demonstrates that visceral fat is an independent predictor of both morbidity (36-39) and mortality (12). In this way it is important to note that similar to waist circumference, there is no consensus as to the optimal location for measurement of visceral fat. It has been suggested that T10-T11 and L5-S1 may represent the anatomical boundaries for portally drained visceral fat, and that a contiguous image protocol within this region may represent the gold-standard measure. However, this approach is labor-intensive and, in the case of CT, would be associated with substantial radiation exposure. Consequently, visceral fat is normally assessed using a single MRI or CT image. Visceral fat measures at any given anatomical level using a single image are highly correlated with mass measures using multiple...

Computed Tomography Scanning

The imaging, however, is invasive, time-consuming, and expensive, and it entails substantial radiation exposure for the patient. It is therefore restricted for preoperative assessment in those suspected to be imminent candidates for surgical repair, follow-up of endovascular stent graft repairs, and for patients with suspected AAA rupture who are stable enough for deferment of laparotomy.

Environmental Strictures

Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans

Radiation injury to the genitalia can occur either as a direct result of radiation exposure, or indirectly, as the result of radiation on the venous and lymphatic drainage. Although direct radiation to the genitalia is uncommon, occasionally a patient will present with a small (2- to 3-cm), superficial, noninvasive, malignant lesion of the glans penis or coronal sulcus, who elects small-field electron beam radiotherapy vs partial penectomy. Although there are generally few problems with these patients, others who have had direct radiation exposure to the penis can present with progressive gangrene of the genitalia, requiring debridement and, in some cases, partial penectomy. In addition, radiotherapy to the pelvis can cause chronic lymphedema, with the patients often presenting with hydroceles as well. In contrast to direct radiation exposure, chronic lymphedema is considered a highly treatable condition, usually involving excision of the lymphedematous tissue and primary...

As Low As Reasonably Achievable

As Low As Reasonably Achievable is the guiding principle for radiation professionals around the world. Many states are now requiring those facilities where radiation exposure exists to put ALARA programs in place. The principle ALARA Is directed not only at the x-ray technologist but at the patient as well. Radiographers worry about working in a risky business. According to Robert S. Wenstrup, PhD, at the Lahey Clinic Medical Center in Burlington, MA, x-ray technologists have a 1-in-10, 000 chance of suffering serious effects from radiation exposure. To put that in perspective he adds, you can stay at home and have a risk of 1-in-20, 000 of falling down the stairs. 6 Patients worry that the radiation they receive during diagnosis and treatment will produce unwanted biological effects later on. Radiographers must keep ALARA principles in mind at all times to protect themselves and their patients from radiation exposure. They must also be prepared to discuss these principles with the...

The Right Scanner Parameters to

25mm Polyp During Colonoscopy

Another major issue is represented by dose delivery, usually higher with CTC compared with a standard abdominal CT study due to routine use of prone and supine scans (Chen et al. 1999). Radiation exposure has also substantially increased over the past few years due to the widespread use of thinner collimations and the consequent increase of tube current setting in order to reduce image noise. Low or ultra-low dose MDCT protocols together with new automatic dose modulation software may help in solving this problem representing a crucial issue for proposing VC as a screening method for colonic polyp in healthy subjects (Iannaccone et al. 2003a). Although thin collimation protocols may provide benefits in terms of detection of small polypoid lesions, the application to patients is limited by technical restrictions of four-slice MDCT. In fact, with four-slice MDCT a compromise between scanning time and collimation is necessary since the use of 1 mm is associated with scanning time over 30...

Atrophic Vaginitis And Serosanguineous Discharge

The answer is b. (DiSaia, 5 e, pp 619-622.) Different tissues tolerate different doses of radiation, but the ovaries are by far the most radiosensitive. They tolerate up to 2,500 rads, while the other tissues listed tolerate between 5,000 and 20,000 rads. Acute evidence of excessive radiation exposure includes tissue necrosis and inflammation, resulting in enteritis, cystitis, vulvitis, proctosigmoiditis, and possible bone marrow suppression. Chronic effects of excessive radiation exposure are manifest months to years after therapy, and include vasculitis, fibrosis, and deficient cellular regrowth these can result in proctitis, cystitis, fistulas, scarring, and stenosis. Successful radiation depends on (1) the greater sensitivity of the cancer cell compared with normal tissue and (2) the greater ability of normal tissue to repair itself after irradiation. The maximal resistance to ionizing radiation depends on an intact circulation and adequate cellular oxygenation. Resistance...

What Are Lasers and How Do They Work

How Medical Lasers Work

Electromagnetic energy is in the form of photons that vary widely in energy level. Photons are discrete particles but also have wavelike properties (light waves). The energy level of a photon is described by its wavelength, which varies inversely with its frequency. High-energy photons have high frequencies and short wavelengths. Low energy photons have low frequencies and long wavelengths. The entire spectrum of electromagnetic energy ranges from very short ultraviolet (above the color violet) wavelengths to very long infrared (below the color red) wavelengths (fig. 1.3). Visible light is produced by photons with wavelengths lying between 400 nanometers (nm) and 700 nm. (A nanometer is one billionth of a meter a meter is 39.4 inches.) The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum includes light of all colors that together appear white. A glass prism or raindrops Fig. 1.3 The electromagnetic spectrum. Fig. 1.3 The electromagnetic spectrum. in the sky will divide ordinary white...

Microbial stress adaptation and crossprotection

Food is processed or preserved by application of physical, chemical or biological factors these include heating, drying, freezing and the addition of approved preservatives. Thermal pasteurization and sterilization are the most frequently used methods to preserve foods owing to their efficacy and reliability in ensuring food safety. Conventional preservation technologies, although effective to produce safe food, may result in products with reduced nutritional and sensory quality, and therefore decreased consumer acceptability (Abee and Wouters, 1999 Lado and Yousef, 2002). Alternative food preservation technologies have been developed, and in some cases applied, to produce safe foods of high quality. These emerging technologies include high-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulse electric fields, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, among others (Lado and Yousef, 2002 Sofos, 2002). During food production and processing, foodborne microorganisms may encounter a wide variety of...

Conclusion and Future Development

An important topic in CT colonography is the reduction of ionizing radiation in CT colonography. This topic becomes of particular interest when CT colonography is used as a potential screening tool in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Although the imaging of structures with a high contrast difference (polyps vs air or tagged stool) allows a higher noise level (resulting from lower radiation exposure), noise related artifacts arise. This noise in the data can be counteracted by smoothing the images by using a smooth reconstruction filter. Although the benefit of these filters is reduction of the noise level, this is at the expense of image resolution.

Selective Photothermolysis the Enabling Principle for Cosmetic Laser Surgery

Hemoglobin Laser Absorption

Fig. 4.2 The electromagnetic spectrum includes all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Shorter wavelengths have higher energy. Visible light wavelengths range from about 400 nanometers (nm) to 700 nm. Ultraviolet light is invisible electromagnetic radiation with higher energy than violet light and wavelengths as short as 10 nm. Infrared radiation has lower energy than red light and wavelengths up to 1 millimeter (1 mm 1 million nm). Radio waves have wavelengths greater than 1 meter (1m 1 billion nm). Fig. 4.2 The electromagnetic spectrum includes all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Shorter wavelengths have higher energy. Visible light wavelengths range from about 400 nanometers (nm) to 700 nm. Ultraviolet light is invisible electromagnetic radiation with higher energy than violet light and wavelengths as short as 10 nm. Infrared radiation has lower energy than red light and wavelengths up to 1 millimeter (1 mm 1 million nm). Radio waves have wavelengths greater than 1...

Dian Soewarto Vronique Blanquet and Martin Hrabe de Angelis 1 Introduction

Mouse models play an important role in the elucidation of molecular pathways underlying human disease. Mutations in mouse can be generated by a variety of techniques including those using inducing agents such ionizing radiation or chemicals and those that involve genetic manipulations such as transgenic insertions or knockouts. Random mutagenesis by ionizing radiation or chemical agents has a long tradition in classical genetics and has allowed the generation of a large number of mutant phenotypes. Ionizing radiation causes breaks in the chromosome, leading to deletions, translocations, and other gross chromosomal rearrangements. Chemical mutagens, which have been shown to produce a large number of mutations, are characterised by a differential spermatogenic response.

Chromophores the Actual Targets of Lasers

A chromophore (chromo color, phore carrier) is a chemical entity that absorbs a specific wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the skin, a chromophore is the target or skin component that is treated with a laser. Most skin chromophores have a distinct and intrinsic color. One of the major chromophores is melanin, the complex molecule largely responsible for the color of skin and hair. Most melanin is stored in tiny subcellular structures called melanosomes. Lasers used to remove excessive or unwanted skin color are optimized for energy absorption by melanin, the result of which is destruction of melanosomes or even of the cells that contain them melanocytes.

Cancers Related to Specific Mutations eg Retinoblastoma Ataxia Telangiectasia

Some cancers are associated with specific gene mutations. I have already mentioned retinoblastoma, which occurs when the tumor suppressing the RB gene is lost or altered. Another disease, ataxia telangiectasia (AT), is caused by a recessive gene. AT patients have increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation and often develop leukemia or lymphoma. Their heterozygous relatives have an increased incidence of breast cancer. There are other cancers associated with inherited defects of specific genes, and some patients with these defective genes also have higher risks of developing breast cancer. These conditions are extremely rare.

Time domain reflectometry TDR

This method is increasingly used as a non-invasive technique for the determination of the volumetric water content of soils. It is based on the determination of the dielectric constant (e) of the soil through the measurement of the propagation velocity of electromagnetic waves, using the large difference of e between water ( 81), air ( 1), mineral constituents of soil (3-5), and frozen or bound water ( 3.2). The dielectric constant is measured with probes that are installed in the soil, down to a depth of several metres, if required, and that are either permanently connected to a datalogger or are temporarily connected to a mobile device. Certain devices allow instantaneous measurements of topsoil moisture with minimum soil disturbance with mobile probes that are inserted vertically

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Tissue Size

MRI does not employ ionizing radiation, but rather is based on the interaction between strong magnetic fields and hydrogen nuclei (protons), which are abundant in all biological tissues, and form the basis for generation of fat and muscle images (60,86). As MRI is not associated with any known adverse side effects, it is the method of choice for assessing whole-body tissue composition. However, the image acquisition time for MRI is significantly longer than CT and image analysis is more complex and time-consuming. Using multiple-image protocols acquired with standard clinical magnets (e.g., 1.5 Tesla), acquisition of whole-body MRI data for fat and lean mass can be acquired in about 45 min (42,87,88).

Texture Representations

Texture-based techniques permit to generate intuitive visualizations of steady as well as unsteady vector fields. In contrast to depictions based on a set of discrete geometric primitives, the resulting dense representation is a powerful way to convey essential patterns of the vector field while avoiding the tedious task of seeding individual streamlines to capture all the structures of interest. The basic idea of most of the corresponding methods consists in applying a one-dimensional low-pass filter to an underlying white noise image. The filter kernel is here defined over individual streamline trajectories at each pixel of the image, thus creating patterns of strongly coherent colors that are aligned with the underlying continuous flow. At the same time, a strong contrast is preserved along directions orthogonal to the vector field orientation, which results in intuitive pictures that mimic a dense coverage of the domain with thick streamlines. A wide variety of techniques have...

The Role of TP53 in Germ Cell Tumors

Apy resistant histological subgroups, making it difficult to assess the contribution of the TP53 status to the clinical behavior. In another study, no p53 mutations were found in a group of 18 refractory cases, except in one sensitive case, and TP53 levels were comparable to those of sensitive and unselected cases 142 . For the majority of refractory GCT patients p53 mutations are unlikely to be the cause of treatment failure. In conclusion, the level of TP53 alone cannot explain the chemotherapy sensitivity of GCTs and has no predictive value with regard to chemotherapy resistance. Another level of complexity is introduced by the fact that the TP53 pathway can be influenced by a number of other factors, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and binding to other proteins 143 . Therefore, inactivation of TP53 might occur at different levels. For example, a specific role of p73, a family member of the p53 gene family interacting with TP53, has been reported in the response...

Women aged 5065 years

Mammography does have risks as well as benefits. Radiation exposure, false-positives leading to subsequent tests with additional radiation and expense, biopsies, surgery, and emotional scarring are all risks. The risk of false-positives is higher in younger women than in older women. The rate of false-positives is 7.8 in women aged 40-49 years and 7.4 in women aged 50-59 years. The cumulative rate for a false-positive rate is 49 after ten annual mammograms.16 Out of 10 000 women aged 50-65 and screened by mammography, approximately 500-700 will need to return for further X-rays. Fewer than 100 will receive biopsies, and approximately 50-60 cancers will be found.4

Principles of Infrared Spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy is the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of absorption of infrared light (c.200-5,000 cm-1) due to molecular vibrations. Not all possible vibrations within a molecule will interact with electromagnetic waves in the infrared region. In order to interact with infrared light, the vibration must result in a change of the molecular dipole moment during the vibration. Heteronuclear diatomic molecules, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen chloride, which possess a permanent dipole moment, have infrared activity because stretching of this bond leads to a change in the dipole moment. In contrast, homonuclear diatomic molecules such as dihydrogen or dioxygen have no infrared absorption, as these molecules have zero dipole moment and vibrations of the bonds will not produce one. It is important to note that it is not necessary for a compound to have a permanent dipole moment to interact with infrared light. As an example, centrosymmetric linear molecules such as...

Convenience Vs Safety

When overwhelmed by the immediate and pressing demands of a heavy patient flow, one might be tempted, to some extent, to overlook safety in favor of convenience. In such circumstances, some radiographers allow the urgency of the moment to prevail over the ethical responsibility to limit the patient's radiation exposure to the lowest amount possible.

Characteristics Of Microwave Radiation

Microwaves are one part of the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. These invisible waves move outward traveling in an up-and-down movement. These waves travel outward in all directions from the transmitting antenna. The more powerful the waves, the farther they travel through space.

Coulter Model S Plus Counter

In 1978, with the introduction of the Coulter Model S Plus (see figure 3-6), the main improvement over the Model S was the additional capability of performing platelet counts, providing mean platelet volumes, and plotted histograms. Asthetically, the instrument is now fully enclosed. The electronics section is shielded against electromagnetic interference, by a metal cover panel. The sampling area is encased behind a safety plate glass door. The only items remaining outside, are the two sampling tips, and a diluent dispenser. One tip (on the left side of the door), is for whole blood sampling, which still requires a full 1 ml of blood. The other sample tip is for a prediluted specimen, and is located on the right side of the door. For the prediluted specimen, only 44.7 l of whole blood is needed. It is then diluted into 10 ml of the saline diluent. The diluent dispenser is located at the top center of the door. Once the white diluent dispense button is pressed, 10 ml of the saline...

Skill Level 3 91p30e6

The skill level 3 noncommissioned officer has the responsibility to ensure that he or she protects the patient from unnecessary radiation exposure, unclean unsanitary conditions, and electrical hazards. The NCO is also required to advise subordinates who are in error for one of the above conditions and outline the necessary corrective actions that must be taken. Those trying to get the job done sometimes neglect a simple task like turning off a machine that emits too much radiation and using another until it can be repaired.

Overview of Radiography Studies

Radiologic examinations are not risk-free. Recent practices have focused on limiting the patient's exposure to the radiation that accompanies any radiographic procedure. Reproductive organs and developing fetuses, especially during the first trimester, are at particular risk for untoward results of radiation exposure. The dangers of radiation exposure can be the result of the absorption of a large amount of radiation over a short period of time, or from the cumulative effects of small amounts over a long period of time. Proper safety precautions can minimize the risks associated with radiation exposure. Safety precautions include protecting staff and patients. Staff wear lead aprons, gloves, and other protective dress when not within a shielded booth. Patients should be shielded from radiation exposure to the extent possible. Gonads in both males and females should be covered, unless the examination involves the abdomen or gonad area. The size of the x-ray field must be carefully...

Primary Physicians With Imaging Equipment Are Four Times As Likely To Order Diagnostic Imaging

Principles of Radiation Protection. The x-ray technologist's responsibilities in minimizing radiation exposure to the patient, other personnel, and the public at large are considered. It is designed to allay the fear that the word radiation arouses in both x-ray technologists and patients. Specific topics include the use of beam restrictive devices, patient shielding techniques, proper screen-film combinations, accurate assessment and implementation of appropriate exposure factors, maximum permissible doses, and regulatory limitations.

Appendix A Code Of Ethics For Xray Technologists

The Radiologic Technologist utilizes equipment and accessories, employs techniques and procedures, performs services in accordance with an accepted standard of practice, and demonstrates expertise in limiting the radiation exposure to the patient, self, and other members of the health care team.

Overview of Nuclear Scanning Studies

The risks associated with the use of radionuclides are considered low because radioactive energy leaves the patient's body in six to twenty-four hours. However, some radionuclides take as long as eight days to dissipate. The patient is typically exposed to less radiation that than of a regular x-ray procedure. Children can be tested using radionuclides due to the low radiation exposure. Nursing mothers can be imaged when the breast milk is stored in advance, since the half-life of radionuclides is usually quite short. Exceptions to radionuclide diagnostic imaging are usually limited to pregnant women.

A Photon Action Upon Atoms

(1) Living cells are composed of atoms and molecules. If the structure of the atoms and molecules is changed, the cell may be adversely affected. When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, the structure of some of the atoms and molecules within the cell are changed. (2) These are some of the effects that ionizing radiation has upon the cell. (c) Mutated cell formation. The chromosomes, which are the blueprint for the formation of new cells, are changed by excessive radiation exposure, resulting in mutated cells. The new mutated cells do not function properly. When a cell is changed in this manner, the life cycle or span of the cell is changed.

Surgical Lasers for Treating Skin

In the 1970s carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers were developed for surgical use. (Most lasers are named after the chemical substance within the laser cavity responsible for producing the laser energy. In the case of the CO2 laser, this substance is carbon dioxide, a gas. The specific wavelength of a given laser is determined by the energy levels of the electrons within the molecules of the chemical substance see chapter 1 .) The CO2 laser has a wavelength of 10,600nm, which is quite far into the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, much longer than the wavelengths of visible light (400-700 nm, fig. 4.2). This wavelength is well absorbed by water molecules thus, water acts as a chromophore for the CO2 laser. Water is ubiquitous in human skin except for in the topmost cornified layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum). The viable layers of the epidermis, like nearly all living tissue, have a high water content and the dermis is composed primarily of water. Because there is so much...

Modification of Genetic Risk Caused by Environmental Factors

Can be found in fish, wildlife, and human tissues including blood and milk. These pollutants have been found in higher concentrations in breast fat of breast cancer patients than in those without cancer. In the absence of epidemiological studies, however, this type of evidence is circumstantial and does not prove a causal relationship. PCBs are organochlorines that are metabolized into weak estrogen-like compounds called xenoestrogens (xeno foreign). It is not clear if they promote cancer growth. Population studies based on 232 cancer patients and 323 age-matched controls in communities with high rates of breast cancer on Long Island were inconclusive. Similar observations were made in studies on Cape Cod. Studies on cleaning solvents and low-level ionizing radiation such as emitted by power lines and household appliances were likewise inconclusive. To date, no single environmental culprit other than atomic-bomb radiation has been identified, although a combination of environment and...

Yeast assays to characterize and identify p53 interacting proteins

P53 protein-protein interactions have also been identified in yeast 2-hybrid screens 96 . However, since p53 also can activate transcription with its transactivation domains, the entire p53 protein cannot be used. The screening relies on the construction of two chimeric proteins, one containing a DNA-binding domain and the other a transactivation domain 109 . The GAL4 DNA-binding domain is fused to the desired p53 protein fragment for which interacting proteins are sought. This chimeric protein is presented as a bait to a library of proteins, each of which is fused to the transactivation domain of the GAL4 protein. Physical interaction between the bait and an unknown protein would bridge the DNA-binding and the transactivation domain of GAL4 leading to selectable transactivation of a reporter gene. The 2-hybrid screen was performed using a murine p53 sequence lacking the Nter domain leaving amino acids 73-390 96 . Two p53 interacting proteins were discovered, 53BP1 and 53BP2. Binding...

Importance of Early Detection

The benefit of mammography in younger women is more limited due to the high density of their breast tissue. Also, since the effects of ionizing radiation such as X-ray are cumulative, many physicians feel it is unwise to expose younger women to even this limited amount.

The Cancer Connection

By the year 2001, not only had the yeast genome been sequenced but there was a collection of deletion mutants in every nonessential yeast gene which has been used in screens to identify genes involved in several physiological processes, including DNA repair. Michael Resnick's group, who had identified some of the original RAD genes in standard genetic screens, used this collection of deletion mutants to identify additional genes involved in the response to ionizing radiation 6 . This screen uncovered old favorites and new mutants that had varying degrees of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and to other agents that damage DNA or block DNA replication. The sensitive strains had mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, chromatin remodeling, nuclear architecture, and endocytosis. In these studies the budding yeast system, proved once again, to be a powerful genetic tool for the identification of proteins that function in pathways that regulate...

Computed Tomography

Aneurysms, (2) assessment for open or en-dovascular treatment of aortic aneurysm, (3) endovascular stent graft surveillance, and (4) vascular trauma. Although CT provides accurate imaging of visceral and peripheral arteries, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which has none of the disadvantages of CT (i.e., nephrotoxic contrast agent and ionizing radiation), is more widely accepted by clinicians. Because magnetic resonance provides poor visualization of calcified arteries, a combination of MRA and noncontrast CT is often required in these cases.

Radiation Safety

X-rays are an ionizing radiation, interacting with water molecules, producing radicals that cause cellular damage and death. The effect can be immediate, for example, skin necrosis, or late, such as genetic mutation or cancer formation. It is important to bear in mind that radiation exposure is cumulative and permanent hence, it is prudent that the exposure to x-rays be minimized. There are several simple methods to reduce the exposure to both patients and operators 1. Radiation exposure is proportional to fluoroscopy time, and hence the most effective way to reduce exposure is to reduce the fluoroscopy time. Use pulse mode rather than continuous mode when possible and plan cases in advance to obtain only the necessary views. The use of dosimeter badges by all persons working with ionizing radiation is mandatory. In the United Kingdom, the badge must be positioned at waist level under the lead apron. Additional badges can be worn (such as on the fingers or forehead) for specific...

Definition

Our universe is full of waves, some of which we can see such as visible light waves and others which we can feel such as heat waves. The total radiation of wavelengths from radio waves to gamma rays is called the electromagnetic spectrum. The part of the spectrum that is useful for radio transmission is called the radio frequency region. The radio frequency covers a large part of the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Microwaves are very short radio waves with wavelengths of about 0.1 to 30 centimeters.

Base Excision Repair

Small base alterations that do not distort the DNA helix are eliminated by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In the treatment of GCT, this type of damage is found after use of ionizing radiation or bleomycin 125 . In vitro overexpression of Ape1 ref1 in GCT-derived cell lines resulted in a twofold resistance to bleomycin 126 . Again, these data from in vitro experiments are difficult to interpret with regard to their clinical value, as the majority of GCTs investigated displayed a strong immunohisto-chemical staining for this factor, and bleomycin is never used as a single agent in the therapy of metastatic disease. Therefore, a major effect of mere protein levels of Ape1 ref1 in determining chemotherapy resistance is unlikely.

Items 4243

A patient comes to see you in the office because she has just missed her period and a home urine pregnancy test reads positive. She is extremely worried because last week she had a barium enema test done as part of a workup for blood in her stools. She is also concerned because her job requires her to sit in front of a computer screen all day and she uses the microwave oven on a regular basis. The patient is concerned regarding the deleterious effects of radiation exposure on her fetus. Which one of the following statements is false regarding the effects of exposure to radiation and electromagnetic fields during pregnancy a. There is no evidence in humans or animals that exposure to electromagnetic fields such as from high-voltage power lines, electric blankets, microwave ovens, and cellular phones causes adverse fetal outcomes e. There is not an increased risk of mental retardation when radiation exposure occurs at less than 8 weeks, even in the presence of very large radiation...

Radium

The answer is a. (LaDou, 2 e, pp 159-161.) Disturbances begin to occur at exposures above 100 rem. Following an acute exposure to 100 to 200 rem of ionizing radiation, mild hematopoietic disturbances may occur (5 at 100 rem and 50 at 200 rem) after a few weeks, which only warrant surveillance. Some patients may have vomiting three hours after the exposure. Between 200 and 600 rem, more severe hematopoietic disturbances will occur, with a peak at 4 to 6 weeks, requiring transfusions, antibiotics, and hematopoietic growth factors. Patients will vomit within two hours. Extreme disturbances will occur after an acute exposure of 600 253. The answer is d. (Wallace, 14 e, p 619.) Natural background radiation (terrestrial and cosmic radiation, naturally occurring radionuclides) is the most important source of radiation exposure for all humans. Radiation from manufactured origins accounts for only 20 of all radiation exposure. Terrestrial radiation, consisting of gamma rays (average...

A Somatic Effects

This is the reddening of the skin, much like that of a sunburn however, radiation exposure affects deeper tissue. (3) An unborn child. Radiation exposure is dangerous to any unborn child. However, the period of greatest danger is between 18 and 45 days of gestation. The results of excessive exposure could result in reduced growth, skeletal malformation, vision problems, and reduced head size, which is associated with mental retardation.

Spinalcord Injuries

Both radiologic and urodynamic evaluations are essential in the care of patients with spinal-cord injury. Renal ultrasound has the advantage over intravenous pyelograms in following spinal-cord injury patients because it does not require a bowel prep, has reduced radiation exposure, and has no risk of anaphylaxis. Renal scintigraphy is useful in calculating the glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance, and differential renal function.

Vitamin A and cancer

A majority of primary human cancers arise in epithelial tissues that depend upon retinoids for normal cellular differentiation. The inhibition of carcinogen-esis by retinoids in various epithelial tissues is well documented. Retinoids suppress malignant transformation of cells in culture irrespective of whether the transformation is induced by ionizing radiation or by chemical carcinogens. Moreover, retinoids are potent inhibitors of phorbol ester-induced tumour promotion. Other studies have demonstrated a relationship between retinoid deficiency and cancer. Unfortunately, chronic pharmacological administration of retinoids is limited by their potential toxicity.

Renal Arteries

Patients with suspected FMD have MRA as the first-line investigation, followed by catheter angiography if the MRA is of suboptimal quality or there is strong clinical suspicion of FMD. Although CTA is accurate for assessing renal artery stenosis, it is subjected to a similar drawback as catheter angiography, that is, requiring iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. Duplex examination is the initial imaging modality of choice in many institutions due to its low cost and relatively high accuracy for renal artery stenosis, but it is more prone to missing duplicate renal arteries, and it is highly operator- and patient-dependent, with up to a 15 technical failure rate.

Safety

Ionizing radiation is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. Hence, care must be taken when handling radioactive isotopes, and in disposing of contaminated reagents and tubes. Each worker has a moral (and in many countries a legal) responsibility to ensure not only his or her own safety, but also the safety of his or her colleagues. In most countries, a system of licensing of radioactive workers exists, in which workers must have a basic familiarity with handling radioactivity, or work under a license holder. In general, one handles radioactivity as one would handle any toxic chemical or pathogen, and so all the usual laboratory rules apply. Thus, one should always wear gloves and a lab coat and not consume food or drink in the laboratory. The major difference with radioactivity is that, when handling energetic emitters (such as 32P), precautions must be taken to limit the exposure to ionizing radiation. The other radioactive isotopes commonly encountered in the molecular biology...

Imaging tests

Plain radiographs are not sensitive enough to diagnose osteoporosis until total bone density has decreased by 50 , but bone densitometry is useful for measuring bone density and monitoring the course of therapy (Table 14.2).19 Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) have been used in the past, but these provide poorer resolution, less accurate analysis, and more radiation exposure than X-ray absorptiometry. The most widely used techniques of assessingbone mineral density are dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative computerized tomography (CT).20 These methods have errors in precision of 0.5-2 . Quantitative CT is the most sensitive method, but it results in substantially greater radiation exposure than DEXA.

Particle detectors

One area where CVD diamond is beginning to find a market is as a detector for ultraviolet light and high energy particles. High performance ultraviolet detectors have already been demonstrated and are now in commercial production. Diamond can be used to detect other high energy particles (such as alpha- and beta-particles and neutrons), and be used as a replacement for silicon in the next generation of particle accelerators. Since diamond has a similar response to damage by X-rays and gamma rays as human tissue, a possible application is in medical applications, as a dosimeter for radiation exposure.

Cell interactions

Of growing interest world-wide is the possible carcinogenic effect of low-frequency non-ionising electromagnetic radiation, such as that emitted from power lines. Possible candidates for explaining sensitivity to electromagnetic fields are the gap junctions that exist between cells in many types of tissue. These junctions are similar to the protein-based channels that enable ions to pass across cell membranes, except that they span the extracellular space between adjacent cells. Gap junctions provide cells with a direct means of intercellular communication to co-ordinate the physiology of large populations of cells. The physical properties of gap junctions also influence the regulation of cell growth, and the cell's membrane voltage and frequency response. There is some experimental evidence to suggest that the properties of gap junctions change in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Finite-element models provide a flexible and accurate way of assessing the effects of such changes...

Noninvasive Tests

Urea labeled with an isotope of carbon (a capsule of 14C-urea in this illustration) is swallowed by the fasted patient. Ten to 15 minutes later, a breath sample is collected into a balloon, processed as shown, and then counted in a scintillation counter. 14CO2 can be detected in the breath of a patient infected with Helicobacter pylori. When H. pylori is not present, the urea remains intact and there is no 14CO2 in the breath. Unchanged 14C-urea is excreted in the urine. Since more than 90 of the isotope is excreted within 3 days, radiation exposure is exceedingly small, about the same as natural background in 24 hours (0.3 mrem). In the 13C-urea breath test, the patient first swallows a high-fat meal or drink, which serves to delay gastric emptying. Ten minutes later, a baseline breath sample is collected and a solution of isotope is swallowed. Diagnostic breath samples are collected 20 to 40 minutes later. Breath samples are analyzed in an isotope...

Biological Effects

Laser radiation should not be confused with ionizing radiation (radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays produce a change in neutral atoms or molecules). The biologic effects of laser radiation are essentially those of visible, ultraviolet, or infrared radiation upon tissues. Radiant intensities typically produced by lasers are as strong as the radiation previously only produced by the sun, nuclear weapons, burning magnesium, or arc lights. This is one of the important properties that make lasers potentially hazardous. Laser radiation which hits biologic tissue will be reflected, transmitted, and or absorbed. The degree to which each of these effects takes place depends on the various properties of the tissue involved. For example, laser radiation is more readily absorbed by darker pigmented tissue and the dark brown or black pigment found in the skin, hair, and retina.

B Man Made Radiation

(b) X-ray fluoroscopy for shoe fitting. At one time in the United States, it was common for a person (particularly a child) to try on a new pair of shoes in a shoe store and step into a machine which would x-ray the feet showing whether or not the shoes fit. The machine (the x-ray fluoroscope) has been prohibited in several countries because it caused unnecessary radiation exposure.

Radiation Biology

Knowledge of what happens when radiation interacts with the human body will give you a greater sense of commitment to protecting yourself and others from the harmful effects of radiation. Proper application of radiation biology principles is critical for reducing possible genetic damage to future generations resulting from unnecessary radiation exposure. You are more likely to remember to wear your lead apron, for example, if you have a full understanding of the effects of scatter radiation. You are more likely to remember to take one step back during a fluoroscopy procedure if you are aware of the fact that increasing the distance will decrease exposure.

Protection

Distance should be utilized as a protective measure. Radiologic technologists must remain away from the fluoroscopic unit whenever their services are not required in the examination. Decreased distance from the source of both primary and secondary radiation accounts for a greater radiation exposure to the radiologist and radiologic technologist during horizontal, as opposed to vertical, fluoroscopy.

Structure of DNA

In the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR (which of late has become very expensive to perform, even more so than X-ray diffraction), a concentrated sample of DNA is brought into the presence of a strong magnetic field, so that the magnetic moments of all of the hydrogen atoms in the DNA align themselves with this major field. Next, the sample is exposed to a low-energy electromagnetic field over a range of radio frequencies and individual protons within the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms of the DNA may absorb energy at some particular frequency, and thereby align their magnetic moments against the main field. The amount of energy required to flip the magnetic moment of a hydrogen atom against the main field is very sensitive to its location in the molecule, how it is chemically bonded to other atoms, and what atoms are located near it in three-dimensional space. Figure 9.4 shows part of the NMR spectrum for a 12-base-pair molecule of sequence CGCGAATTCGCG at several...

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