Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous Flaps for Complex Anterior Urethral Strictures

18.1 Penile Fascial Anatomy - 146

18.2 Flap Anatomy - 148

18.3 Patient Selection - 148

18.4 Preoperative Preparation - 148

18.5 Patient Positioning - 148

18.6 Flap Harvest - 149

18.7 Stricture Exposure - 150

18.8 Anastomosis - 151

18.9 Postoperative Care - 152 References - 152

Surgical reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures, 2.5-6 cm long, frequently requires tissue-transfer techniques [1-8]. The most successful are full-thickness free grafts (genital skin, bladder mucosa, or buccal mucosa) or pedicle-based flaps that carry a skin island. Of the latter, the penile circular fasciocutaneous flap, first described by McAninch in 1993 [9], produces excellent cosmetic and functional results [10]. It is ideal for reconstruction of the distal (pendulous) urethra, where the decreased substance of the corpus spongiosum may jeopardize graft viability.

A circumferential island of hairless distal foreskin (or loose penile skin in the circumcised patient) is mobilized on its vascular pedicle. The flap reliably provides a skin island approximately 13-15 cm long. We have not encountered any cases in which the donor site could not be closed primarily, even in circumcised patients.

18.1 Penile Fascial Anatomy

For proper surgical development of fasciocutaneous penile flaps, a thorough knowledge of penile anatomy and the relationships of the penile fasciae is critical (see O Fig. 18.1). Anatomically, the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum are invested by both a deep fascial layer (classically referred to as Buck's fascia) and a superficial layer of loose areolar tissue known as the dartos fascia. The term »fasciocutaneous flap« refers to the use of Buck's fascia as the primary supporting fascia of the tunica dartos vascular pedicle as it passes to the island of penile skin [9].

Skin Island

Tunica Dartos (flap pedicle) Buck's Fascia: Superficial lamella Deep lamella

Skin Island

How See Corpora Spongio Real Penis

Exposed

Tunica Albuginea

Buck's Fascia: Deep lamella Superficial lamella

O Fig. 18.1. Anatomy of CFF. Buck's fascia is the transporting fascia for the island pedicle. (From [19, p. 47])

Deep Dorsal Vein Dorsal Artery Dorsal Nerve

Exposed

Tunica Albuginea

Buck's Fascia: Deep lamella Superficial lamella

O Fig. 18.1. Anatomy of CFF. Buck's fascia is the transporting fascia for the island pedicle. (From [19, p. 47])

Buck's fascia is a well-defined fascial layer that is closely adherent to the tunica albuginea. Despite this intimate association, a definite plane of cleavage exists between the two, permitting separation and mobilization. Buck's fascia acts as the supporting layer, providing the foundation for the circular fasciocutaneous penile flap. Dorsally, the deep dorsal vein, dorsal arteries, and dorsal nerves lie in a groove just deep to the superficial lamina of Buck's fascia. The circumflex vessels branch from the dorsal vasculature and lie just deep to Buck's fascia over the lateral aspect of the penile shaft. Ventrally and dorsally, Buck's fascia separates into superficial and deep lamellae that diverge to surround the corpus spongiosum and neurovascular structures in envelope fashion. Only the superficial lamella is elevated with the fasciocutaneous flap.

The superficial dartos fascia is a thin, membranous layer of loose subdermal tissue devoid of fat, which lies immediately beneath the skin. It is of utmost importance to preserve this layer, which must be reflected with the penile skin to preserve the delicate subdermal vascular plexus and prevent subsequent skin necrosis.

Deep to the dartos fascia and superficial to Buck's fascia lies the tunica dartos. This layer of areolar tissue moves freely over Buck's fascia, is devoid of fat, and is continuous with the membranous layer (Scarpa's fascia) of the anterior abdominal wall fascia, the dartos tunic of the scrotum, and Colles' fascia of the perineum. A rich supply of superficial blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics runs within the tunica dartos fascia. This is best perceived as a conduit containing the vascular pedicle [11].

Quartey has described the microcirculation of the penile skin and its relevance to reconstructive surgery of the genital tract [5, 12]. Briefly, the arterial blood supply is derived from the superficial (superior) and deep (inferior) external pudendal arteries, which are medial branches arising from the femoral artery. These arteries descend inferiorly and enter the base of the penis as the dorsolateral and ventrolateral axial penile arteries to form an arterial network within the tunica dartos fascia (O Fig. 18.2). Branches from the axial penile arteries then pass superficially to form the subdermal plexus, which nourishes the penile skin (O Fig. 18.3). Along the penile shaft, the connections between the subcutaneous and subdermal arterial plexuses are so fine that the skin and dartos fascia can usually be dissected off the tunica dartos with little bleeding.

The venous drainage of the penile skin is highly variable. In general, venous blood from the penile skin drains into a subdermal venous plexus that in turn empties into several tributaries at the penile base (O Fig. 18.4). The deep and superficial (subcutaneous) dorsal veins originate from the retrobalanic venous plexus, which lies in a hollow posterior to the glans penis and distal to the termination of the corpora cavernosa (O Fig. 18.5). Usually no large connections exist between the subdermal venous plexus and the subcutaneous veins.

Superficial external pudendal vein

Femoral artery, vein

Deep external pudendal artery

Saphenous vein

Ventrolateral branch artery

Dorsolateral branch artery

Superficial external pudendal vein

Femoral artery, vein

Deep external pudendal artery

Saphenous vein

Ventrolateral branch artery

Dorsolateral branch artery

Corpora Cavernosa Surgery

□ Fig. 18.2. Blood circulation of the penile skin.

Superficial external pudendal artery

□ Fig. 18.2. Blood circulation of the penile skin.

Perforating Axial Subdermal Dorsal Cutaneous nnnÜri rt orînl -M-trini UnnrU

Perforating Axial Subdermal Dorsal Cutaneous nnnÜri rt orînl -M-trini UnnrU

Penile Arteries
O Fig. 18.3. Axial penile arteries from the subdermal plexus to nourish the penile skin

Preputial vein Deep dorsal Superficial dorsal

Preputial vein Deep dorsal Superficial dorsal

Penis Skin Vein
□ Fig. 18.4. The venous drainage of the penile skin: superficial dorsal medium vein arising directly from the deep dorsal median vein

Femoral artery

Long saphenous vein

External pudendal vein

Venae Dorsolateral axial comitantes penile artery

Femoral artery

External pudendal vein

Venae Dorsolateral axial comitantes penile artery

Penile Reconstruction

Long saphenous vein

Ventrolateral axial penile artery

Subdermal venous plexus

Tributary vein from subdermal plexus

Ventrolateral axial penile artery

Subdermal venous plexus

Deep external pudendal artery

Tributary vein from subdermal plexus

□ Fig. 18.5. Superficial venous drainage of the penis and penile skin

18.2 Flap Anatomy

The following principles must be borne in mind: (a) morbidity and coverage of the donor site; (c) flap vascularity; (c) physical characteristics of the flap; and (d) the mechanics of flap elevation and transfer to the recipient site [11].

For circular fasciocutaneous penile flaps, the donor site is the distal penile shaft (or foreskin in uncircumcised patients). In this location, the skin is highly elastic, richly vascularized, flexible, and devoid of hair. Nearly all patients, including those circumcised, have adequate preputi-al redundancy to permit circumferential flap harvesting up to 2.5 cm wide without compromising primary closure or functional results.

Flap vascularity is random or axial: a random flap has no identifiable vessel at its base, and its survival depends on the dermal and intradermal plexuses and length-to-width ratio [13]; axial flaps have an identifiable vessel at their base and, therefore, a well-defined and reproducible vascular territory (□ Fig. 18.6). Genital skin flaps are axial. The identifiable vessel (the axial penile artery) is located within the tunica dartos fascia, which acts as a conduit and contains the vascular pedicle. However, one should not visualize the vascularity of genital fasciocutaneous flaps as a single axial vessel, but rather as a blood supply based on an axial vessel that includes immediate, wide arborizations [14]. As the blood supply is located within the tunica dartos, this constitutes the flap and the overlying skin is best referred to as a skin island. Secondary perforator vessels are present that supply flow to the skin island (□ Fig. 18.3). In summary, the circular fasciocuta-neous penile flap is an axial flap that carries a skin island, not an island flap.

Desirable physical characteristics for genital flaps used in anterior urethral reconstruction include thin, non-hirsute tissue that is easily tailored, as redundancy can lead to the formation of diverticula. Genital skin is a must. Hair in the urethra will result in eczema, calciferous deposits on the hair shaft, and infection, which promotes stricture recurrence [9].

The mechanics of flap elevation and transfer entail getting the flap to the recipient site with its blood supply intact. As noted above, the fascia is the flap and the skin island is merely a passenger. This is an important concept because fascial flaps with skin islands can endure some twisting without vascular compromise, allowing them to be oriented in many different directions at the recipient site.

All the above criteria are met by the circular fasciocutaneous penile flap. It reliably provides adequate length (usually 13-15 cm) of hairless genital skin that can be used throughout the entire anterior urethra. The abundant vascularity of the tunica dartos fascia allows the skin island to be reliably tailored and oriented at the recipient site, without compromising vascularity. The skin island can be used as a single unit for long complex strictures, or divided and applied in two separate areas for multiple strictures.

18.3 Patient Selection

Successful outcome begins with appropriate patient selection. Numerous factors must be considered: patient age, stricture location and length, degree of spongiofibrosis, prior urethroplasty, the presence of penile skin diseases such as balanitis xerotica obliterans, presence or absence of foreskin, and distribution of hair along the penile shaft.

18.4 Preoperative Preparation

Stricture length and characteristics should be well delineated. In addition to preoperative retrograde urethrography and voiding cystourethrography, we have found preoperative sonourethrography to be useful for precise determination of stricture length and degree of spongio-fibrosis [15].

Patients are generally admitted on the morning of surgery. All are given appropriate preoperative antibiotics; we prefer IV ampicillin (1 g) and gentamicin (5 mg/kg). Procedures are performed under general anesthesia, and we rarely use adjuvant epidural anesthesia.

Low Lithotomy Position

18.5 Patient Positioning

□ Fig. 18.6. Axial flap with a well-defined arterial blood supply

□ Fig. 18.6. Axial flap with a well-defined arterial blood supply

18.5 Patient Positioning

Proper patient positioning cannot be overemphasized. It is imperative both for gaining adequate surgical exposure and for preventing postoperative neuromuscular complications [16-18]. To avoid prolonged placement in the exaggerated lithotomy position, we begin with all patients supine for flap harvest. Patients with strictures involving only the pendulous urethra may remain supine or in a low dorsal lithotomy position; those with more proximal strictures are converted to the exaggerated lithotomy position.

An inflatable bean bag overlapped by a gel mattress pad is positioned beneath the patient. Before induction of general anesthesia, thigh-length TED antiembolism stockings and sequential pneumatic compression devices (Kendall) are placed on each lower extremity. Foam egg-crate heel protectors and padded stirrup straps, which wrap around the plantar surface of the foot at the level of the arch and around the posterior distal lower leg, are applied. The dorsum of the foot must be sufficiently padded with foam to prevent compression of the dorsal cutaneous nerves. The gluteal clefts are positioned just beyond the table's edge. The bean bag is positioned so that the caudal edge extends 8-10 in. beyond the gluteal clefts. This configuration allows the caudal-most aspect of the bean bag to be »rolled under« the sacrum, which will align the perineum nearly parallel to the floor. Candy-cane stirrups are used to suspend the lower extremities high in the air. To avoid excessive stretch on the sciatic nerve, one must ensure that the bean bag lifts and rotates the perineum into the proper position, not the suspended lower extremities. The legs should be suspended high enough to avoid acute angulation at the knee joints.

18.6 Flap Harvest

As noted above, we harvest the flap with the patient supine. This decreases urethral blood loss from the incised corpus spongiosum and lessens time spent in the exaggerated lithotomy position, decreasing the risk of associated complications.

Optical magnification should be used throughout the procedure. A 2-0 silk stay suture is placed in the midsagit-tal plane of the glans penis just above the urethral meatus to provide stretch and permit manipulation. To avoid disturbing the natural hair pattern, the penile shaft should not be shaved before the flap area is marked. As the circular fasciocutaneous flap is harvested from the distal aspect of the penile shaft or foreskin, this usually assures hairlessness. The proximal penile skin is placed on light stretch and the lines of incision are marked with calipers: the distal line (brilliant green dye) is approximately 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus, with a second line approximately 17-20 mm proximal to the first (O Fig. 18.7). Flap width varies according to the amount of tissue needed to produce a final urethral lumen approximately 26 Fr in diameter. For onlay procedures, a 17- to 20-mm flap width is adequate. To prevent pseudodiverticulum formation, we rarely develop skin flaps more than 20 mm wide for onlay reconstruction. However, when complete urethral replacement is necessary, we harvest a 25-mm-wide flap to allow for tubularization.

As the ink tends to fade with manipulation, we initially score both lines of incision lightly with a #15 scalpel blade. Dissection is then begun by deepening the distal incision on the lateral aspect of the penile shaft down to the superficial lamina of Buck's fascia, thus avoiding the ventrally positioned urethra and dorsal neurovascular structures. As noted above (see »Penile Fascial Anatomy«), a definite avascular plane of cleavage exists between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Once this plane has been correctly identified, the dissection is carried circum-ferentially. The dorsal penile neurovascular complex and tunica albuginea are exposed and preserved immediately beneath the plane of dissection. Injury to the former must be avoided to prevent anesthesia in the glans and distal foreskin. The superficial lamina of Buck's fascia is elevated with the pedicle flap, thereby supplying its foundation. As the flap is elevated proximally, it is helpful to lift it with skin hooks (for better delineation of the avascular plane of dissection) and to angulate the scissors in the direction of the penile shaft. This dissection is carried to the base of the penis. Care is taken to ensure precise hemostasis with bipolar cautery.

Attention is now directed to the proximal incision line. This is deepened only through the thin (subdermal) dartos fascial layer. The delicate dartos fascia is thus elevated with the penile skin along the entire shaft of the penis, which protects the subdermal vascular plexus and, thereby, assures skin survival (O Fig. 18.8).

Once each plane of dissection has been extended down to the penile base near the suspensory ligament, the flap is divided in the midventral plane (to avoid the abundant network of superficial dorsal veins) back to the penoscro-tal junction, thereby converting the circular configuration of the skin island into a longitudinal strip (O Figs. 18.9, 18.10). In most patients this is 13-15 cm long. Stay sutures are placed at each end. The well-vascularized pedicle flap, with its skin island, is then transposed to one side of the penis for passage through the scrotum and to the area of repair. Penile tethering is avoided by freeing the flap adequately from the proximal shaft until it reaches into the perineum without tension. Although division in the midventral plane leaves the flap based dorsally, it avoids

Dartos Skin Flap
□ Fig. 18.7.

Island Pedicle

Skin Island

Island Pedicle

Skin Island

Buck Fascia

Exposed Tunica Albuginea

□ Fig. 18.8. The delicate dartos fascia is mobilized with the skin. (From [19])

Exposed Tunica Albuginea

□ Fig. 18.8. The delicate dartos fascia is mobilized with the skin. (From [19])

Lithotomy Urethral Strictures
□ Fig. 18.9. Mobilizing the flap. The flap is incised ventrally. (From [19, p 50])
Dorsal Lithotomy Position
O Fig. 18.10.

the superficial dorsal vasculature and has presented no problems in obtaining adequate flap length to reach deep into the perineum. (Note that in the dictation report, one must document the direction toward which the flap was transposed so that injury to the pedicle can be avoided if reoperation is necessary.)

18.7 Stricture Exposure

Distal strictures can be repaired through the circumcision incision. Bulbar or membranous strictures, however, require repositioning patients into a high lithotomy position, as described above.

A midline incision is made in the perineum along the line of the median raphe. The incision is deepened through the superficial Colles' fascia down to the bul-bospongiosus muscle. We prefer the Scott retractor with accompanying skin hooks to provide adequate exposure and facilitate dissection. The bulbospongiosus muscle is sharply divided in the midline with Metzenbaum scissors and reflected laterally, exposing the corpus spongiosum, which can be grasped with DeBakey forceps and manipulated to either side during dissection. Passage of a 20-Fr red rubber urethral catheter will identify the distal-most aspect of the stricture. Stay sutures of 4-0 Dexon are placed in the corpus spongiosum at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions to provide exposure and retraction. The corpus spongiosum and urethra are entered on the ventral surface just distal to the stricture, and the entire length of abnormal urethra is sharply incised in the ventral midline, extending at least 1 cm into normal urethra. Often passage of a small-caliber feeding tube will help delineate the lumen as the stricture is incised. Additional full-thickness stay sutures of 4-0 Dexon are placed in the incised edges of spongiosum along the length of the stricture, to facilitate exposure. The urethra distal to the stricture is dilated with a 26-Fr Acorn bougie a boule; proximally, a 28- Fr or 30-rF bougie a boule is passed into the bladder to ensure that the complete length of stricture has been lysed and to rule out additional unsuspected strictured areas. We then pass a 19-Fr rigid cystoscope into the proximal urethra and bladder to identify anatomic landmarks and rule out bladder pathology.

A tunnel that will allow passage of two fingers is created bluntly and sharply under the scrotum from the penile shaft to the perineum. The previously placed stay suture at one end of the flap is grasped and passed through this scrotal tunnel into the perineal incision near the region of the bulb (□ Fig. 18.11). As the axial blood supply is located within the fascia, and the skin is merely carried as a passenger (a fascial flap with a skin island), this configuration can endure some degree of rotational twisting without vascular compromise. Nonetheless, tension and rotation should be minimized.

Vascular Reconstructive Surgery

18.8 Anastomosis

Although the skin island can be fashioned into a complete tube and used for replacement urethroplasty, we prefer to maintain the urethral plate and use the flap for onlay reconstruction whenever possible. The length of the urethral defect is measured, and the skin island is tailored accordingly. It should face the lysed urethra. Two running, double-armed, monofilament, absorbable (polyglyconate [Maxon], poliglecaprone [Monocryl] or polydioxanone [PDS]) 5-0 or 6-0 sutures are placed at the apices. Knots are tied on the outside of the urethral lumen. The flap can be temporarily tacked along the urethral margin with interrupted suture of 5-0 chromic to stabilize it. Suturing begins at the proximal apex of lysed stricture; the back wall is the first side sutured (i.e., the side toward which the pedicle was passed) (□ Fig. 18.12). The suture (which was tied with the knot on the outside) is then passed back through the spongiosal tissue into the urethral lumen, and a running, water-tight, urethral anastomosis is performed along one side, approximating the edge of skin island to the urethral mucosa margin. Billowing and bunching of the flap can be avoided by lightly stretching the skin island with delicate jeweller's forceps while precisely placing the sutures in the skin edge. One should avoid grasping the suture with forceps to prevent weakening it during the anastomosis. The suture is tied at the distal apex of lysed urethra.

Anastomosis Urethra

□ Fig. 18.11A, B. Flap mobilization for bulbar strictures. (From [19, p 55])

□ Fig. 18.12. When the flap is straightened and its apex is tailored, the ipsilateral back wall anastomosis is completed first. (From [19, p 56])

□ Fig. 18.11A, B. Flap mobilization for bulbar strictures. (From [19, p 55])

□ Fig. 18.12. When the flap is straightened and its apex is tailored, the ipsilateral back wall anastomosis is completed first. (From [19, p 56])

A second running suture is begun at the distal apex and run proximally to complete the anastomosis. Width of the skin island can be reduced in areas by trimming as needed to produce a smooth contour approximately 26 Fr. A 16-Fr 100% silicone catheter is inserted before completing the second anastomotic line. As completion nears, redundant skin is excised and the skin island tailored near the distal apex. Caution should be exercised to ensure that only the skin island is tailored, thereby preserving the pedicle flap. To avoid excess bulk, the pedicle flap can be loosely tacked along the penile shaft with interrupted sutures.

Complex strictures that exceed the length of the skin island can be managed by combining other forms of tissue transfer with the flap. In such cases, the flap should be placed in the pendulous portion of the urethra and the free graft should be placed in the bulbar urethra, thereby taking advantage of the abundant corpus spongiosum to provide vascular support for the graft tissue.

If bleeding from the spongiosal edge is troublesome, the opened spongiosum can be sutured along its edge with running absorbable suture, but formal spongioplasty is avoided to prevent pressure on the pedicle. A small TLS suction drain can be placed beneath the bulbospongiosus muscle before closure and brought out through a separate stab incision. The bulbospongiosus muscle is reappro-ximated in the midline with interrupted Dexon suture, and Colles' fascia is reapproximated in like manner. The perineal skin incision is closed with interrupted 4-0 chromic suture. The skin over the penile shaft is reduced and closed in standard fashion as for circumcision.

18.9 Postoperative Care

The incisions are dressed with Xeroform, followed by fluff gauze. A scrotal supporter is used to hold the dressing in place and to ensure gentle compression and immobilization, reducing edema without compromising blood supply. Circumferential compression bandages to the penile shaft are avoided. Suprapubic urinary diversion is typically not performed. A 16-Fr 100% silicone catheter is used as a stent and to divert the urine for at least 3 weeks. The Foley is secured to the lower abdominal wall with a Cath-Secure to maintain the penis in the anatomic position, thereby avoiding undue pressure on the ventrally positioned flap. On postoperative day 1, diet is advanced and ambulation permitted. Patients are usually discharged after 48-72 h. Suppressive doses of oral antibiotics are maintained until the catheter is removed. Voiding cystourethrography is performed at catheter removal. Patients are followed with flow rate measurement and urethrography at 3 and 12 months.

References

1. Devine PC, Sakati LA, Poutasse EF, Devine CJ Jr (1968) One-stage urethroplasty: repair of strictures with free full thickness patch of skin. J Urol 99:191

2. Morey AF, McAninch JW (1996) When and how to use buccal mucosa grafts in adult bulbar urethroplasty. Urology 48:194

3. Mundy AR, Stephenson TP (1988) Pedicled preputial patch urethroplasty. Br J Urol 61:48

4. Orandi A (1972) One-stage urethroplasty: 4 year followup. J Urol 107:977

5. Quartey JKM (1985) One-stage penile/preputial island flap urethroplasty for urethral stricture. J Urol 134:474

6. De la Rosette JJM, de Vris JDM, Lock MTWT, Debruyne FMJ (1991) Urethroplasty using the pedicled island technique in complicated strictures. J Urol 146:40

7. Wessells H, Morey AF, McAninch JW (1996) Combined tissue transfer techniques in the single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. J Urol 155:502A

8. Yachia D (1988) Pedicled scrotal skin advancement for one-stage anterior urethral reconstruction in circumcised patients. J Urol 139:1007

9. McAninch JW (1993) Reconstruction of extensive urethral strictures: circular fasciocutaneous penile flap. J Urol 149:488

10. McAninch JW, Morey AF (1998) Penile circular fasciocutaneous skin flap in 1-stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. J Urol 159:1209

11. Jordan GH, Stack RS (1997) General concepts concerning the use of genital skin islands for anterior urethral reconstruction. Atlas Urol Clin N Am 5:23

12. Quartey JKM (1997) Microcirculation of the penile and scrotal skin. Atlas Urol Clin N Am 5:23

13. Jordan GH (1996) Use of flaps and grafts. In: Traumatic and reconstructive urology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 71-85

14. Jordan GH (1998) Anterior urethral reconstruction: concepts and concerns. Cont Urol, 10:81

15. Morey AF, McAninch JW (1996) Ultrasound evaluation of the male urethra for assessment of urethral stricture. J Clin Ultrasound 24:473

16. Angermeier KW, Jordan GH (1994) Complications of the exaggerated lithotomy position: a review of 177 cases. J Urol 151:866

17. Moses TA, Kreder KJ, Thrasher JB (1994) Compartment syndrome: an unusual complication of the lithotomy position. Urology 43:746

18. Peters P, Baker SR, Leopold PW, Taub NA, Burnand KG (1994) Compartment syndrome following prolonged pelvic surgery. Brit J Surg 81:1128

19. Morey AF, McAninch JW (1997) Penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Atlas Urol Clin North Am 5:49

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    How to tight penis vein?
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    What happens to male in lithotomy position with strictures?
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