Natural Medicine for Scars Found

The Scar Solution Ebook

The Scar Solution, an e-book authored by Sean Lowry, provides effective, yet natural and affordable, solutions to lessen the appearance of scars. Sean Lowry is not just your average author of an e-book. She can empathize with her readers because she also once suffered from the shame of scars on both the physical and psychological levels. Sean tried out a number of scar treatment techniques on herself and finally figured out a solution which made her completely scar free. With a view to help and for the benefit of others who may be anguished or embarrassed of scars (on any part of their body) she has shared her unique scar removal method in Scar Solution ebook. This is not a magic solution which will start working as soon as users buy the book. Unless the techniques and methods prescribed for scar elimination are followed for the time period mentioned therein the results will not be positive. Users must be committed to follow the scar treatment solution provided in this program with patience and dedication. Continue reading...

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Overview


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Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Reducing Facial Scars

As discussed in chapter 6, resurfacing with the erbium YAG laser is a very effective treatment for facial scars. Resurfacing is most effective for small diameter, superficial scars. Large-diameter, deeper scars require adjunctive treatments that result in elevation of the scar or thickening of the depressed skin within the scar. One such treatment is subcision, a minor surgical procedure done under local anesthesia. In this process, a hypodermic needle is used as a small surgical scalpel to slice through scar tissue bands below the type III scar. Releasing the scar tissue allows the bound down skin to elevate. The injury produced by subcision heals with the production of additional dermal tissue (collagen), which also contributes to thickening of the skin within the depressed scar, thus elevating the depression. Because the skin surface is essentially undisturbed by subcision, these treatments produce little immediately noticeable effect other than minor bruising or swelling. All the...

Revisions Related to Scars

Hypertrophic or keloid scars can occur with any surgical episode, and the standard treatment protocols of pressure dressing, silicon gels, and or local corticos-teroid injections should be employed as necessary. Most scars respond to conservative treatment. Persistent reddish or dark scars can improve by pulsed ruby laser therapy. Resistant keloid scarring with significant symptoms (pain, irritation, pruritis) may occasionally require reexcision and brachytherapy (iridium threads). It is rare to see scar hypertrophy of the vertical limb after breast reduction when it does occur, it is usually at the inferior pole of the vertical scar if it crosses the inframammary fold (IMF). In fact, the low rate of vertical scar hypertrophy is one of the major advantages of vertical scar techniques they bypass many of the difficulties of the inverted T scar techniques. Fig. 14.1 a-c. A 29-year-old patient who had a moderate breast reduction using the septum-based lateral mammaplasty (SLM, Dr....

Short Scar Periareolar Inferior Pedicle Reduction Spair Mammaplasty

Breast Reduction Scar

Reast reduction offers an opportunity rarely seen in plastic surgery, for not only is there too much volume, there is too much skin. With a sound operative strategy, excellent technique, and a discerning artistic eye, the sculpting of an artistic and stable breast shape can occur every time, and now we can do it with half the scar What an exciting time to be a plastic surgeon. pattern technique have been thrown into sharper focus. Specifically, the inframammary scar can be problematic in some patients, with the medial and lateral portions of the scar being prone to hypertrophy. Additionally, the postoperative shape change associated with the Wise pattern technique can occasionally spill over from simple postoperative settling into a shape distortion known as bottoming out. Taken together, these two complications can adversely affect the overall result after breast reduction. Recent advances in breast reduction technique have attempted to address these problems by reducing the amount...

Vertical Scar Mammaplasty with a Superior Pedicle

In training who performed the operation in the university hospital. The same unfavorable results were published by Pickford 15 . Therefore, we tried to make the technique safer, keeping in mind the basic principles of the vertical scar mammaplasty. The goal of breast reduction is the correction of the volume, shape, and symmetry of the breast while preserving nipple sensitivity. Since the early days of breast surgery, many surgical techniques have been proposed to reach this goal, but over the two last decades, new techniques have been published that attempt to minimize the scars. The periareolar scar is unavoidable as the nipple-areola complex has to be repositioned, but the vertical scar has proved to be avoidable in mastopexies 6 , as has the horizontal submammary scar in the majority of cases, even in large reductions 3 . Following the description of Dar-tigues in 1925 and the publication of Lassus in 1970 8 , in the early 1990s Lejour popularized a technique derived from Lassus 9...

Breast Reduction Scars

Breast Reduction Scars

Enlargement of the vertical and or areolar scar is present in 5 of patients. We believe this is due to technical reasons, either because of improper closure or because of inadequate compensation for the excess skin around the areola. The solution is simple revi Fig. 11.17. a-c Preoperative view of a young patient with hypertrophy and ptosis. d-f Postoperative view 17 months later. g Arms are elevated to allow visualization of the vertical scar, not extending beyond the submammary fold Fig. 11.17. a-c Preoperative view of a young patient with hypertrophy and ptosis. d-f Postoperative view 17 months later. g Arms are elevated to allow visualization of the vertical scar, not extending beyond the submammary fold sion of the scars with new anchoring of the skin and immobilization. If scar hypertrophy or keloid occurs, radiation therapy is advised. No revision should be undertaken until at least 6 months after the original operation. This is the time required for the skin to retract, for...

Superior Pedicle Vertical Scar Mammaplasty Surgical Technique

Vertical Mastopexy Technique

I first tried the vertical reduction technique to minimize scars but have stayed with it because I saw improved results that hold up over time. It is my preferred method for breast reduction and mastopexy. Vertical scar techniques have not gained popularity in the United States as rapidly as in Europe and South America. The reluctance to abandon the Wise pattern in favor of the vertical reduction has been related to concerns over the safety of the superior pedicle and familiarity, satisfaction, and comfort level with the inferior pedicle and central mound techniques, which enjoy tremendous popularity in the United States. However, over the past few years there has been greater interest in short scar breast surgery in the United States with increasing application of the vertical techniques for reduction and mastopexy. The original Wise pattern was designed to support and shape the breast through skin excision, the so-called skin brassiere. Short scar techniques all rely on shaping the...

Scrape Ulcer Or Scar On The Cornea

A corneal scar is a painless, white patch on the cornea. It may result from a healed corneal ulcer, burn, or other injury to the eye. If both eyes are blind but the person still sees light, surgery (corneal transplant) to one eye may return its sight. But this is expensive. If one eye is scarred, but sight is good in the other, avoid surgery. Take care to protect the good eye from injury.

IL10 Causes Scarring in a Model of Fetal Wound Repair

Fetal wound healing is characterized by rapid reepithelialization, minimal inflammation, and scar-free repair (reviewed in ref. 76). Fetal wounds also show diminished expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, a phenomenon that was hypothesized to be owing to their negative regulation by the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. To test this hypothesis, Liechty et al. (77) wounded embryonic skin from IL-10 null mice that had been grafted onto strain-matched adult mice. Wounds of control embryonic skin grafts showed little inflammation and normal restoration of dermal architecture. However, wounded IL-10 null grafts showed significantly higher inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition more akin to the scarring associated with adult repair. This study suggests that IL-10 plays an important role in regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines at the fetal wound site, and thus modulates downstream matrix deposition that leads to scar-free repair.

Of a Chorioretinal Scar

A critical step in retinal detachment repair is the development of the chorioretinal scar around the retinal break. The most important effect of cho-rioretinal adhesion in closing the retinal break is to induce a watertight seal that prevents seepage of vitreous fluid into the subretinal space 5, 23 . Although the mechanism producing the laser-induced bond within the first days after photocoagulation is uncertain, histologic studies have shown that a proteinaceous coagulum develops at the interface between the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, followed by cicatricial adhesion due to proliferation and migration of glial cells into the wound site 6, 12, 24 . In clinical practice, a correlation with these histologic findings can be established postopera-tively. During the first 5 days, the laser spots are surrounded by retinal edema (Fig.10.2a). Over the following 7 days, the retinal edema disappears (Fig. 10.2b). Finally, in the second week, a chorioretinal scar develops (Fig....

Q Waves as Scars

It was mentioned earlier in the chapter that the ST elevation and T wave inversion seen in STEMI frequently resolve over time, but that the Q wave may persist indefinitely as evidence of a past infarction. Pathologic Q waves in the absence of AMI are therefore sometimes referred to in ECG reports as scars or remote infarctions. Figures 9.10 and 9.11 show remote inferior and anterior infarctions, respectively, in which the ST elevation and T wave inversion have resolved but Q waves persist as evidence of the old infarction. Close inspection of the acute inferior myocardial infarction shown in Figure 9.9 also reveals a pathologic Q wave in V and V2, indicating an old anteroseptal wall infarction.

Fire scars

Another type of hollow often observed in eucalypts is the fire scar. Fire scars form at the base of trees (Figure 4.4C) and are also called basal hollows or butt hollows. Hollows at the butt created by fire scars occurred in 2-12 of eucalypts measured in southern NSW (Linden-mayer et al. 2000c). Of all trees in unlogged damp sclerophyll forest in East Gippsland and south-eastern NSW, 16 contained fire scars (Gibbons 1999). In forest dominated by fire scars, main stem hollows and hollows in branches of the crown. For main stem and crown hollows, the proportions are of all living trees with hollows. For fire scars, the proportions are of all trees on unlogged sites. Data are primarily from Brown Barrel, Messmate, Gippsland Peppermint and Mountain Grey Gum in East Gippsland, Victoria. (Source Gibbons 1999.) fire scars, main stem hollows and hollows in branches of the crown. For main stem and crown hollows, the proportions are of all living trees with hollows. For fire scars, the...

Chronic Allergic Eye Diseases

Chronic allergic ocular disease encompasses several disorders, such as seasonal atopic conjunctivitis, perennial atopic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) 7 . Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis (SAC) is a time-limited disease and in most cases conjunctivitis is only one manifestation of additional allergic reactions (rhinitis, hay fever or a hay fever like symptomatology, and in severe cases conjunctivitis is associated with different forms of pulmonary affection). Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe, bilateral, ocular allergic disease affecting adults. A familial history for atopy and an association with systemic atopic dermatitis are common. Symptoms commonly include itching, burning, and tearing. Signs include involvement of mainly upper conjunctiva in the form of a papillary conjunctivitis. The corneal epithelium reveals mild to moderate inflammatory changes that can result in scarring and neovasculariza-tion leading to...

Metabolism of Extracellular Matrix

Finally, VKC and AKC diseases can compromise the cornea severely, with ulcers and scarring ultimately leading to visual loss. In partic-ular,VKC affected boys and AKC patients might develop keratoconus 30 . Whether these children develop keratoconus as a result of a susceptible genetic background or as a secondary manifestation remains an open question.

Aspects of Epidermal Regeneration

As described previously, the healing of skin wounds involves a complex system of integrated molecular signals and interactions among many different types of cells within a wound. For some types of experimental questions, it is desirable to simplify the experimental system and isolate the single variable of interest. Frequently, this is best approached using an in vitro cell culture system. With a single type of cultured cell, the number of experimental variables can be dramatically reduced compared to a similar experiment performed in an animal. For example, if one hypothesized that hypertrophic scars developed because of an increased sensitivity to a growth factor, an important in vitro experiment would be to compare the mitogenic response of cultures of fibro- blasts established from normal skin or from hypertrophic scar tissue to the growth factor. However, simplified in vitro cell culture systems inherently lack other components that may influence the responses of cells in vivo....

Vertical Mammaplasty The Era of Maturity

Breast reduction is one of the most difficult operations in plastic surgery because it should produce a beautiful, symmetrical, and durable result with minimal scarring. Raymond Vilain, the humorist of our profession, used to say that it takes 5 years to learn how to operate a breast properly and 5 more years for the other. In addition, so many techniques are described that it is a real challenge to choose the best. Twenty years ago vertical mammaplasty was practically unknown by most surgeons performing masto-pexies and breast reductions. Devised by a French surgeon, Dartigues (1925), it was nearly forgotten until Arie (1957) and Lassus (1970) brought it to the attention of their colleagues. I admire Claude Lassus, a man with a vision who understood early that vertical mammaplasty not only reduced scarring but also produced better late results and that this justified the temporary strange appearance of the breasts.

Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

Stable lesion seen on a previous x-ray taken 2 years ago virtually confirms benignity. Small nodules 10 mm or less in size are usually not seen prospectively and may be difficult to find retrospectively on a CXR. Approximately 33 of all SPNs are not detected on an initial radiograph. Evaluation of rate of growth to assess stability of a lesion is helpful to determine benignity. Estimation of doubling time (a 25 increase in diameter is equivalent to doubling of volume) aids in diagnosis. Most bronchogenic carcinomas double within 2 years. Once the diagnosis of SPN has been established, the nodule's characteristics should be evaluated. Characteristics within the nodule such as air bronchograms or cavitation are nonspecific diagnostically. Sharply marginated SPNs are detected more easily. In general, spiculated or ill-defined nodules have a higher incidence of malignancy compared to rounded, smooth-edged nodules. Multilobulated nodules are frequently seen in malignant lesions....

Impaired Wound Healing

Therapy, beyond direct effects at the site of wounding, may add further to impaired nutritional status (6). In such patients subjected to surgery, there is an increased risk of wound-healing complications (7). Diabetes is often associated with poor wound healing, which is related in part to alteration in granulocyte function, altered microvasculature, and frequently coexistent atherosclerotic vascular disease (8,9). Local infection is one of the single most important causes of defective wound repair (10,11). The development of a major wound infection in a surgical incision can lead to a complete failure of healing by primary intention. When ultimately healed by secondary intention, such wounds experience impaired wound strength and often contain excessive scarring. Additional, well-recognized factors that can lead to impairments in repair include aging (7,12,13) anemia and hypoxia (14) jaundice (15) uremia (16) use of steroids (17,18) and local factors including irradiation treatment...

Studies with Lower Mammals

Experimental studies of wound breaking strength have commonly utilized guinea pigs, rats, and mice. These animal models of healing do not totally replicate healing in humans. Animals are not as susceptible to wound infections as are humans. Scar formation is significantly less in these animals and is for all practical purposes not problematic.

Lamellar Keratoplasty Penetrating Keratoplasty

The most common indications for penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and lamellar keratoplasty (LK) are corneal perforation and extensive corneal scarring 29 . However, the outcome of even successful PK is poor in eyes with endstage chronic cicatrizing conjunctival diseases such as OCP. This is primarily due to the im-

Disorders Of The Intestines

Colitis is simply an inflammation of the colon that sometimes results in diarrhea. If the condition is ulcerative colitis, then changes in the colon wall and scar tissue formation may result. Anemia, malaise, and weakness may be present. Treatment of colitis usually consists of rest, careful administration of anti-infectives, and restricted diet. Symptoms usually go away after a period of two to three weeks, but there is no cure for the condition.

A Anastomotic Aneurysms

On examination, the patient appeared well. There was a well-healed midline laparotomy scar from the previous operation. Abdominal examination was unremarkable, and there were no bruits on auscultation. Two well-defined expansile masses were palpable in the middle third of the femoral scars, measuring approximately 2 cm on the left and 4 cm on the right. The masses were not tender. There was no evidence of compromise in the distal circulation, and all pulses were palpable. Duplex imaging was performed, which identified anastomotic false aneurysms in both groins, measuring 1.8 cm on the left and 3.5 cm on the right.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Surveillance

In this patient population with history of colitis and possible prior segmental colonic resections, fistulas and strictures often develop at the anastomosis and make passage of the colonoscopy device impossible. Scarring of the mesentery may also cause rigidity and may lead to failed colonoscopies. Historically, patients would then go on to double contrast barium enema for complete evaluation of the colon.

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

Discussion Most ocular herpetic infections are caused by HSV-1. It is also the primary cause of corneal blindness in the United States. Primary infections present as unilateral follicular conjunctivitis, blepharitis, or corneal epithelial opacities recurrences may take the form of keratitis (> 90 of cases are unilateral), blepharitis, or keratoconjunctivitis. Branching dendritic ulcers, usually detected by fluorescein staining, are virtually diagnostic deep stromal involvement may result in scarring, corneal thinning, and abnormal vascularization with resulting blindness or rupture of the globe.

Adam J Singer and Steve A McClain 1 Introduction

A good burn model is one that is simple, safe, and reproducible that is, it should create burns that are consistent in their extent and depth. Any description of an animal burn model should include the following elements the instruments used to create the burn, the temperature and duration of exposure with the inflicting instrument, and the method of applying the thermal injury. For researchers and readers to compare various new therapies for burns, it is important to ensure that the agents are being used on similar types and extents of injury. Thus, any animal model for burns must be reproducible and reliable that is, whenever the same exposure time and temperature are used, similar injuries should result. Partial-thickness burns are also excellent models for studying the main components of wound healing such as reepithelialization and scar formation.

Epidemiology Definition and Characteristics of Dry

Causes the symptoms that are presented to the ophthalmologist 48 .Symptoms can range over a wide spectrum from mild discomfort and increased fatigue of the eye to redness, itching, burning and stinging sensations (Fig. 6.5). It can be associated with usually minor alterations of visual acuity but may in severe cases lead to severe inflammation, scarring and blinding.

Activation of TLymphocytes by Cytokines

The inflammatory events that occur in allergic eye disease are moderate in the acute seasonal and perennial allergic disease, SAC and PAC, and mainly lead to edema, redness and itching, whereas the immigration of inflammatory cells is limited. However, in the more chronic allergic diseases such as vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (VKC and AKC) there is a more pronounced immigration of inflammatory cells. In chronic allergic eye disease but not, or only weakly, in acute ocular allergy, activated matrix metalloproteinases occur in the tissue and tear film and may explain the occurrence of corneal destruction in the chronic forms. There the inflammatory process can lead to scarring and can have sight threatening complications, especially in AKC. The giant papillary type GPC causes tarsal conjunctival thickening and is of intermediate severity 20,57 .

Special Precautions for Very Serious Burns

When someone is badly burned between the fingers, in the armpit, or at other joints, gauze pads with Vaseline on them should be put between the burned surfaces to prevent them from growing together as they heal. Also, fingers, arms, and legs should be straightened completely several times a day while healing. This is painful but helps prevent stiff scars that limit movement. While the burned hand is healing, the fingers should be kept in a slightly bent position.

Proposed Sequence of Events

In the intestine, there are four classic pathologic stages. Hyperplastic changes begin during the first week of illness and primarily involve Peyer's patches of the ileum and solitary lymphoid follicles of the cecum, but may involve any lym-phoid tissue in the intestine. Almost all infiltrative cells are mononuclear typhoid nodules are common. If the hyperplasia does not resolve, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa develops, usually after 7 to 10 days of clinical illness (Fig. 17-3). Sloughing of the mucosa follows and results in the development of an ulcer, which may bleed (see Fig. 17-3). The ulcers conform in shape and distribution to the location of the lymphoid follicles are largest in the ileum, and are almost always found on the antimesenteric border of the intestines. These ulcers may perforate into the peritoneal cavity.64 Perforations are single and measure less than 1 cm in 80 of cases, and 90 are found within 60 cm of the ileocecal valve. When healing takes place, it is...

Urethral Strictures812 Congenital Urethral Strictures

Urethral stricture generally refers to anterior urethral disease, or a scarring process involving the spongy erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum (spongiofibrosis) (O Fig. 8.1). The spongy erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum lies under the urethral epithelium and the scarring process can extend through the tissues of the corpus spongiosum into adjacent tissues, reducing the urethral lumen. Although anterior urethral stricture disease can initially be asymptomatic, it is generally associated with marked voiding symptoms, as scar contraction continues to reduce the lumen diameter.

Bypass to the Popliteal Artery

On physical examination, he had bilateral carotid bruits, normal heart examination, and a strong right femoral pulse, but absent popliteal and pedal pulses. His left lower extremity had a saphenectomy scar. Both extremities had shiny, hairless skin without ulcerations or gangrene.

Historical Features Of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

A survey of the members of the American Uveitis Society highlights the lack of uniformity regarding therapy. The most common regimen used in the 1991 published survey was pyrimethamine, sulfa-diazine, prednisone, and folinic acid in 32 percent of respondents, and an additional 27 percent added clindamycin to the most common regimen (Engstrom et al., 1991). Other agents with activity against Toxoplasma include quinolones and macrolides. Adjunctive therapies such as laser treatment or cryotherapy (Jacklin, 1975) within and adjacent to chorioretinal scars are today rarely employed.

Surgery for Recurrent Veins

Recurrent LSV VVs arise because of inadequate dissection of, or neovascularization at,the SFJ in the presence of a nonstripped or incompletely stripped LSV. Standard teaching is to approach the SFJ through nonoperated tissues (usually from a lateral approach that first exposes the common femoral artery) so that the CFV can be skeletonized of branches using nonabsorbable sutures for 1 to 2 cm above and below the junction. The top of the LSV is dissected from the mass of scar tissue so that it can be stripped. However, this can be a difficult and potentially morbid operation. When the preoperative DU indicates neovascularization as opposed to an intact SFJ, the LSV can be located at the knee, a stripper passed up toward the groin, and the vein stripped without a formal redissection.

Inflammatory Urethral Strictures

There has been a recent increase in strictures associated with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), which are more like inflammatory strictures than isolated, traumatically induced scars. BXO usually begins with inflammation of the glans and generally leads to meatal stenosis, if not a true stricture of the fossa navicularis. Although the cause of this distal penile skin and urethral inflammation is unknown, recent literature suggests the possibility of bacterial infection with resultant skin changes. There is also some evidence that the progression of the stricture to eventually involve the entire anterior urethra may be caused by high-pressure voiding that leads to intrava-sation of urine into the glands of Littre, inflammation of these glands, and micro abscesses and deep spongi-ofibrosis (O Fig. 8.2). Whether the urethral changes and fibrosis are also related to bacterial injury has not been well defined.

Selective Photothermolysis the Enabling Principle for Cosmetic Laser Surgery

And a wavelength that was highly absorbed by hemoglobin (relative to other skin chromophores) could be used. Pulse duration had to be shorter than thermal relaxation time so that heat would not build up excessively within the blood vessel and then be conducted to surrounding dermal tissue, causing a burn injury (with resultant scarring).

Clinical Features

Superficial pustular folliculitis is manifested by follicular papules that quickly become pustules. They disappear spontaneously in 7-10 days without leaving a scar. They are generally asymptomatic although in some cases there can be mild itching and, very exceptionally, pain. It occurs in outbreaks, and it is not uncommon that while some of the lesions are disappearing, new lesions are beginning to appear. The most commonly affected locations are the scalp, the proximal extremities, the bearded area (sycosis barbae), the axillae, pubis and the gluteal region (Fig. 25.1). Keloidal folliculitis of the nape of the neck is characterized by the appearance of follicular lesions that when they heal, leave a keloidal scar. As new lesions of folliculitis appear, the keloid grows in size producing a cicatricial alopecia and deformity of the region. (Fig. 25.2). There are two rare varieties of clinically characterized by pruriginous follicular pustules that appear 1-2 days after immersion in...

The clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis

The most common clinical presentation of ocular infection due to T. gondii is a unilateral chorioretinitis associated with a pre-existing chorioretinal scar and an overlying vitritis. In addition, the clinical ophthalmic diagnosis of retinal vasculitis, of both arterioles and veins, is commonly made in active disease secondary to interaction between antibodies and antigens (O'Connor, 1974). Toxoplasma gondii accounts for greater than one-fourth of all cases of posterior uveitis. Lesions can occur in any part of the fundus, but in patients with congenital infection, severe macular lesions appear more commonly than in acquired infection. One study (Mets et al., 1997) found that macular lesions were present in 58 percent of a cohort of 94 children with congenital toxoplasmosis, 76 of whom had 1 year of treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Peripheral scars were present in 64 percent. This could be due to the early vascularization of the posterior pole during fetal development,...

Recurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis

The classic description of recurrent active Toxoplasma chorioretinitis is a focus of retinitis appearing at the border of a retinochoroidal scar however, there are several reports illustrating the variance in the clinical features of this disease. Active chorioretinitis does resolve without treatment, leaving a hyperpigmented scar, and recurrences develop as 'satellite' lesions. A recurrence is usually symptomatic, with the redness, pain, and light sensitivity and decreased vision that occur with any generalized panuveitis. Recurrence of chorioretinitis can lead to vision loss (Friedmann and Knox, 1969) and blindness. Evidence of prior recurrence is the presence of inactive satellite lesions, which are local areas of chorioretinal scars. Recurrent lesions usually occur in close proximity to prior areas of choriore-tinitis, as is evident in the usual clusters of scars that exist (Figure 5.1). Recurrent disease occurs (A) Left macula with old scar superior temporal to new active lesion....

The Supporting Cast Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas

The Crohn disease as either the inflammatory form (in which the inflammation may cause an inflammatory mass), the obstructing form (in which the inflammation on the inside of the intestine actually causes the intestinal opening to close off scar tissue from healing inflammation can also close it off), or the fistulizing form (where loops of bowel become connected by a fistula that runs from the inside of one loop to the inside of another).

Surgical Lasers for Treating Skin

By the late 1980s, early attempts at resurfacing facial skin for the purpose of removing wrinkles were made using the CO2 laser. Resurfacing facial skin with a continuous-wave CO2 laser was a challenging proposition because the only way to achieve selective photothermol-ysis was to move the laser beam rapidly over the skin, avoiding a prolonged dwell time (remember the hot stove analogy discussed earlier in this chapter). Because of the risk of scarring, few surgeons were eager to attempt facial resurfacing with the continuous-wave CO2 laser.

Mice Lacking FGF2 Show Delayed Reepithelialization

The TGF-P superfamily encompasses a diverse range of proteins, many of which play important roles during development and differentiation. Mammalian members include TGF-P1-3, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Mullerian inhibiting substance, inhibins, and activins (reviewed in ref. 33). Their biological effects are mediated by heteromeric receptor complexes, which signal via activation of intracellular Smad signaling pathways (reviewed in ref. 34). TGF-P is one of the most studied molecules in the wound-healing scenario. This growth and differentiation factor is found in large amounts in platelets and is also produced by several cell types that are present in a wound, including activated macrophages, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes (35). Three TGF-P isoforms (TGF-P 1, TGF-P2, and TGF-P3) are present in mammals and have both distinct and overlapping functions. In vitro, these molecules have been shown to be mitogenic for fibroblasts, but they inhibit proliferation of most other cells....

Mice Overexpressing TGFP 1 Show Severely Impaired Late Stage Wound Repair

In contrast to the knockout approaches described above, Shah et al. (47) investigated the effect of excess levels of TGF-P 1 on wound repair. Their hypothesis was that elevated levels of circulating TGF-P 1 would accelerate healing but also enhance scarring. Mice with elevated plasma levels of active TGF-P 1 were generated by cloning a modified porcine TGF-P 1 construct, generating constitutively active TGF-P 1, downstream of the mouse albumin promoter region. Using a dorsal incisional wounding model, complemented by ventral sc implantation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges, Shah et al. (47) were able to study both normal cutaneous wound repair and cellular infiltration as a model of granulation tissue formation.

Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) (figure 1-10) is a chronic inflammatory disease with repeated episodes of ulcerations. Recent investigations seem to indicate that the aphthous lesion is associated with an altered local immune response. This disease is characterized by small, whitish ulcers with red borders. The disease normally occurs as a single lesion or, infrequently, as multiple lesions on the wet mucous membranes of the lip, tongue, cheek, or floor of the mouth. Lesions appear as depressions on the mucous membrane and are covered by a grayish-white or light-yellow membrane. There is no vesicle formation before the ulcer appears, distinguishing this disease from viral diseases of the oral mucosa. Associated with the development of a recurrent aphthous ulcer is generally trauma, endocrine change, psychic factors, or allergy. The lesions are painful however, the condition is self-limiting with the lesions usually healing in 10 to 14 days without leaving scars. Recurrent aphthous...

Burns scalds and minor injuries

The practice nurse is often consulted for advice and management of minor injuries, burns and scalds during the daily surgery. This chapter looks at the treatment of these conditions, because they are relevant to all community nurses. Recommendations are made as to which patients will require specialist advice. The aftercare of donor sites and management of scar tissue are also discussed. It is recognised that specialist centres may have their own regimen for the care of these wounds, and the reader is expected to follow local protocols.

Anatomy and Pathogenesis of the Urethral Injury

Tion injury of the rectum is critical to identify but rarely seen with pelvic fracture trauma 17 . The life-threatening injuries take precedence in diagnosis and management over the urethral injury, but in those patients who survive, the urethral injury will be the source of chronic complex disability and morbidity. Urinary incontinence in the male depends on the bladder neck proximally and the external sphincter distally. The distal external sphincter mechanism may be destroyed by this posterior urethral injury or during subsequent reconstruction and continence will, therefore, be dependent on bladder neck function alone. Most men, however, are continent following repair of this injury and will reveal a closed bladder neck on preope-rative cystography and cystoscopy. A few patients will be noted to have a persistently open, funneled bladder neck or a bladder neck quadrant scar seen on transvesical cystoscopy, which support the potential of a concomitant bladder neck injury.

Differential diagnosis

Congenital toxoplasmosis must be differentiated from other possible causes of the classic clinical acronym 'TORCH' for a series of etiologies that share similar signs and symptoms. The acronym includes Toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus. However, emerging pathogens such as West Nile Virus must be considered as part of any differential in known congenital infection (Alpert et al., 2003). Recurrent toxoplasmosis with its unilateral active lesion associated with multiple adjacent chori-oretinal scars with the appropriate clinical history is virtually pathognomonic. However, clinical syndromes such as serpiginous chorioretinitis, and other infectious etiologies such as cytomegalovirus, may occasionally be considered. For the many other possible and unusual manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis, such as pars plani-tis, the differential diagnosis is even broader, and includes autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and infections such as Lyme...

DPT for diphtheria whooping cough pertussis and tetanus For full protection the child needs 3 injections These are

A single injection is given into the skin of the left arm. Children can be vaccinated at birth or anytime afterwards. Early vaccination is especially important if any member of the household has tuberculosis. The vaccine makes a sore and leaves a scar.

Nonsurgical Lasers for Treating Skin

Prior to the development of the pulsed dye laser, the argon laser was the best option for treating blood vessels. Introduced in the 1970s, the argon laser produces blue-green light with a wavelength of 514 nm. This color is well absorbed by the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells and is near a peak in the absorption spectrum of hemoglobin (fig. 4.1), and thus has a selective effect on vascular tissue. This laser was used primarily by ophthalmologists to destroy abnormal blood vessels in the retina that occur in diseases such as diabetes and can lead to blindness if untreated. The argon laser was used with some success to treat cutaneous blood vessels. Most responsive were large facial vessels (telangiectases), which are common in people with the acne-like skin disease rosacea and can also occur in people who have had excessive chronic sun exposure. The physical and optical properties of port wine stains are different from those of telangiectases such that treating them with the...

Technique and radiation

The optimal time for DMSA scanning remains an unresolved issue. Many units perform the study in the acute phase (i.e., during or soon after a UTI) in order to determine the extent of parenchymal involvement. Critics of such practice point out that an acute abnormality does not necessarily represent a permanent scar and a repeat scan is often required after 3-6 months to determine longstanding injury. Deferring the DMSA scan for such a period of time may avoid the initial examination. To maximize the detection of scarring, various projections should be utilized to image the kidney. Posterior, right, and left posterior views are standard, but anterior views must be included if a pelvic or horseshoe kidney is suspected. Furthermore, in asymmetric kidneys (e.g., ectopic kidneys, scoliosis), anterior views must be obtained and split function expressed as a geometric mean of radioactivity in both posterior and anterior images. Reports in literature have suggested that the use of single...

Principles of Vascular Access

The guiding principles of access surgery are to use AVF in preference to synthetic grafts, which are preferred to in-dwelling central venous catheters. Access should be sited as far distally in the chosen limb as possible. The principle is to conserve veins to permit proximal revision if the initial procedure fails. An exception is very old patients, who often have poor distal vessels. Some young patients may have strong wishes to avoid visible forearm scars. The nondominant limb should be used wherever possible.

Wound Repair in Aging

Different age groups (20-40 yr) during World War I. However, the type of wound, infectious complications, and the overall young age of the patients diminished the validity of his conclusions. Halasz (29) reported an increase in the incidence of wound dehiscence with age in 3000 patients having undergone duodenal surgery. Again, concurrent morbidity and infectious complications were not recorded. More recently, the majority of studies have found a delay in healing, but less scarring, in the wounds of aged animals and humans relative to their young counterparts (19,20,22,23,30,31).

Phases of Wound Healing

The remodeling phase involves continued proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of newly synthesized matrix (termed fibroplasia), completed neovascularization, and formation of mature scar. Collagen (primarily type I) is produced and remodeled throughout this phase, which can last as long as 1 to 2 yr. Wounds in the aged produce less scarring as compared with young subjects (31). Furthermore, hyperproliferative wound-healing disorders such as keloids and hypertrophic scars are rare in the older population. This is a result, at least in part, of reduced levels of TGF-P in the wounds of the aged. As noted previously, TGF-P is known to enhance net collagen deposition both by increasing its synthesis and by decreasing its degradation. The latter is a result of the effect of TGF-P 1 on increasing the secretion of TIMP at the same time it inhibits the production of the primary collagenase, MMP-1 (65,88). In fact, in an experimental study, the use of neutralizing TGF-P antibody was able...

Outward signs of occupancy

Observing hollows until animals emerge or enter can be a resource-intensive exercise. Alternatively, some hollow-nesting species leave clear evidence that the hollow, or tree, has been occupied. Many cockatoos and parrots chew the entrance of the hollow or other parts of the nest tree, behaviour which is important for maintaining the health and condition of the beak (Rowley 1990). However, birds often chew vigorously around the nest hollow, which suggests that chewing has other functions. Species that mark the nest tree permanently are among those that show high fidelity to a nesting hole. The Galah, for example, defends its nest hollow even outside the breeding season and will frequently re-use the same nest hole in successive breeding seasons (Rowley 1990). The Gang Gang Cockatoo also marks its nest tree with visible scars and shows fidelity to the same hollow over successive breeding seasons (P. Gibbons, personal observation). Marking the area around the hollow may therefore be a...

General Discussion

The chest x-ray features of pleural effusion include a homogeneous opacity without air bronchograms, blunted costophrenic angle, the meniscus sign, and complete or near-complete opacification of the hemithorax with contralateral mediastinal shift. Radiographically, blunting of the lateral costophrenic angle and preservation of the posterior angle almost always indicate scarring rather than effusion. The interface between the lung and the effusion is usually concave medially and is termed a meniscus. The

Get advice on whether surgery is needed

Unfortunately, the child will probably need surgery, to release the scar. Without this surgery, the child will not be able to open his mouth properly. You may also need a dentist's help at this time. The child's jaws may need to be wired. The wires are put on the healthy teeth in a way that holds the mouth open while the tight scar is forming. When the wires are removed, the child will be able to open and close his mouth to chew food.

The Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice

The healing of dermal defects requires the replacement and integration of a new connective-tissue matrix at the repair site. The deposition and organization of that new connective-tissue matrix entails the interaction between fibroblasts and collagen. A better understanding of those interactions may lead to a more rapid closure of wounds and will reduce the frequency of abnormal scarring. An approach to better understand that process is through in vitro models. One such model is the fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL), introduced by Bell and colleagues (1).

Septumbased Lateral Pedicle SLM

Closure of breast. a Fixation of lateral pillar onto pectoralis fascia. b Closure of skin through vertical pattern or with short inverted T scar (optional) Fig. 9.6 a,b. Closure of breast. a Fixation of lateral pillar onto pectoralis fascia. b Closure of skin through vertical pattern or with short inverted T scar (optional)

Removing Brown Pigmented Lesions

Treating larger nevi (greater than one-eighth inch in diameter) with a destructive laser is more risky because there is a greater chance of scarring. Depending on the body area, surgical excision, which always creates a scar, may be cosmetically superior to laser removal. One type of large nevus best treated with a laser is the nevus of Ota (see chapter 2). This is a pigmented lesion composed of nevus cells that lie deep in the dermis. These lesions are usually several inches in diameter. The color varies in intensity (based on the amount of pigment) and hue (based on the depth of pigment in the dermis). Q-switched lasers have been found to be most effective for treating nevi of Ota. Deeper pigment responds better to the Q-switched Nd YAG laser, whereas more superficial pigment may require the Q-switched ruby laser. These nonsurgical treatments are generally done without anesthesia. Multiple treatments are required.

Syndromes of Ischemic Heart Disease

The continuum of ischemic heart disease stretches from silent ischemia through the various patterns of angina, AMI, and scars of a previous myocardial infarction, to the complications of AMI, such as ventricular aneurysm or pericarditis. Although all of these syndromes represent a continuum of the same disease process, they may present with quite different ECG patterns at different stages of the continuum, and have distinctly different treatments and outcomes. When a patient presents with chest pain, the ECG can help us to determine where they fit on the continuum. Similarly, the nature of the patient's symptoms and the physical examination can also provide clues as to where the patients fit on the continuum, and can lead us to search for subtle ECG changes that we might otherwise overlook without a high index of suspicion.

Condition Of The Middle Eartympanic Membrane Perforation

Treatment should not include medications in the ear or any packing of the ear. Keep the ear dry and clean. An external dressing is recommended. Oral analgesia is not usually needed. The patient should be restricted from flying, swimming, or heavy contact with loud noises. Keep water out of the ear. Systemic antibiotics should be given only if infections occur. Evacuation is not urgent unless a flap is present. If there is only a small perforation, called a pinhole, no treatment is necessary. Some complications of this condition are the failure to heal spontaneously, ear infection, and scarring.

Gastrointestinal Manifestations

Histologically, there is microglial proliferation, slight glial scarring, and perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes, neutrophils and plasma cells. The site most commonly affected is the brainstem, followed by isolated hemispherical involvement in a subgroup of patients usually presenting with hemiparesis and or pyramidal signs, and spinal cord involvement in 4-20 of all cases (only 18 being isolated). A special, although fortunately rare, form of cerebral involvement in BD is the demyelinating variant, which does not have signs of active vasculitis in MRI or cerebrospinal fluid (except elevated protein levels), but nevertheless leads to progressive mental deterioration and dementia 127 . In the other forms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis mostly reveals neutrophilic pleocytosis, but lymphocytic pleocytosis is also common. Elevated protein concentrations with an increased IgG index are usually found, and oligoclonal bands similar to those in multiple sclerosis (MS) may occur and...

Endoscopic Urethroplasty

Recurrent urethral stricture that could not be treated successfully by urethrotomy. The theory of this method is the epithelialization of the urethra with an available skin graft. The availability of healthy epithelial tissue should reduce the forming of scars and the relapse frequency. The method requires first that the urethral stricture be incised at the 12 o'clock position. Additionally, a resection of the scar tissue may be necessary in order to create a healthy bed for the skin transplant 42 . After measuring the length of the stricture with the cystosco-pe, a free skin transplant is taken from the forearm or prepuce. The graft should have a thickness of 0.45 cm, the length of the graft should be 2 cm longer than the length measured to allow for sufficient coverage 75 . The width of the graft should be 20 mm and its circumference should correspond to a 20-charr silastic catheter. The overlapping ends become necrotic and will drop off postoperatively.

Different Approaches for Different Breasts

Techniques for breast reduction and mastopexy have evolved, as have philosophical concepts. The goal of a mastopexy or a reduction mammaplasty is to achieve breasts with pleasant appearance and firm, adequate size and form with minimal scarring and low rate of complications. Lactation and sexual functions must be preserved. If performed properly, the results are long lasting. The reason women demand aesthetic plastic surgery on their breasts is that they dislike aspects related to their appearance such as volume, shape, or consistency. Patients who undergo a reduction mammaplasty or mastopexy know beforehand that there will be a scar after the surgery. Every breast is different therefore,every operation is different, and so the scars are different, in quality and appearance, regardless of length. It is the appearance of the scar that matters, not its length.

Planning the Mammaplasty

Consistency, (b) grade of ptosis, (c) distance between the suprasternal notch and nipples, (d) location of the nipple on the breast, (e) skin quality, and, most important, (f) the relationship between breast tissue and skin. Depending on these factors,it is our opinion that each breast deserves individualized skin markings 1 (not patterns) and individualized tissue resection. In sum, the greater the skin excess in relation to the breast tissue, the more skin will be removed. The amount of skin resected determines the length of the scar. When one tries to reduce the length of the scar by limiting skin removal, the form and appearance of the breasts are usually compromised. In this chapter, first skin markings are discussed, and then the different methods of tissue removal are described.

Critical Assessment

Nearly all publications mentioned that for renewed strictures instant urethrotomy, transurethral resection of scar tissue 54 , or an open urethroplasty 30 may be necessary. The incidence of urethral stricture relapses can be reduced by narrow-meshed urethral bougineages.

Type 2 Transglutaminase and Cell Death

In hepatic diseases characterized by fibrotic tissue formation, TG2 has been shown to participate in ECM cross-linking. In acute hepatic failure, such as in Budd-Chiari syndrome and in chronic liver pathology (viral hepatitis especially HBV and HCV), an abnormal accumulation of TG2 has been described on hepatocytes localized on the areas adjacent to scar and or fibrotic tissue 34, 55, 67, 68 .

Granuloma Inguinale Donovanosis

A vulvar nodule breaks down, forming a painless, beefy red, highly vascular ulcer with fresh granulation tissue without regional lymphadenopalhy. Lymphatic obstruction can result in marked vulvar enlargement. Chronic scarring can lead to lymphatic obstruction.

Women aged 5065 years

Mammography does have risks as well as benefits. Radiation exposure, false-positives leading to subsequent tests with additional radiation and expense, biopsies, surgery, and emotional scarring are all risks. The risk of false-positives is higher in younger women than in older women. The rate of false-positives is 7.8 in women aged 40-49 years and 7.4 in women aged 50-59 years. The cumulative rate for a false-positive rate is 49 after ten annual mammograms.16 Out of 10 000 women aged 50-65 and screened by mammography, approximately 500-700 will need to return for further X-rays. Fewer than 100 will receive biopsies, and approximately 50-60 cancers will be found.4

Preparing the Central Tendons

The central tendon is dissected to expose the prostatic apex, taking care to completely remove all scar tissue that surrounds the stricture. The end of the stricture may be located using a suprapubically inserted curved metal probe or a flexible cystoscope. The scar tissue must be removed down to the healthy tissue of the prostatic apex, which has sufficient blood supply, keeping as much as possible of the intrinsic sphincter structures intact. The distal end of the stricture is easily determined by inserting a transurethral probe, and is cut off in the healthy tissue ( Fig. 14.16).

Fluorescein Angiography

Fluoresein angiography shows mainly signs of chorioretinal scarring, with window effects being associated with masking effects where there is pigment clumping. In the active phase FA may show faint late hyperfluorescence in areas corresponding to ICGA hypofluorescent dark dots, corresponding to new lesions (Fig. 14.5 c). The use of fluorescein angiography is, however, of little use for assessing and following active disease, as FA angiographic signs are often absent or faint in new areas of inflammatory involvement, which are, however, clearly shown by ICGA.

Clinical Symptoms and Findings

Patients usually consult because of loss of vision, metamorphopsias and scotomata. Photop-sias seem to be less in the foreground in serpiginous choroiditis than in other PICCPs. The anterior segment is usually uninflamed whereas minimal to mild vitreitis is usually associated with the choroiditis. The active lesions appear as grey-yellow-white deep lesions beginning in the peripapillary region and progressing in a centrifugal fashion. The type of progression of lesions and scar formation can have a serpigi-nous (pseudopodial) or a geographic (maplike) pattern 60,61 . The lesions are usually bilateral but involvement is asymmetric. In India involvement tends to be more often unilateral 62 . Visual function impairment depends on the location and progression of the lesions (Fig. 14.6). Curiously, the fovea seems to be spared for some time by the process, leading, however, to severe visual loss when it is ultimately involved. Subretinal neovascular membranes occur in up to 30 of cases and...

Pathogenesis And Immunity

In more advanced stages of trachoma, the follicle itself becomes necrotic, and connective tissue forms in and around the follicles, producing scarring. The formation of Herbert's pits by follicles at the corneoscleral junction (limbus) is evidence that the follicle (during its formation in this confined space) can erode the connective tissue without causing any overt ulceration or connective tissue reaction with scarring. Macrophages are frequently found in the epithelium and in the follicles themselves. Plasma cells appear to be distributed throughout the conjunctiva. Between the follicles, there is marked lymphocytic infiltration. In addition, the capillaries are dilated, and the whole conjunctival layer is thickened by the cellular infiltration with the formation of papillary villi. As scarring takes place, islands of epithelium between the elevated papillae may become trapped and form epithelial-lined cysts, which fill with desquamated debris to form yellow structures, clinically...

Correction of Breast Deformity after Conservative Therapy

Location may lead to a major nipple-areola displacement. The combination of a large amount of scar tissue due both to tumorectomy and axillary lymph node dissection and to irradiation makes the defect too difficult to correct by mammaplasty techniques alone. In this specific case, a locoregional tissue transfer is required. Pedicled flaps from the axillary region may still be available, but pedicled latissimus dorsi, scapular, or perforator flaps might be better options for resolving this problem.

Management of Lymphogranuloma Venereum

Treatment of LGV is aimed not only at curing the infection but also preventing the complications that may accompany the disease, such as scarring and disfigurement. Thus, fluctuant inguinal and femoral lymph glands should be aspirated through intact skin using a wide-bore needle to prevent the formation of inguinal or femoral ulcerations. Repeat aspirations may be required even though appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy has been initiated.

Type of Tamponade Agent for Inferior Breaks

Fig. 10.2 a Second postoperative day. Confluent diode laser spots around the borders of the retinal break and retinal edema are evident. The retina is completely attached. b Tenth postoperative day. Retinal edema decreases. Note the change in color of the laser spots. c One month postoperatively. A chorioretinal scar has developed around the borders of the retinal break

The Use of Free Grafts for Urethroplasty

The flaps used in urethral reconstruction are random island flaps of penile or scrotal skin carried on a dartos pedicle - random, because there is no defined artery supplying them and so for the skin paddle to remain viable, an extensive dartos pedicle must be created. The disadvantage with a flap repair is that it is time-consuming (and tedious) to harvest the flap and the dissection is extensive. This produces scarring and loss of the normal contour of the penis when its dartos layer has been redeployed from part or all of its circumference.

Symptoms and Clinical Findings

A large proportion of patients are treated for a recurrent granulomatous uveitis that flares up with a still relatively high steroid treatment level. In 25 of cases there may be an isolated chorioretinitis and in 75 chorioretinitis is associated with an anterior granulomatous uveitis. On funduscopy, in long-lasting cases there are multiple bilateral chorioretinal scars sometimes strongly pigmented (Fig. 15.5 a) which may be associated with recent choroidal lesions presenting as yellow-grey deep discolorations, which are also found in new cases (Fig. 15.5 b). The retina is usually also involved, showing vasculitis and infiltration, and the degree of involvement may be very different between the retina and the choroid. The disease is often bilateral and involvement is usually asymmetric and the distribution and size of lesions random and asymmetric. Since ICGA has become available, choroid involvement can be analysed precisely 55 . Choroiditis can occur alone or in association with...

Materials and Methods

The surgical technique has been described in detail elsewhere 6 . The THA was carried out with the patient in a lateral decubitus position, through a transtrochanteric approach. Joint capsule, scar fibrous tissue, shelf, and osteophytes were removed carefully and completely. The dissection of the inferior part of the elongated capsule led to the true acetabulum, which was exposed properly by a hooked retractor inserted beneath the inferior margin. The acetabulum then was prepared to obtain a hemispherical bone cavity with the use of curved gouges. No reaming of the cavity was performed because of the inherent fragility of the acetabular walls. A socket, 37 to 42 mm in outside diameter, was cemented into the acetabular cavity. In 81 of the 118 procedures, a bone autograft obtained from the femoral head and neck was used to enlarge and reinforce the roof on the undeveloped original acetabulum. The femoral component was implanted at the level of the lesser trochanter except in 5 hips, in...

Complications Statistical Review

Recently, in 2003,Berthe et al. 21 published an interesting study in which 170 consecutive patients (330 breasts) underwent the classic Lejour mammaplasty technique from 1991 to 1994. Minor complications, which included seroma, hematoma, partial areola necrosis, and superficial wound dehiscence, were observed in 30 of patients. Major complications, comprising glandular necrosis, total areola necrosis, and glandular infection, were seen in 15 of patients. A surgical revision rate of 28 was necessary in this series. Noting these unacceptably high complication rates, Berthe et al. modified their technique by limiting breast liposuction to the axillary area in large breasts and minimizing skin undermining. Similar modifications have been described by Hall-Findlay 19 . Berthe et al. also performed primary skin excision in the inframammary fold if the excess could not be gathered adequately. The second part of this study, between 1996 and 1999, consisted of 138 consecutive patients (227...

Open Fractures Type Illb and IIIc

Microsurgical techniques and the use of vein grafts to restore arterial blood flow in the injured extremities are also related to the relatively high rate of limb salvage in patients with type IIIC injuries. Microsurgical skills applied in secondary reconstructive procedures such as free flaps, vascularized bone grafts and nerve grafting help achieve better results and to improve the functional outcome of the severely injured extremity. Microsurgery aids the treatment of these injuries by improving the circulation of the injured extremity using fine surgical techniques, restoring limb function, and solving other complex problems such as replacing unstable scar tissue with free skin flaps.

Use of High Throughput Microarray Membranes for cDNA Analysis of Cutaneous Wound Repair

Hypertrophic scar formation represents an abnormal wound-healing response following thermal injuries or partial-thickness wounds. Specific growth factors, cytokines, extracellular matrix molecules, and proteinases that are known to alter cell proliferation and migration have been implicated in the generation of hypertrophic scars. However, the etiology of hypertrophic scarring has not been identified. Given the complex molecular mechanisms of wound repair, differences in expression of isolated functional genes alone may not sufficiently explain clinical variations. Other genes, such as transcriptional regulators, control response to injury and may provide a more comprehensive explanation for the different responses to injury. Gene expression by Northern blot analysis or in situ hybridization (ISH) to determine levels of mRNA in tissue samples limits the study of tissues to a single gene and requires a large amount of sample. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and...

Non Laser Devices for Facial Resurfacing

Microdermabrasion is a noninvasive resurfacing modality used to gently remove only the superficial layer of the epidermis (the stratum corneum, see chapter 2). First developed in Europe, these treatments were introduced in the United States in the late 1990s and have gained great popularity. The chief appeal of microdermabrasion is that multiple treatments can improve skin texture and lessen the appearance of fine wrinkles and even acne scars, all with no detectable Coblation is that the treatment head is a fixed size and thus requires that a swath of skin of this width be treated. In contrast, the erbium YAG laser employs various spot sizes, some less than 2 mm wide, enabling greater precision of skin removal. Skin surface features such as wrinkle shoulders and acne scars can be selectively ablated with the erbium YAG laser.

Data Analysis see Note

Mean intensities are calculated for each gene in each group (e.g., hypertrophic scar, scar, and skin). Ratios of the mean intensities of hypertrophic scar to scar, hypertrophic scar to skin, and scar to skin can be generated such that a ratio > 1 indicates upregulation and a ratio < 1 indicates downregulation of any particular gene, respectively. Since the distribution of ratios is positively skewed, ratios can be log transformed to generate a Gaussian distribution. Determination of differential expression depends on investigator preference for sensitivity. We have considered genes with log ratios > 2 SDs from the mean to be differentially expressed in the affected tissue compared with control tissue.

Complementary alternative medicine The addition to

Obstruction A partial or complete blockage of the intestine. This can be the result of inflammation and swelling, scar tissue, or food trapped in a narrowed segment. The obstruction can be caused by internal narrowing or an external blockage, such as an adhesion. Stricture A localized narrowing of a hollow organ such as the bowel. The stricture can be caused by inflammation with swelling or by scar tissue built up from repeated active disease and healing. Strictures can be surgically resected or opened.

Who is the Ideal Candidate for the Vertical Mammaplasty

In patients who have simple breast ptosis or who require only a small reduction of 400 to 500 g or less, the vertical mammaplasty can provide an excellent aesthetic result. Addition of an aggressive vertical skin resection is particularly helpful in cases of pseudop-tosis, where the lower pole of the breast is excessively prominent. As in any other breast reduction techniques, vertical scar mammaplasty works most easily in moderate-sized breasts with good tissues and elastic skin in young nonsmokers. A patient with normal and stable weight is preferable to an obese patient whose weight is constantly fluctuating. Juvenile patients are more prone unpredictable and often hyper-trophic scar formation, and all efforts should be undertaken to keep scars as short as possible. Patients with large breasts,where the amount of tissue resection exceeds 1000 g per breast, and older patients, where skin has lost its elasticity and the breast has been replaced by adipose tissue, are not good...

In the Hands of a Young Surgeon Which Pattern Should be Used in Reduction Mammaplasty

As far as the vertical scar in Lejour's technique (superior pedicle) is concerned, one must admit that some patients do not accept the aspect of the vertical scar with multiple wrinkles in the early postoperative period. Furthermore, scar correction at the bottom of the vertical scar is needed for many patients in our experience. The vertical technique is far more than just a scar it is a concept. Breast shaping and modeling are the most important elements of this technique. We believe in scar reduction, but it should not be done at the cost of a high rate of wound dehiscence and scar revision. The vertical scar can be ended easily with a short horizontal scar if needed. However, in patients who have poor skin quality or long-lasting breast hypertrophy like elderly patients, a short inverted T scar will be more appropriate. Designing the inverted T at the end of the operation provides better scar placement with minimal extension of the scar to the sides. In addition, the skin excess...

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Urethral Strictures

Normal Retrograde Urethrogram Images

Knowledge of the location, length, depth, and density of the stricture (i.e., spongiofibrosis) are critical to planning appropriate treatment. Radiographs, urethroscopy, and ultrasound can be used to determine stricture location and length physical examination and ultrasound will reveal the depth and density of the scar in the spongy tissue. The appearance of the urethra can be determined in contrast studies and the amount of elasticity noted on urethroscopy. In contrast, to ensure that all the involved urethra is included in the reconstruction, it is imperative to completely evaluate the urethra proximal and distal to the stricture with endoscopy and bougienage during surgery. Although hydraulic pressure generated by voiding can keep segments proximal to the stricture patent, unless they are included in the repair, they are at risk for contraction after the narrow-caliber segment obstruction is relieved with reconstruction. Therefore, areas of the urethra proximal to a narrow-caliber...

Laser Resurfacing with the ErbiumYAG Laser

Erbium Laser Before And After

I studied Betacaine as an anesthetic for erbium YAG laser resurfacing over a period of 18 months and reported the results at the 1999 meeting of the American Society for Lasers in Medicine and Surgery. Betacaine was used in 70 consecutive patients who underwent erbium YAG laser resurfacing of facial areas during this period. Resurfacing was done for the purpose of smoothing wrinkles as well as scars from acne and chickenpox. Of 178 facial areas treated, 160 were adequately anesthetized with only the topical Betacaine. Facial areas that failed topical anesthesia were numbed using injected anesthetics at the patient's request. In this study, the overall success rate of topical anesthesia for erbium YAG laser resurfacing was 95 . Fig. 6.1 shows before and after photographs of one of the patients treated in this study. Note that with proper technique even deep wrinkles can be removed completely with the erbium YAG laser. The erbium YAG laser is particularly useful in resurfacing facial...

Sphincteric Incompetence

Doing Kegels With Catheter

Klutke et al. (72) introduced antegrade placement of collagen through a suprapubic tract. The rationale is to inject collagen into supple, well-vascularized tissue above the scar of the vesicourethral anastomosis to improve results. Utilizing this technique, Klutke et al. achieved dryness in 25 of patients and 45 were significantly improved (73). Vasavada and Appell (74) presented long-term follow-up in 29 men treated with the antegrade collagen injection technique. The initial (2 wk) dry rate was 76 . The dry rate decreased to 66 at 6 mo and 24 at 1 yr. These authors concluded that early success is not predictive of a long-term outcome. From these data, it is apparent that collagen injection therapy is not the ideal treatment of incontinence following prostatectomy. Patients selected should be those with mild to moderate stress incontinence, and they should be counseled that multiple injections will be needed. It is important to stress that social continence is a more realistic goal...

Subcutaneous Wound Tissue Oximetry

Make a small stab wound with a no. 11 blade at the planned entry and exit sites. The stab wound should be large enough to allow easy passage of the catheter, but as small and superficial as possible, in order to minimize bleeding. Make the stab wound in line, with skin lines to minimize or eliminate scarring.

Two Stage Meshgraft Urethroplasty

Elastic Penis Meatus

Most uncomplicated strictures of the anterior and posterior urethra are successfully treated with a one-stage procedure. Among these procedures are stricture resection and consecutive end-to-end anastomosis or contemporary methods of tissue transfer such as flap procedures. However, complex strictures with significant scar tissue formation of the urethra, strictures that have undergone prior repeated surgery, and urethra malformations found in severe hypospadia cases continue to present a challenge for surgery. The problems arise from a lack of the healthy elastic tissue needed to reconstruct the urethra. This applies in particular for long strictures that involve the entire length of the urethra. Although the two-stage mesh-graft procedure as a safe operation can be used for every type of stricture, its real advantage is apparent when used for complex strictures, especially when there is severe scar tissue formation and absence of healthy penile skin for reconstruction of the...

Urethrocystography Voiding

Catheter Lab Abnormal And Noramal Scans

The endoscopic technique 4, 5 is based on three surgical principles 1) only complete section of the block of scar tissue can achieve definitive good results 2) a strip of epithelial tissue is preserved at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions in order to hasten the epithelialization process at the stricture site and 3) hydraulic self-dilatation will maintain the operated membranous urethra open while the process of epithelialization is in progress. Fig. 10.1A-D. Operative technique. A Incision of the scar tissue at 3 and 9'clock. B The block of scar tissue is divided into two halves, upper and lower. C Resection of the scar tissue is performed, leaving a strip Fig. 10.1A-D. Operative technique. A Incision of the scar tissue at 3 and 9'clock. B The block of scar tissue is divided into two halves, upper and lower. C Resection of the scar tissue is performed, leaving a strip positions with a cold knife in order to preserve the mucosa at 6 and 12 o'clock. The two incisions are prolonged with a...

In Inflammatory Choriocapillaropathies

In the convalescent phase there is a delayed regression of FA signs (hyperfluorescence and staining) as compared to the regression of ICGA signs. In the case of chorioretinal atrophy, window effect and masking effect due to chorioretinal scarring are seen. ICGA 2 in post-acute phase, ICGA hypofluo-rescent areas representing choroidal atrophy and scarring FA 3 in post-acute phase, zones of alternating areas of window effects and masking effects indicating chorioretinal atrophy and scars viral or other infectious or systemic trigger at the origin of inflammatory choriocapillaro-pathies. We have previously described a case of APMPPE that developed just after an episode of mumps in a young adult 17 . APMPPE has also been described following acute group A strep-tococcal infection 18 . Furthermore both MEWDS and APMPPE have been described after hepatitis vaccinations 19-21 . Rather than choriocapillaris disease caused by one given infectious trigger, the pathologic process is probably that...

Longterm Urologic Management

The use of a chronic indwelling catheter is never desirable because of its complications including epididymitis, urethrocutaneous fistula, traumatic hypospadias, and squamous cell carcinoma. Yet, chronic catheterization remains the most common form of management in patients who are tetraplegic and bedridden. Many female patients, unable to use an external collecting device, are managed with catheter drainage because they fail pharmacologic therapy and or have limited hand function. McGuire followed 35 women managed with either an indwelling catheter or CIC for 2-12 yr following spinal-cord injury and found a significant reduction in the incidence of autonomic dysreflexia, febrile UTIs, pyelonephritic scarring by I VP, and bladder stones in patients managed with intermittent catheterization. This same study showed 92 of women with long-term indwelling catheters eventually had incontinence around the catheter and 54 had urethral erosion, whereas none on CIC had these complications (51)....

Success Rate Of Gore Tex Thyroplasty

Gore Tex Thyroplasty

Arytenoid adduction is usually performed under local anesthesia. This allows the vocal results to be assessed intraoperatively, and avoids the problem of an endotracheal tube that blocks adduction of the glottis however, it can be performed under general anesthesia by placing sufficient tension on the adducting suture to achieve maximal anterior motion of the muscular process. This generally results in appropriate adduction of the vocal fold when the patient is awake and extubated. A general anesthetic is most useful in anxious or immature patients or in those where surgical dissection is hindered by scarring, obesity, or presence of a tracheotomy.

Removing Vascular Skin Lesions

Treatment of small (one-eighth inch or less) hemangiomas with krypton or argon lasers is relatively painless and requires no anesthesia. Very small lesions will shrink and disappear immediately, healing with no visible scar. Larger lesions may turn gray and heal by forming a scab. A scab forms because the epidermis overlying the heman-gioma is destroyed and the blood within the hemangioma, now coagulated, is on the surface. (A scab is dried, coagulated blood on the surface of the skin.) Larger hemangiomas are more difficult and painful to treat. These lesions may require an injected anesthetic before treatment. The laser energy may need to be administered through repeated pulses or even continuous, non-pulsed treatment. Large lesions, because of their size, absorb a large amount of laser energy and are heated to a relatively high temperature. If enough heat is conducted to adjacent skin, there will be a localized burn, possibly resulting in a wound that heals with a visible scar....

The answer is a Fauci 14e pp 14511455 Massive lifethreatening hemoptysis is 100 cc of blood in 24 h The most common

The answer is d. (Tintinalli, 5 e, p 1568.) Tracheal stenosis may occur days after intubation and is a sequela of the balloon cuff of the tracheal tube pressing against the tracheal wall causing necrosis and scar tissue formation. Patients are typically hoarse and dyspneic. 126. The answer is d. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 1429-1436.) Persons in certain occupations, such as asbestos mining, shipbuilding, construction, insulation, automobile brake repair, pipe fitting, plumbing, electrical repair, and railroad engine repair are at risk for asbestos exposure. Even persons handling the clothes of the person exposed to asbestos are at risk for asbesto-sis (bystander exposure). Asbestosis means that the patient has developed pulmonary fibrosis, scarring (plaques), and calcification. Asbestosis is a bilateral disease that starts from the bottom of the thorax and works upward, so it is not uncommon for the diaphragm to be involved early on in the disease process. Patients with asbestosis are at...

Aortofemoral Graft Infection

A 66-year-old man, an ex-smoker with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, had undergone a Dacron bifurcated aortic graft and bilateral ureteric stents for an inflammatory aortic aneurysm with ureteric obstruction at another hospital 4 years previously. The left limb of the graft had been anastomosed to the common femoral artery and the right limb to the common iliac bifurcation. Postoperatively he had suffered a mild groin wound infection, which had healed with antibiotics. At follow-up he complained of left calf and thigh claudication. On examination, he appeared generally well with a midline abdominal scar and a left vertical groin scar. He had good right femoral pulse but an absent left femoral pulse.

Mechanism for FPCL Contraction

The reorientation and reorganization of collagen both in vivo and in vitro requires cell participation. A widely held idea is that a specialized cell, the myofibroblast, is responsible for wound contraction and the reorganization of collagen. The myofibroblast is identified by the presence of the a-smooth muscle isoform of actin within its cytoplasmic stress fibers (4). Myofibroblasts are fibroblasts with prominent a-smooth muscle actin stress fibers that have been identified in open wounds undergoing wound contraction, in scars undergoing scar contracture, and in other contractile fibrotic disease processes such as Dupuytren contracture (5). In vitro myofibroblasts have been identified in monolayer culture, where they represent 5-20 of the cell population. Populations of fibroblasts in culture will spontaneously develop into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts spontaneously appear in areas of high cell density, such as in confluent monolayer cell layers in vitro as well as in granulation...

Recommended Outcomes to Measure Healing After Thermal Injuries

Scarring Cutaneous scarring can be quantified macroscopically using a standard 100-mm visual analog scale ranging from no apparent scar to worst possible appearance (10). Furthermore, it is possible to measure the proportionate amount of reduction in the residual wound surface area by dividing the surface area of the scar by that of a control site (whose dimensions are identical to those of the aluminum bar) marked with a tattoo at the time of the original injury. Histologically, a scar is characterized by pale-staining, thin collagen bundles, typically oriented parallel to the epidermis. Less complex in structure and containing less collagen than the thick, woven normal dermal collagen bundles, scar collagen appears dark compared to normal dermis by examination under polarized light. The scar appears dark mainly owing to the diminished collagen content and results in less light refraction. The polarizing filters can be rotated to enhance scar detection. However, the more...

To the Nipple Areola Complex NAC

Stop Hypertrophic Scars Around Areola

If the NAC demonstrates venous insufficiency at the end of surgery,liposuction of the pedicle may provide instant relief of any tension. Should the NAC congestion persist, the surgeon is duty-bound to reopen the breast and resite the pedicle in a better position. Immediate postoperative edema and swelling may cause NAC venous congestion, too, and release of the periareolar stitches is recommended in this case. Manual massage of the NAC can help to improve the venous return but should be performed with care and propriety Medicinal leeches are not recommended because of the increased risk of infection, which may result in total NAC necrosis. Despite all these measures, partial NAC necrosis can still occur and is often better treated conservatively. This usually produces a discolored scarred region, which can later be corrected by simple scar revision with or without tattooing. Rearrangement of the breast skin envelope coupled with increased tension on the skin closure due to swelling or...

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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