Medicine In Aztec Culture

Aztecs possessed a mixture of naturalistic and super naturalistic medicine common to other ancient cultures. Their knowledge of anatomy was important, although limited to experience acquired in the kitchen, in war, and at the sacrificial altar knowledge of physiology was very scarce, and they considered the heart to be the most important organ of the body believing it to be the source of feeling and thought. A concept of particular interest is that of the tonalli. This was that part of the...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra

Surgical investigation, like investigations in many other disciplines, begins with an idea which is fortified and fully nurtured with knowledge and determination. The advancement of the initial idea, as simple as it may be, requires diligence and a well-structured plan. Now, how and when this plan is executed pertains to the territory of the commitment and dedication of the surgical investigator. Discovery in surgical investigation is vital to the enterprise, that is, to the progress and...

Surgical Training in Turkey

Undergraduate medical education is a six-year program after which one may be qualified for post-graduate training. Each year between 4000 and 4500 doctors graduate from medical schools. The graduates are screened through a highly competitive central examination for a specialty program of their choice for placement in a post-graduate program. Approximately 2000 positions are available for post-graduate training every year. The Ministry of Health coordinates post-graduate education. Surgical...

Ahmed Shafik

The first documentation of scientific medical observations was produced about 3000 to 2500 BC (Old Kingdom) by an unknown author who some Egyptologists believe could have been the earliest known architect-physician, Imhotep. It came down to us in the shape of a 17th century BC copy of the original papyrus. The author of this treatise had already learned that in surgery and medicine a great body of observable phenomena confronted him. Systematic and scientific compilation and organization of...

Erik B Loucks

Throughout history, art has been an expression of society's thinking during each era of time. This is the case in Ambrosius Francken the Elder's portrayal of the first legendary transplantation, performed by Cosmas and Damian, the patron saints of surgery. St. Cosmas and St. Damian were twin brothers who were born in Arabia, medically trained in Syria, and practiced medicine and surgery in Cilicia and throughout Asia Minor. Throughout their lives they were dedicated to healing people and to the...

Lucretia W McClure

Imagine you are a third-year medical student in 1920 and you are listening to Harvey Cushing's clinical lecture on a case of splenic anemia. After discussing the patient who was presented to the students, Cushing begins to outline what he read before coming to the session. He not only tells the students what he read, but gives a clear description of the nature of the publications and why he selected those particular items. In the 21st century when medical students are surfing the Internet for...

Maurice Blitz

In the latter half of the 19th century, Europe was inundated with some of the great pioneers in the field of surgery. Names such as Billroth, and Courvoisier are still very much part of today's surgical lexicon. Germany specifically was a site for some of these revolutionary surgeons, contributing such notaries as Kocher and Langenbuch. Amidst these giants however, history has almost completely lost the surgeon responsible for one of the most common general surgical procedures. Carl Johann...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra and Alexander Horacio Toledo

The American Civil War was a gruesome and horrendous spectacle. While virtuous and inevitable on a philosophical plane, it was universally devastating to the generation of Americans caught in this painful struggle. For four years, more than one million Americans sustained a continuous fight against each other.1-8 The nation was divided into North and South, Union and Confederate, Federalist and NonFederalist. It was a war fought amongst brothers, friends and neighbors. Amidst this chaos,...

Hellai Sherzoi

Andreas Vesalius is arguably the founder of modern anatomy, having greatly advanced the science with his detailed descriptions and drawings of human anatomy. His greatest contribution was his major work titled De humani corporis fabricca libri septem (Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body) published in 1543, which contained not only detailed descriptions and drawings of the human anatomy, but rudiments of anthropology. Sentenced to death by the Inquisition for his new approach of the...

Herman Kwan Rod McLaren and Todd Peterson

Theodor Billroth is quite possibly one of the most remarkable surgeons of the 19th century. It was clear that he believed in the adage that art and science were created from the same source. While he has left us a legacy of surgical procedures and publications, more notable was his gift of spirit and his ability to inspire his pupils We go up the steps to gain on each step a new view. Even for the most clever climber there is always enough of the ladder left to climb, the end of which reaches...

Simon Bartley

Many medical students have studied Hunter's canal without much thought about whom this anatomic structure was named for. This is unfortunate, as John Hunter was arguably one of the most influential surgeons ever to practice medicine. His contributions to surgery, pathology, anatomy, and physiology were immense and remain today as important milestones in the development of medicine. John Hunter was born in Scotland in 1728. He grew up seven miles outside of Glasgow among ten siblings and came...

Alexander Horacio Toledo

With just cause, much has been written about a man who was the most radical of American patriots, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a leading proponent in ratifying the federal Constitution and a cofounder of the first American anti-slavery society. When not consumed with the dynamic political landscape that typified our nation's infancy, Benjamin Rush 1746-1813 served tirelessly as an advocate for many social reforms including temperance, women's rights, and humane treatment of the...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra and Suzanne E Toledo Zimmerer

In this historical essay we highlight three of the primary factors influencing early American medicine the spirituality of North American Indians, the diseases that the British brought with them to America, and the emerging scientific approach that the British began to embrace. North American Indians were content with their way of life before the Europe-ans mostly British insinuated themselves into the northeastern part of the American continent. As the British arrived, North American Indians...

Jason R Francoeur

Joseph Lister was not the first surgeon, nor was he the first scientist in fact, he was not even the first man to do both. Lister was, however, the first man to show tremendous strengths in both fields and combine them into one occupation the surgeon scientist. Joseph Lister's broad surgical skills, his inquisitive nature, and above all, his receptivity to new and foreign ideas directed him toward one of the great discoveries introduced to mankind. The mid-nineteenth century would be a turning...

Atilla Soren Filiz Asian Mkerrem Cete and Iskender Sayek

Located on two peninsulas, Anatolia and Thrace, Turkey has been heir to many civilizations and cultures the original Central Asian Turkish culture, the Arabic and Persian Islamic culture, ancient Anatolian culture of the earlier periods, and European cultures before and after the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923.1 With a population of 60 million Turkey is one of the youngest and largest countries in Europe and the Middle East. Archaeological findings including surgical instruments...

James Brooks Jonathan Chaney Dong Wu and Barend Zack

Wilder Penfield ranks among the most accomplished and internationally recognized Canadian physicians, for his achievements in wide-ranging areas of neuroscience and neurosurgery. His career was as dazzling as the list of names of the medical giants who were his teachers and mentors. Penfield's contributions include a wealth of writings in both medical and diverse nonmedical subjects undoubtedly, however, his crowning achievement was the creation of the world-famous Montreal Neurological...

Contributors

And Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey Chapter 6 Simon Bartley University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada Mukerrem Cete Ankara Numune Teaching and Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey Jonathan Chaney University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada Melissa Chen Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A....