Genetic Transformation Studies 421 Banana Musa sp

Banana is a member of the genus Musa, belonging to family Musaceae. This is one of the earliest crops, cultivated since 4000 years (Purseglove 1975 Ganapathi et al. 2003). Banana (Musa sp.) is the fourth most important global food crop after rice, wheat and maize in terms of gross value of production (Moffat 1999). The East and Central Africa sub-region alone produces nearly 20 million tons of banana annually (Tripathi et al. 2004). Banana fruit is used as a staple food owing to its good...

Eucalyptus Eucalyptus sp

Eucalyptus is a large genus of family Myrtaceae comprising of evergreen aromatic trees indigenous to Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and neighboring islands. Eucalyptus must have been known from the early sixteenth century when the Portuguese colonized Timor. There are at least two indigenous species, E. alba and E. urophylla on the island. Eucalyptus came into recorded history in 1788 when the French botanist, L'H ritier de Brutelle, published Eucalyptus oblique (Brooker et al. 2002). E....

Pathogen Derived Resistance PDR

Engineered protection offers a new approach to manage virus diseases, allowing the opening of completely new avenues of protection. Increased knowledge of both the molecular genetics of plant viruses and, more recently, also of their hosts' natural defence systems have resulted in the development of a number of novel ways to control virus diseases in plants. Strategies for genetic engineering of resistance to virus are based on three types of transgenes (a) pathogen derived transgenes, (b)...

Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective

13.4.1 ABA, MAPKK, Lipases, and Transcription Factors are Involved in Transmission of the Stress Signal Perception of water deficits is complex and not yet fully understood. The identity of the primary sensor, which could be water status, bound water, (b) -2 -1 -0.5 -0.2 0.2 0.5 1 2 Fig. 13.1. Predicted changes in global precipitation patterns for the winter and the summer season. The period from 1960 to 1990 was taken as reference and changes are indicated in 1 mm day on a scale from red to...

Molecular Engineering to Improve the Performance of Plants in Phytoremediation

The effectiveness of plants for phytoextraction and phytodegradation of pollutants from soils depend on several physiological processes (1) uptake by the roots, (2) loading into the xylem, (3) transport by mass flow in the xylem to the shoot in the transpiration stream, (4) uptake into leaf tissue, 5. detoxification chelation, degradation, transformation Fig. 7.3. Several physiological mechanism for resistance against pollutants and targets for bioengineering and enhanced performance in...

Genome Instability in Plants

Environmental factors can elicit changes in the plant genome, which can broadly be classified as either abiotic (physical and chemical agents) or biotic (living organisms such as pathogens) (Kovalchuk et al. 2001). Many different abiotic factors such as ionizing and UV radiation, various chemicals, or even changes in sodium chloride concentration and light intensity were shown to destabilize the plant genome (Lebel et al. 1993 Puchta et al. 1995 Kovalchuk et al. 1998 Ries et al. 2000 Lucht et...