Contents

Part A Transgenic Trees in the World 1 Field Trials with Transgenic Trees - State of the Art and Developments

Marcel Robischon 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Transgenic Trees in Test Tube and Field Trials 3

1.3 Transgenic Trees for Improvement of Forestry 6

1.3.1 Northern America 6

1.3.2 Europe 10

1.3.3 Latin America 13

1.3.4 South Africa 14

1.3.5 Australasia 15

1.3.5.3 Vietnam 16

1.4 Fruit Trees 18

1.4.1 North America 18

1.4.2 Europe 18

1.4.3 The Papaya Story 20

1.4.4 New Applications of Transgenic Trees 20

1.5 conclusions 21

References 22

2 Transgenic Forest Trees in China

Dietrich Ewald, Jianjun Hu, and Minsheng Yang 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Production of Insect Resistant Transgenic Forest Trees in China 26

2.3 Transgenic Trees Tolerant to Environmental Stresses 30

2.4 Sterile Transgenic Forest Trees 31

2.5 Further Transformation Work on Forest Trees 32

2.6 Field Tests of Transgenic Trees 33

2.7 Commercial Use of Transgenic Forest Trees 38

2.8 Rules and Regulations 41

2.9 Conclusions 41

References 42

3 Modification of Perennial Fruit Trees

Xiuxin Deng and Yanxin Duan 47

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 General Overview of Transformed Fruit Trees 48

3.3 Target Genes Introduced into Fruit Trees 53

3.3.1 Abiotic-stress Tolerance 54

3.3.2 Shortening of the Juvenile Phase 54

3.3.3 Disease Resistance 54

3.3.4 Insect Resistance 54

3.3.5 Rootstock Improvement 55

3.3.6 Fruit Improvement 55

3.4 Progress in Genetic Transformation of Fruit Trees 55

3.4.1 Apple 55

3.4.2 Apricot 56

3.4.3 Cherry 56

3.4.4 Chestnut 57

3.4.6 Grapevine 58

3.4.7 Kiwifruit 58

3.4.9 Peach 59

3.4.10 Pear 59

3.4.11 Persimmon 60

3.4.13 Walnut 60

3.4.14 Others 60

3.5 Conclusions 61

References 62

4 Genetic Transformation of Some Tropical Trees, Shrubs, and Tree-like Plants

Shuchishweta V. Kendurkar, Vaishali B. Naik, and Rajani S. Nadgauda . . . . 67

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Genetic Transformation Studies 68

4.2.1 Banana, Musa sp 68

4.2.2 Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L 76

4.2.3 Coffee, Coffea sp 78

4.2.4 Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus sp 81

4.2.5 Oil Palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq 84

4.2.6 Rubber Tree, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg 87

4.3 Conclusions 90

References 92

Part B Wood and other Traits

5 Environmental Aspects of Lignin Modified Trees

Hely Haggman, Karoliina Niemi, Heidi Tiimonen, Tiina Ylioja, and Vincent Chiang 105

5.1 Introduction 105

5.2 Lignin and Current Knowledge of Lignin Biosynthesis 106

5.3 Lignin Modification in Genetically Engineered Trees 108

5.4 Environmental Aspects of Processing Lignin Modified

Trees in the Pulp and Paper Industry 109

5.5 Ecological Interactions of Lignin Modified Trees 111

5.5.1 Insect Herbivores 111

5.5.2 Mycorrhizas 114

5.6 Conclusions 115

References 117

6 Modification of Cellulose in Wood

Matthias Fladung 123

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Modification of Lignin (and Cellulose) Content via "Lignin-enzymes" 124

6.3 Modification of Cellulose Content via "Cellulose Genes" 126

6.3.1 Cell Wall Formation and Cellulose Synthesis 126

6.3.2 Cellulose Degradation 128

6.4 Modification of Cellulose Fibre via "Hormone Genes" 128

6.5 Conclusions 132

References 133

7 Heavy Metal Resistance and Phytoremediation with Transgenic Trees

Andreas D Peuke and Heinz Rennenberg 137

7.1 Introduction 137

7.2 The Problem: Soil Contamination 140

7.3 Some Specialists Can Deal with High Levels of Heavy Metals: Hyperaccumulators 141

7.4 Dealing with High Concentration of Heavy Metals - Homeostasis, Tolerance, Detoxification 142

7.5 The Impact of Glutathione in Stress Resistance 143

7.6 Molecular Engineering to Improve the Performance of Plants in Phytoremediation 147

7.7 The Use of Trees for Phytoremediation 149

7.8 Conclusions 151

References 152

8 Transgenic Approaches to Engineer Nitrogen Metabolism

Francisco M Cânovas, Fernando Gallardo, Zhong Ping Jing, and Maria Belén Pascual 157

8.1 Introduction 157

8.2 Nitrogen Uptake, Assimilation and Related Pathways 157

8.2.1 Nitrogen Uptake 157

8.2.2 Nitrogen Assimilation 159

8.2.3 Carbon Flux for Amino Acid Biosynthesis 161

8.3 Relevance of N Metabolism in Trees 162

8.4 Genetic Manipulation of Nitrogen Metabolism 163

8.4.1 Studies in Model and Crop Plants 163

8.4.2 Production of Transgenic Trees and Consequences of Gene Manipulation 165

8.4.2.1 Enhanced Photosynthetic Metabolism and

Vegetative Growth 165

8.4.2.2 Increased N Use Efficiency 168

8.4.2.3 Increased Resistance to Stress 169

8.4.2.4 Increased Nitrogen Reserves 169

8.4.2.5 The Importance of C/N Balance 170

8.5 Conclusions 172

References 174

Part C Biotic and Abiotic Resistances

9 Virus Resistance Breeding in Fruit Trees

Margit Laimer 181

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Importance of Viral Diseases 181

9.2.1 Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) (Closteroviridae) 182

9.2.2 Grapevine Viruses 183

9.2.3 Prunus Viruses 183

9.2.4 Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) (Potyviridae) 183

9.2.5 Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV)

(Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus) 184

9.3 Conventional Breeding Efforts for Virus Resistance in Trees 184

9.4 Classical Cross Protection 186

9.5 Pathogen Derived Resistance (PDR) 187

9.5.1 Transformation, Selection and Regeneration Approaches 188

9.5.2 Description of Construct Design 189

9.5.3 Survey of Virus Resistance in Transgenic Fruit Trees 191

9.6 Conclusions 193

References 193

10 The Use of Genetic Transformation Procedures to Study the Defence and Disease Resistance Traits of Trees

TREVOR M FENNING 201

10.1 Introduction 201

10.2 Ecological Background 201

10.3 The Constitutive and Induced Defenses of Plants 203

10.3.1 Constitutive Defenses 203

10.3.2 Induced Direct Defenses 205

10.3.3 Induced Indirect Defenses 206

10.4 Wound Perception and Signaling 208

10.5 The Elm Leaf Beetle System 212

10.6 Bark Beetles and the Resin Defenses of Conifers 213

10.7 Other Pest Syndromes of Conifers 215

10.8 Genes and Pathways of Interest 217

10.8.1 The Biochemistry and Genetics of Plant Volatile Emission 217

10.8.2 The Biosynthesis of Terpenoids in Plants 218

10.8.3 Further Approaches for Identifying Other Genes of Interest 221

10.9 Advances in Understanding Tree Diseases from Introduced Novel Defensive Traits 223

10.10 Studies with Exotic Diseases 224

10.11 Conclusions 225

References 227

11 Fungal and Bacterial Resistance in Transgenic Trees

William A Powell, Charles A Maynard, Brian Boyle,

AND ARMAND SEGUIN 235

11.1 Introduction 235

11.2 Review of Current Approaches 236

11.2.1 Chitinases 236

11.2.2 Antimicrobial Peptides 237

11.2.2.1 Short Amphipathic Cationic Peptides 237

11.2.2.2 Cystein-rich Peptides 239

11.2.2.3 Attacins 240

11.2.3 Oxalate Oxidase 240

11.2.4 RNA Interference (RNAi or Post-transcriptional Gene

Silencing [PTGS]) 241

11.2.5 Plantibodies 242

11.2.6 Other Resistance-enhancing Transgenes 243

11.3 Next Steps 244

11.4 Conclusions 247

References 247

12 Genetically Modified Trees Expressing Genes for Insect Pest Resistance

Alma Balestrazzi, Gianni Allegro, and Massimo Confalonieri 253

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 The Insecticidal S-Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their Role in the Control of Insect Pests 256

12.2.1 Transfer of Bt Genes into Forest Tree Species 257

12.2.2 Transgenic Fruit Trees Expressing Bt Genes 259

12.3 Plant Proteinase Inhibitors: A Useful Tool for Plant Defence Against Insect Predation 259

12.3.1 Transfer of PI Genes into Forest and Fruit Trees 260

12.4 other Strategies to obtain Insect Resistance in Forest and Fruit Trees 262

12.5 Environmental Risk and Deployment Strategies for Genetically Engineered Insect-resistant Trees 263

12.5.1 Field Trials with Insect-resistant GM Trees 263

12.5.2 Toxicity and Allergenicity of Proteins Encoded by Genes for Insect Pest Resistance 264

12.5.3 Development of Target Pests Resistant to GM Trees 265

12.5.4 Emergence of New Pests Following GM Trees Deployment 266

12.6 Deleterious Effects on the Ecosystems 266

12.7 Horizontal Transfer of the Transgenes to Other Organisms 267

12.8 Conclusions 268

References 268

13 Towards Genetic Engineering for Drought Tolerance in Trees

Andrea Polle, Arie Altman, and Xiangning Jiang 275

13.1 Introduction 275

13.2 Water as a Central Molecule in Plant Physiology 275

13.3 Water as a Limiting Resource 276

13.4 Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective 277

13.4.1 ABA, MAPKK, Lipases, and Transcription Factors are Involved in Transmission of the Stress Signal 277

13.4.2 Drought Stress Requires Osmotic Adjustment 282

13.4.3 The Cells' Weapons to Prevent Drought-induced Injury 284

13.5 Profiling of Gene Expression and Protein Patterns: New Tools for Improving Drought Tolerance in Trees? 286

13.6 Conclusions 289

References 291

Part D Biosafety Issues

14 Genome Instability in Woody Plants Derived from Genetic Engineering

Hans Hoenicka and Matthias Fladung 301

14.1 Introduction 301

14.2 Genetic Engineering of Woody Plants 301

14.3 Genome Instability in Plants 302

14.3.1 Genome Instability Caused by Viruses and Repetitive

Elements in Plants 302

14.3.2 Polyploidy 304

14.4 Genome Instability in Transgenic Plants 305

14.4.1 Somaclonal Variation 305

14.4.2 Molecular Marker Analysis of Genome Instability in

Transgenic Plants 306

14.4.3 Transgene Silencing 306

14.4.4 Structure of T-DNA Insertion Locus 307

14.4.5 Recombination Between Transgenic Sequences, Viruses and Repetitive Elements 308

14.5 Transgene Stability in Woody Plants 309

14.5.1 Instability of Transgene Expression 310

14.5.1.1 Populus spp 310

14.5.1.2 Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X

Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) 311

14.5.1.3 Spruce (Picea mariana, P. glauca, P. abies) 311

14.5.1.4 Pinus radiata 312

14.5.2 Recombination Between Transgenic and Virus DNA/RNA 312

14.5.2.2 Prunus spp 313

14.6 Conclusions 314

References 314

15 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Transgenic Aspen to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

Uwe Nehls, Chi Zhang, Mika Tarkka, Rüdiger Hampp, and Matthias Fladung 323

15.1 Introduction 323

15.2 Horizontal Gene Transfer Between Plants and Microorganisms 324

15.3 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Horizontal Gene Transfer 325

15.3.1 What Makes Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Interesting with

Respect to Horizontal Gene Transfer? 325

15.3.2 investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Trees to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi under Laboratory Conditions 325

15.3.3 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Aspen to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi under Field Conditions 327

15.3.3.1 Experimental Site and Planting

Conditions of Aspen 327

15.3.3.2 Sampling and Analysis of Ectomycorrhizal

Biodiversity 328

15.3.3.3 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer 329

15.4 Conclusions 331

References 332

16 Transgenic Temperate Fruit Tree Rootstocks

Sergey V Dolgov and M-Viola Hanke 335

16.1 Introduction 335

16.2 overview of Genetic Transformation in Rootstocks 336

16.2.1 Malus Rootstocks 336

16.2.2 Pyrus and Prunus Rootstocks 342

16.2.3 Factors Affecting the Transformation Efficiency 342

16.3 Methodology of Rootstock Transformation and Results Obtained . . . 344

16.4 Field Tests of Transgenic Rootstocks 346

16.5 Conclusions 346

References 347

Index 351

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment