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Kindle Money Mastery

If you have ever wanted to be able to be an author for a living or as a side hobby, this is the online course for you! This course gives you access to all kinds of ebook and materials on how to make the most of the Amazon Kindle Store to make a huge amount of money! You don't need to be a creative genius, spend Hours on end writing, or even know how to use Kindle! All that you have to do is follow the instructions in this course by Stefan Pylarinos. Stefan built this course based on what he does for a living Every Single DAY. This is REAL information that has been perfected in a real business Why would this NOT work for you? This is how Stefan makes his money Why not you? Just think You can make living money writing Kindle books. And you can learn all about how to get started making money with K Money Mastery! Read more...

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Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this book, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I ordered a copy myself to figure out what all the fuss was about.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Metabolism of Extracellular Matrix

Types I, III and IV in the giant papillae might be viewed as a result of increased expression of cytokines and growth factors from EOS, MCs or other inflammatory cells which are known to stimulate resident FBs to overproduce ECM. Thus, in vitro VKC-derived FBs spontaneously produce collagen types I and III (Micera et al., unpublished data). The Th2-type IL-4 and -13 seem to control collagens I and III on normal FBs, whereas Th1-type derived IFN-g may have an inhibitory effect on FBs, according to other tissues 1 . Overproduction and deposition of collagens and tissue remodelling may be due to an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinas-es (MMPs) and their physiological inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs).Thus,MMP-1 and MMP-9 were found altered in the tear in VKC 28 . MMPs are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many physiological and pathologic processes, including progression of tumours, metastasis, inflammatory diseases, and wound healing, by...

Conclusion And Future Directions

The GATA FOG complex, however, is distinctive in two respects. First, FOG does not appear to contribute a typical activation domain (Tsang et al., 1997). Indeed, the principal role of FOG may be to recruit additional, as yet unknown, nuclear proteins via interaction with one or more of its available zinc fingers. Second, FOG does not appear to modulate the DNA-binding specificity of GATA-1. CASTing experiments using MEL cell nuclear extracts fail to demonstrate that a FOG GATA complex recognizes a subset of GATA consensus sequences (A.P.T. and S.H.O., unpublished data). If FOG's principal function is to couple GATA-1 to the transcriptional machinery, why might two cell-restricted proteins be necessary, when a single DNA-binding protein would, in principle, suffice While appearing unnecessarily complex, this strategy may afford an additional means of regulation. Transcription could be controlled at the level of the GATA FOG protein-protein interaction rather than by the binding of...

Functional Properties of Kcv Conductance in Heterologous Expression Systems

We have also tried to express the putative K+ channel protein-encoding gene from virus EsV-1 in both Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells. Although this protein resembles Kcv, it does not produce a K+ conductance in either system. Instead, it produces nonspecific and variable currents in both systems (M. Mehmel, unpublished results). Currently it is not possible to distinguish whether these currents are due to an EsV-1 induced conductance or if they result from overexpression of a foreign protein in these cells with the consequent upregulation of endogenous channels (see Barhanin et al., 1996 Coady et al., 1998 Kelly etal., 2003).

Kcv is Important for Viral Replication

Several observations are consistent with this hypothesis (a) Like other viruses which depolarize the host plasma membrane during infection (Boulanger and Letellier, 1988 Daugelavicius et al., 1997 Piller et al., 1998, 1999), PBCV-1 infection results in a rapid (within a few minutes) depolarization of the host plasma membrane as monitored by bisoxi-nol fluorescence (Mehmel et al., 2003). Depolarization is host specific and its time course is correlated with the number of infecting viruses. Destruction of the viral membrane with organic solvents prior to adding the virus to the host prevents host membrane depolarization (Mehmel et al., 2003). (b) The virus-induced membrane depolarization is correlated with an increase in host cell K+ conductance (Figure 2.3). That is, increasing the extracellular concentration of K-glutamate prior to virus infection has no obvious effect on bisoxinol fluorescence. This result suggests that the resting conductance of the host cell to K+ is low. However,...

Structure Of Botulinum Neurotoxin Light Chain E

Based on the crystal structure of BoNT E-LC, several mutations have been carried out at and near the active site (S. Swaminathan, unpublished results). When Glu212, which forms a hydrogen bond with the nucleophilic water, was mutated to Gln (Glu212Gln), it completely abolished the catalytic activity even at high concentrations of the mutant enzyme as was seen in BoNT A.5,19 Arg347Ala had pronouncedly reduced activity (about 20 of the wild-type), but it never completely abolished the activity and the residual activity increased at high concentrations. The effect of mutating Tyr347 (Tyr347Ala) was drastic. Mutating residues corresponding to Arg347 and Tyr350 reduced the catalytic activity in BoNT A,18 but did not completely abolish the activity. Surprisingly, Glu335Gln had a tremendous effect on the activity even at a very high concentration of the mutant protein Glu335Ala had about 20 residual activity at low concentrations, but gained higher level activity at higher concentrations.

Public Health Potential

Of Herba A. annua as a more affordable and accessible option for the early treatment of malaria in poor and remote areas of developing countries. This chapter represents the first step in this process and is mainly an overview of the published literature. There are probably many more unpublished sources to be explored. It is hoped to build on this review, and to use it to plan further clinical evaluation of A. annua for the treatment of malaria. Priorities for future research are summarised in Box 3.2.

Extraction of Microbial Cells from Environmental Matrices

An alternative method to disperse soil particles and dissociate microbial cells from soil, sediment or root parts involves the use of cation exchange resins. Shaking cf soil with, for instance, Dowex39 or Chdex-10029,40,41 is used to remove the bivalent and polyvalent cations responsible for electrostatic bonding between like-charged bacterial cells and soil particles. Detergents are also used to overcome adhesive interactions. A comparison of five different treatments (Fig. 3.2) showed that cell extraction could be improved by using Stomacher blending instead of shaking. Consistent results and a fairly rapid treatment were possible with the automated paddle action of the Stomacher. On the other hand, Lindahl and Bakken42 did not find any positive effect of the Chelex-100 treatment on cell extraction efficiency and, thus, recommended simple, threefold repeated, blending with water. Shaking in low-electrolyte concentrations, e.g. in distilled water, increases the interactive free...

Tightness of Tet Control

Considering the many futile (and therefore unpublished) attempts to shortcut the generation of Tet-regulated transgenic mice by coinjecting both transcription units, we cannot recommend this approach, even though several functional mouse lines obtained by this approach have been generated (Table 3). Moreover, it should be emphasized that well-characterized mouse lines express-

Kinetics of Induction and Longevity of Expression

An extension of the experiment shown in Fig. 7, in which luciferase in TALAP-1 LC-1 animals was repeatedly turned on and off and monitored noninvasively. The very same individuals were examined again after the luciferase gene had been switched off for over 3 months, and identical luciferase intensities and cycle times were observed (Schonig and Bujard, unpublished observations). Thus, if transcriptional silencing over time will be observed in some mouse lines, the present data suggest that such silencing is caused by sequences cointroduced with the Tet regulatory elements or to the particular site of integration.

Placental Transport And Metabolism Of Retinol During Mammalian Development

If the mammalian placenta is able to regulate the transfer of the retinoids from mother to the fetus, it also expresses several proteins with metabolic activities related to retinoids. In human placenta, a large number of enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of retinol into retinaldehyde are identified among them are the nonspecific ADH of class I (Estonius et al., 1996) or class III (Sharma et al., 1989). In the guinea pig, a low-ADH activity is detected in placenta throughout gestation (Card et al., 1989), like during late pregnancy in the rat (Zorzano and Herrera, 1989) or in the ewe (Clarke et al., 1989). Specific enzymes like RDH of the microsomal fraction are able to oxidize retinol in retinaldehyde in the human placenta (personal unpublished data). The human term placental tissues (and more precisely, the villous mesenchymal fibroblasts) are able to esterify retinol (Sapin et al., 2000). Nevertheless, the retinyl esters are never detected in human umbilical blood at delivery (Sapin...

Is the Case for Immediate Treatment Proved

The difference between disease-specific and overall survival has been noted, and discussed earlier. If the reduction or delay in prostate cancer deaths was counteracted by treatment-induced mortality, it should be apparent from an increased death rate from other causes, as was noted in the VACURG studies for patients receiving oestrogens 9 . No such excess of noncancer deaths was noted in MRC trial PR03 20,28 . Unpublished data from the Prostate Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group's meta-analysis confirms an excess death rate from estrogen treatment but not for patients treated with LHRH analogues or orchiectomy. To the body of evidence on hormonal treatment in advanced disease, we can now add one randomized study of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting.

Congenital toxoplasmosis

The conclusion that type II strains are most frequently responsible for congenital toxoplasmo-sis was drawn mainly from French data. In Spain, a first study from Fuentes et al. (2001) reported SAG2 type I strains in six out of eight cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. The clinical selection of mainly severe cases may explain this difference, particularly as, in a further report from Spain (Fuentes et al., 2004b), the proportion of SAG2 type II strain was higher (67 percent). However, it is likely that there will be geographical variations in strains associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. In countries of South America, such as Brazil, Colombia, or French Guiana, the majority of strains sampled to date in the environment are type I, atypical or recombinant strains (Ajzenberg et al., 2004 Ferreira et al., 2006). In the few reports from these countries, recombinant I III strains, type I or at least SAG2 type I strains were implicated in severe cases of congenital toxoplasmosis (Ferreira...

Physical Fractionation Methods

Or with a combination of both techniques. Fractions of particular interest are the particulate organic matter (or macroorganic matter) and the light fraction because of their high activity and turnover rates (but see comments on these fractions in Section 4.1). Particulate organic matter can be defined as the fraction of 53-2000 im (sand fraction) that is obtained by sieving, as in normal particle size analysis, but without pretreatments for the destruction of organic matter, carbonates and iron oxides (Gregorich and Ellert, 1993). The lower limit of the fraction differs between authors, e.g. 150 im (Meijboom et al., 1995) or 20 m (Feller et al., 1991a). The light fraction is normally obtained by density separation of soil in a liquid with a density of 1.4-2.0 g cm-3 (several organic and inorganic liquids are in use), in which organic particles that are not associated with soil minerals float, whereas those associated with mineral components sink (Gregorich and Ellert, 1993 Stevenson...

Assembly of T4 DNA Packaging Machine

DNA packaging activity and the gpl6-stimulated ATPase activity. The conservative mutants G165A, K166R, and T167A, showed a loss of in vitro DNA packaging activity but not the terminase (DNA cutting) activity. Thus, the two major functions of gpl7 can be separated leading to the inference that the ATPase I site is required for the DNA packaging function. Recent data further show that the mutants in the proposed downstream Walker-B (MIYID251-255) residues, which are also predicted to be part of the same ATPase center, exhibited the same phenotypic pattern (M. Mitchell and V. Rao, unpublished data).

Tali Protein Products And Interacting Proteins

Mice include Ldbl NLI (Grutz et al., 1998), and in T-ALL cells include Ldbl NLI and in some cases GATA-3 (Valge-Archer et al., 1998). As discussed below, these multiprotein complexes have a DNA-binding preference distinct from that ofTAL1 E2A heterodimers. In addition to LMO1 and LMO2, we have found that TAL1 also interacts with the transcriptional coac-tivators p300 (Huang et al., 1999) and p300 CBP-associated factor (P CAF) (unpublished) and with the transcriptional corepressors mSin3A (Huang and Brandt, 2000) and mSin3B (unpublished). Finally, TAL1 was reported to interact with a subunit of the basal transcription factor TFIIH (Zhao and Aplan, 1999) and the cytoplasmic GTP-binding protein DRG (Mahajan et al., 1996 Zhao and Aplan, 1998). The functional importance of these latter interactions have not yet been established.

Posttranslational Modifications

Histone acetyltransferases p300 (Huang et al., 1999) and P CAF (unpublished). Two other hematopoietic transcription factors, eryth-roid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) and GATA-1, similarly interact with transcriptional coac-tivators and are, in addition, substrates for their acetyltransferase activity (Boyes et al., 1998 Zhang and Bieker, 1998). Although TAL1 also appears to be acetylated by p300 and P CAF (unpublished), the specific lysines affected and the effect acetylation has on protein function are still under investigation.

Oncogenic Properties

The oncogenic properties of TAL1 have been studied primarily through its enforced expression in cell lines. Transduction of a pp47TALi cDNA into a human leukemic T-cell line not otherwise expressing TAL1 inhibited the apo-ptosis of these cells to certain chemotherapeutic agents and Fas CD95 cross-linking but not to serum depletion (Bernard et al., 1998). In contrast, transfection of TAL1-expressing Jurkat cells with a carboxy-terminal TAL1 truncation mutant that acted as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TAL1 DNA binding promoted apo-ptosis in response to serum deprivation but had no effect on etoposide- or Fas-triggered apopto-sis (Leroy-Viard et al., 1995). Enforced expression of TAL1 in the growth factor-dependent 32D cell line and the HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line (Condorelli et al., 1997) induced proliferation, particularly under suboptimal culture conditions, inhibited apoptosis, and blocked granulocytic differentiation of 32D cells and both granulocytic and monocytic...

Geographic Distribution

Penicillium marneffei was first isolated in 1956 and identified in 1959 from a bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) found in the highlands of central Vietnam. (J Med Vet Mycol 1986 24 383-389). The first accidental human infection was reported in 1959 by Segretain ( Mycopathol Mycol Appl 1959 11 327-353). However, the first natural infection in humans appeared in 1973 in a patient who underwent splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease. Penicillium marneffei appears to be endemic to southeast Asia, southern China, and Hong Kong. Recently, there have been reports of Penicillium marneffei endemic among AIDS patients from northern Thailand (Lancet 1994 344 110-113). Unpublished data revealed that there may be as many as 1,000 cases diagnosed and treated from 1991 to 1996. Among those cases reported from the U.K., France, Italy, the Netherlands, U.S.A. and Australia, the patients invariably had travelled to the endemic area. There have been more than 20 reported cases of disseminated penicilliosis in...

Nitrogen mineralization

As cut-off roots cannot be removed before incubating undisturbed samples, errors in nitrogen mineralization measurements could occur because coarse woody roots continue taking up nitrogen, or because nitrogen is immobilized during microbial decomposition of root tissue (Raison et al., 1987). Bauhus (1998) did not find indications for the latter process when using the method in a European beech forest (microbial biomass nitrogen was not increased in the incubated samples), although consistent negative mineralization rates in pasture in Brazil and woody vegetation in Zimbabwe indicate that microbial immobilization of nitrogen is a problem where large amounts of poor-quality organic matter are present (K.E. Giller, unpublished data).

Studies Relating Very Low Meat Intake To Longevity

In this section, the current published evidence from prospective cohort studies in which meat intake was related to all-cause mortality is critiqued and reviewed. Previously unpublished data from California Seventh-Day Adventists, a cohort with a high prevalence of people following meatless diets, have also been included. The data from both cohort studies allowed the following previously unpublished analyses Fraser96 recently reported that, among Californian Seventh-Day Adventists, vegetarians were substantially more likely to have never smoked cigarettes or used alcohol, and to have no prevalent chronic disease. To account for potential confounding by these factors, ever-smokers, alcohol users, and subjects with history of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer were excluded from the previously unpublished analysis of Seventh-Day Adventists given in this chapter.

Intravesical Immunotherapy and Recurrence Progression Rates

Although the long-term response rates with BCG are less enduring, the reduction in recurrence appears to be better than the rates achieved using most chemotherapy agents. This superiority is supported by comparative studies of BCG and anthracycline agents, which suggest that BCG has a roughly twofold advantage over Adriamycin and epirubicin (with an overall BCG tumor recurrence rate reduction of approximately 30 ) 51 . In contrast, trials comparing MMC directly with BCG have been less consistent in outcome, and passionately debated. Of the published comparative MMC-BCG studies, three have suggested that MMC may have therapeutic equivalence to BCG for patients with low risk stage pTa and lower grade 1 and 2 tumors 52-54 . The inter- and cross-trial inconsistencies (inclusion criteria) and the interpretation of clinical and pathological factors have compounded the problems of analyses. However, in each of these three studies, the BCG schedules used were suboptimal. The...

Identification Of Eklf

Miller and James J. Bieker, unpublished). Specifically, murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells provided the erythroid mRNA sample, and the J774 mono-cyte-macrophage cell line provided the subtracting mRNA sample. This removed 99 of MEL mRNA from consideration. The remaining material was directly cloned and sorted by a combination of cross-hybridization analysis of arrays of individual clones and gradual elimination of those clones that were most abundantly expressed. This left only 17 clones that represented almost all of the 1500 primary clones in the subtracted library. Most of these were related to Friend virus genes, metabolic clones (e.g., carbonic anhydrase), and transcription factors (e.g., c-Myb and GATA1), but some clones were novel at the time. A Northern blot analysis of adult murine tissues directed the focus to one particular clone uniquely expressed in bone marrow and spleen. Further analysis of this clone (EKLF) indicated that it was...

Numbers of hollows in trees

The total number of hollows in a tree has consistently been identified as a variable associated with occupancy. Significant positive associations between the number of visible hollows in trees and occupancy have been found for arboreal marsupials in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Lindenmayer etal. 1991e, 1996a), the Common Brushtail Possum near Melbourne (Wood and Wallis 1998 b), four species of hole-nesting birds in Tasmania (Taylor and Savva 1988), the Australian Owlet-nightjar (Brigham etal. 1998), the Broad-headed Snake (Webb and Shine 1997) and the New Zealand Long-tailed Bat (Cbalinolobus tuberculatus) (Sedgeley and O'Donnell 1999). Kehl and Borsboom (1984) noted that seven of nine primary den trees used by the Greater Glider had multiple hollows. Pope (unpublished data) similarly found that primary den sites used by this species occurred in trees with relatively more hollows. This variable was significant even in generic models for a variety of taxa, such as for arboreal...

Social Skills Training For Schizophrenia

These early studies, however, were hampered by poor methodology. Most importantly, many concerned ''chronic psychiatric patients'', and used poorly specified mixtures of patients. This limits the extent to which research findings can be summarized into a coherent whole. For example, in the widely cited meta-analysis by Benton and Schroeder 112 , only 41 of the studies reviewed restricted their sample population to patients with schizophrenia only, and many of these studies were unpublished. Similarly, even in studies restricted to patients with schizophrenia, the method by which this diagnosis was reached was rarely standardized or even specified.

Wound Healing in Mice Deficient in TGFa

As already described, the inhibition of KGF receptor signaling in basal keratinocytes of transgenic mice caused a severe delay in reepithelialization (15). However, the wounds in these animals finally healed (unpublished finding), demonstrating the presence of other epithelial mitogens in the wound that can at least partially compensate for the defect in KGF receptor signaling.

Modification of Cellulose Fibre via Hormone Genes

When the GA20-oxidase gene is over-expressed in transgenic poplar, elongated shoot growth (Fig. 6.1a) with increased biomass production was observed (Huang et al. 1998 Eriksson et al. 2000 Biemelt et al. 2004). These characteristics were positively correlated with rate of photosynthesis (Biemelt et al. 2004), early flowering and decreased seed dormancy (Huang et al. 1998), and small leaves (Fladung, unpublished). Detailed investigations on gene expression alterations in wood-forming tissue of GA20-oxidase over-expressing trees showed that highest transcript changes occurred in genes generally involved in the early stages of xylogenesis, e.g. cell division, early and late expansion (Israelsson et al. 2003). Eriksson et al. (2000) Fladung, unpublished

Phenotypic Plasticity

In general, weeds are thought to have a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, although there are relative few studies that clearly demonstrate this (D.R. Clements et al., unpublished observations). Pheno-typically plastic weeds are able to mature and reproduce under a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectablis) can reproduce in heavy shade even though it is substantially smaller in the shade (Patterson, 1982). This species can also produce seed under a range of temperatures in spite of decreased size and biomass. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) showed extreme plasticity among six cohorts planted from March to September. While vegetative biomass was over 3000 g in early cohorts and less than 25 g in a later cohort, late cohorts still flowered - although the number of flowers plant was reduced from 10,000 to less than 100. Although the allocation of resources to reproduction may be genetically controlled, it is influenced...

Outward signs of occupancy

Although signs of chewing and scratch marks are evidence of occupancy, these signs should not be the sole basis for identifying trees, or hollows, occupied by fauna. Of 201 occupied hollows observed in tall forests, only 26 had obvious wear around their entrance (Gibbons unpublished data). Selecting trees only on the basis of evidence of visible wear will be biased

Cochleate Delivery Vehicles

The protection of encochleated materials and structural stability of the cochleate allows for efficient delivery of proteins and polynucleotides in vivo by various routes. These include mucosal oral, intragastric (ig), intranasal (in), and intraocular (io) , and parenteral intramuscular (im), subcutaneous (sc), intraperitoneal (ip), and intradermal (id) , routes of administration (14-19, and unpublished).

Hematopoiesis and Immune Function

To determine whether prolactin is required for any aspect of hematopoiesis of immune function the phenotypes of prolactin-knockout and prolactin-R-knockout mice have been analyzed in detail (17,63). In prolactin-knockout mice, we have showed that the primary development of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages was unaltered when prolactin-deficient mice were compared with their normal counterparts. Subsequently, we have examined secondary immune responses, and shown similarly that prolactin-knockout mice are normal with respect to immune functions (unpublished data). Similarly, prolactin-R-knockout mice have normal development of immune cells, and normal responses in terms of antibody synthesis, and mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and other measures of innate and acquired immunity (63).

Preparation Of Extracts For Antimalarial Screening

Has shown that the active constituents would be located in the polar fraction. These results, as yet unpublished, clearly show that we would have missed interesting compound(s) if we restricted our work to easily isolated alkaloids without taking into consideration the traditional preparation as used by the local population.

Hox Expression In The Murine Model

Of Hox genes in adult murine hematopoietic cells. Expression of Hoxa7 and Hoxb7 was found in the marrow and spleen of adult mice (Kongsuwan et al., 1988). To test for conservation of patterns of Hox gene expression between human and murine hematopoietic cells, we examined expression of two 3' genes, Hoxa4 and Hoxb4, and two 5' genes, Hoxa9 and Hoxa10, in purified hematopoietic subpopulations. All four genes were expressed in adult murine bone marrow and fetal liver cells. In addition, all four Hox genes were detected in rare Sca-1 + lineage cells that include hematopoietic stem cells. Significantly lower levels were found in progenitor depleted fractions (e.g., Sca-1-lin+) (Pineault et al., 1997 N. Pineault and R. K. Humphries, unpublished observations).

The DNA Packaging Assay and Provisional Packaging Events

Provisional events of 029 DNA packaging are illustrated in Figure 6. We begin with a description of the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, which has a maturation pathway for packaging that is independent of prohead assembly. 7 Supercoiling of the packaging substrate occurs by gp3-dependent (but sequence independent) formation of a lariat, binding of multiple copies of gpl6 to the lariat loop junction, and supercoiling of the lariat loop by concerted gp3-gpl6 action (Fig. 6A). The prohead then binds to the lariat loop of the supercoiled DNA-gp3-gpl6 (not to the tail of the lariat), as observed by electron microscopy (Fig. 6B unpublished). The supercoiled DNA-gp3-gpl6 is shown wrapped around the connector, a projection of our finding that the prohead connector wraps supercoiled plasmid DNA, reducing the DNA contour length (unpublished). Thus the connector of the prohead behaves as free connectors, which wrap supercoiled plasmid DNA around the outside to reduce DNA contour length and restrain...

Localizing Bacteria in situ

As illustrated above, bacteria marked with GFP can dearly be visualized in situ, allowing identification of the environmental niche they occupy. One research area that has greatly benefited from the use of GFP has been the localization of plant-associated bacteria. An example of the use of GFP as a marker to localize specific bacteria directly on plant surfaces is shown in Fig. 7.1. In this study, the biocontrol strain P. chlororaphis MA 342, which controls fungal disease on cereal crops, was chromosomally tagged with two copies of the Gfp gene to enhance GFP fluorescence, and enabling visualization of the pattern of colonization of the cells on barley seeds by fluorescence stereomicroscopy and confocal microscopy (Fig. 7.1).49 We have also used bacteria marked with a transposon containing GFP to monitor the interactions between rice roots and endophytic bacteria (Stoltzfus and de Bruijn, unpublished data). Moreover, Gage et al used confocal microscopy to monitor early events in...

Competitive Intelligence

Competitive intelligence (CI) is defined as accurate and timely strategic analysis of published and unpublished data that is collected and organized on a continuing basis.'' This intelligence offers a glimpse at what an organization's competitors are doing and where the organization itself stands relative to those activities, and it identifies potential opportunities as well as threats to the organization's business.

Production of Retrovirus by Transient Transfections

In addition, establishing and identifying the desired producer cells can take up to a month. In contrast, transient transfection of 293 cell-based systems can produce viral super-natants with 105-106 cfu mL titers. Furthermore, the time required for production is greatly shortened to a few days. Several 293-based packaging cell lines with ecotropic env proteins (BOSC and NX.Eco) and amphotropic env proteins (BING and NX.Am) have been developed (4,18,21), P. Achacoso and G. P. Nolan, unpublished) that can be directly transfected with a retroviral vector DNA to yield viral supernatants. Alternatively, 293 or 293T cells can be cotrans-fected with a retroviral vector DNA and helper DNAs to generate viral particles (19,20).

Genetic Basis of Adult Male Germ Cell Transformation

Thus, analogous to cyclin D1 in breast cancer, elevated expression of cyclin D2 as a result of increased 12p copy number may have oncogenic potential in a cell that has previously expressed this D-type cyclin during its life span. However, 12p comprises approximately 35 mega-base pair (Mbp) of DNA, and microarray-based studies have now provided a platform in which many expressed sequences mapped to 12p can be assayed for overexpression in GCTs. Compiling both published and unpublished microarray data using complementary DNA (cDNA) EST arrays 14,15 and oligonucleotide arrays (our unpublished data), the expression of 247 cDNAs Expressed Sequence Tags, (ESTs) mapped to 12p have been evaluated in GCT specimens relative to that of normal testis to date. Of these, 24 showed overexpression in > 70 of tumors evaluated within a specific study and included CCND2 (Fig. 19.1). Additional functional studies are required to evaluate the roles of these genes in GC biology and transformation.

Time domain reflectometry TDR

Used the method together with neutron scattering to analyse plant water use and deep drainage in a silvopastoral experiment with pines in New Zealand. V.L. Grime and F.L. Sinclair (unpublished) used the technique together with gravimetric methods in a large agroforestry experiment with dispersed trees and sorghum on vertisolic soils on the edge of the Sahel in northern Nigeria, while Wallace (1996) has used TDR in semiarid conditions in Kenya and Teixeira (2001) in tree-crop agroforestry in central Amazonia.

Summary And Conclusions

Over the last several years, uterine artery embolization, an invasive radiologic technique for controlling bleeding from fibroids, has gained popularity. In the U.S., approximately 50 of these procedures were performed in 1996 but more than 800 in 1998, with more practitioners offering the procedure each year. For this project, we performed a literature search and systematically reviewed the 17 reports (16 published and one unpublished) with interpretable patient level data on the use UAE to treat symptomatic fibroids. These reports were all uncontrolled case series (USPTF Level III evidence) and involved a total of 728 patients (including 305 in the unpublished series). 8 figure represents exclusion of a single large unpublished study and a report which may represent duplication of patients from another study,25 includes these studies. 1999 (unpublished)

Theories From The Last Half Of The Twentieth Century

Since the original formulation of the activation-synthesis hypothesis, data from neurophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, dream recall content, and postmodern literary theory has added to the specification of the synthesis component (Stickgold, unpublished manuscript). The bizarreness in dreams has been found to be not entirely random. Rather, there are rules that restrain the transformation of objects into other objects and determine the degree of plot continuity. Analysis of dream content shows that people tend to morph into other living things but not inanimate objects and vice versa. Furthermore, people are more likely to morph into other people than into animals, rocks into chairs than into flowers. Also, the memories that are sequentially activated during dreaming tend to be associated, resulting in immediate plot coherence, but the memories non-sequentially activated during dreaming are not so associated, resulting in strange twists and turns in the plot when the dream is...

Parents and Coping with Worry

Families In an unpublished study, (Vasey, Hilliker, Williams & Daleiden, 1993) cited in Vasey and Daleiden (1994), it is reported that parents of worried children differed from the parents of control children in the types of coping strategies that they thought children should use to control their worries. In particular, the parents of the worried children appeared to endorse avoidance and distraction strategies more strongly than the parents of the controls.

Can Physical Activity Prevent Weight Gain

The application of these prospective, observational findings need to be apply to interventions to have a meaningful impact on weight gain prevention. In fact, Sherwood et al. (11) reported that an increase in physical activity was predictive of prevention of weight gain. Moreover, preliminary data are available from an ongoing clinical trial that is being conducted in our research center. Results indicated that an increase in physical activity (150 to 300 min wk) resulted in prevention of weight gain or modest weight loss (1-2 kg) in approx 60 of overweight adults (BMI 25.0-29.9), with change in fitness predictive of prevention of weight gain (unpublished data).

Protein trafficking to the apicoplast

Both the signal and transit regions of the N-terminal extension of NEAT proteins are required to target a reporter to the apicoplast (Figure 9.6) deletion of either region results in mis-targeting. Without a transit sequence, the S9 signal sequence targets GFP for secretion (DeRocher et al., 2000 Yung et al., 2001), indicating that the reporter protein had entered the secretory system. Similar work in P. falciparum showed that the N-terminal region of ACP is able to target GFP for secretion (Waller et al., 2000). The signal sequences for these proteins do not appear any different from those of proteins targeted to other destinations in the secretory system. Indeed, in unpublished studies mentioned by Roos et al. (1999), replacing the endogenous signal sequence with one from a heterologous secretory protein did not alter targeting to the apicoplast. Without a signal sequence, the S9 transit peptide directs GFP to the mitochondrion (Figure 9.6), while a cytosolic localization is seen...

Transgenic Expression of SV40 TAntigens

The targeted expression of oncogenes with tissue-specific promoters has led to new insights into the molecular basis of tumorigenesis, and has provided a source of several novel differentiated cell lines from transgenic mice (33-36). Based on our characterization of the POMC gene promoter, we have expressed two forms of the simian virus SV40-Large T antigen in pituitary corticotrophs and melanotrophs. Several independent pedigrees were generated using wild-type SV40Tag, and tumors were consistently induced in the pituitary gland as predicted, and also in the thymus gland with incomplete penetrance of the phenotype (37). One representative line (no. 427) has been outbred to the CD-1 genetic background for 27 consecutive generations. The incidence of thymic tumors decreased after several generations, and no such tumors have been observed in the last 10 generations. These results suggest that epistatic interactions with gene alleles from the original B6D2 genetic background were...

Treg in Murine Tumors

In transgenic mice carrying the Her-2 neu under the MMTV promoter, the oncogene is a self-antigen. Although progressing tumor induces Treg expansion (Ambrosino, 2006 and our unpublished observation), natural Treg seem to have no role during earlier immunosurveillance (Chiodoni et al., 2006).

Apicoplast metabolism

Acyl carrier protein, part of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, was one of the first proteins recognized to be targeted to the apicoplast (Waller et al., 1998). The type II pathway, typical of plants and algae, is mediated by a series of individual enzymes, all of which have been identified in the P. falciparum and T. gondii genomes. In contrast, the type I pathway used by mammals is mediated by a single, large multidomain molecule. Scans of the T. gondii genome database indicate that the parasites also contain a gene encoding a protein related to this multidomain molecule (cited as Crawford and Roos, unpublished, in Wiesner and Seeber, 2005). While it is clear that T. gondii can take up fatty acids from the host cell and perhaps utilize the type I pathway to synthesize additional fatty acids, new data indicate that the type II pathway is essential (Bisanz et al., 2006). Thiolactomycin, which inhibits the type II pathway for fatty acid synthesis in bacteria, can inhibit...

Quality Control and Biochemical Characterization

Most of the problems concerning ISCOMs arise from when antigens that incorporate poorly (or not at all) are used and the resulting preparation is tested in animals without the required analyses of the final product. In the literature, we see several examples of poor or toxic ISCOMs, most likely resulting from problems with insufficient antigen incorporation, i.e., ISCOMs with a very high ratio (up to 100-fold) of Quillaja saponin to antigen. However, by analyzing the final ISCOMs to establish the antigen to Quil-A ratio, also suboptimal ISCOM preparations can be safely tested in laboratory animals. Special attention must be given to preparations for use in mice. Mice, in general, are sensitive to saponins but there is a great strain variation. Also, the mode of administration to mice plays a decisive role. Intravenous (iv) and intraperito-neal (ip) routes of administration should preferably be avoided, if used however, the dose of ISCOMs should be reduced to about 10 of that suitable...

Null Mutations in the POMC Gene

Genetic linkage studies and quantitative trait loci analyses have strongly implicated the human POMC gene locus as an important determinant of weight homeostasis in various ethnic populations, although specific alleles associated with obesity have not yet been demonstrated (77,78). A small number of children with severe, early-onset obesity have been found to have mutations in the POMC gene that result in decreased gene expression (79). A wealth of data indicates a critical role of POMC-derived melanocortins and the MC4-R in the anorexigenic actions of POMC, although opioid peptides also affect food consumption and food choice (80-82). Interestingly, p-endorphin-deficient mice exhibit a sexually dimorphic obesity phenotype caused by increased white fat mass in males (our unpublished data). Therefore, multiple mechanisms may be involved in regulation of food intake and caloric expenditure, even from a single prohormone precursor that is expressed in a highly specific small subset of...

MI Studies Targeting Pediatric Obesity

The Healthy Lifestyles Study (HLS) (unpublished data) and Go Girls was conducted in 2004-2005 as a partnership of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Dietetic Association. The primary aim of the HLS pilot was to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of pediatrician and dietitian MI counseling for preventing childhood obesity in primary care pediatrics. Study sites were members of the AAP Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) network, which is a practice-based research network established by the AAP in 1986 (55). Fifteen PROS practices were randomly assigned to one of three conditions control minimal intervention or intensive intervention. Five practices were allocated to each arm. The intervention phase lasted 6 mo. Each of the 15 PROS practices was asked to recruit 10 patients. Subject eligibility included children ages 3 to 7 yr with either a BMI-for-age-and-sex between the 85th and 95th...

Established p53 inhibitors in the p53 dissociator assay

Low-risk HPV, unable to cause cervical cancers or to induce p53 degradation, was inactive in the p53 dissociator assay (Figure 2B). Western blot analysis for p53 in the presence of high-risk HPV E6 and E6-AP showed decreased p53 protein levels as compared to the controls suggesting that the two proteins induced degradation of p53 also in yeast (Figure 2C). Experiments with two E6-AP mutants with mutations in cysteine 833 (provided by J. Huibregtse, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ) confirmed that the thioester bond between E6-AP and ubiquitin was essential for the FoaR phenotype in yeast (Figure 2D Brachmann and Boeke, unpublished data). Similar results were obtained with an assay in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that utilized the principle of p53 counterselection through the p53-dependent ura4+ reporter gene 99 .

P53 dissociator screens to identify proteins important for p53 biology

Besides a large group of proteins without connection to p53 biology in the literature, several established p53-interacting proteins were isolated. This included the known inhibitor of p53, MDM2 101 . High-risk HPV E6 was also isolated when a screen was performed in the presence of E6-AP with a cDNA expression library from HeLa cells, a cervical cancer cell line known to express E6 and other HPV proteins (see Figure 2 Brachmann, and Boeke unpublished data). Besides p53 inhibitors, the screens also isolated 53BP1, a protein that physically interacts with the p53 core domain and that, in mammalian assays, can enhance p53 activity 43, 44 .

Pathology and Lifespan

In females (45), development of mammary tumors in some of the males (45, and unpublished observations), and massive age-related hypertrophy and hyperplasia of male accessory reproductive glands (46). Interestingly, enlargement of seminal vesicles in aged MT-hGH males was associated with a profound reduction in the number of androgen receptors (ARs) in this tissue (46). It is very well-documented that transgenic mice that overexpress GH do not live as long as their normal siblings (47,48 review in 49). The reduction of the lifespan is generally inversely related to the level of transgene expression, and more pronounced in animals expressing hGH than in those expressing bGH or rGH (29,45, and unpublished observations). Shortening of the lifespan in GH-transgenic mice can be very dramatic. In some of the lines, very few males and only an occasional female survive to the age of 1 yr, while most of their normal siblings live 2 to 2V2 yr (45, and unpublished data). Reduced lifespan of...

Comparisons of the Effects of GH Overexpression with the Effects of Overexpression of GHRH or IGFI

Of endogenous (mouse, m) GH levels in peripheral circulation (54). Phenotypic characteristics of MT hGHRH animals generally resemble those of GH-transgenic mice, and include increased body size, splanchnomegaly, reproductive deficits, alterations in hypothalamic neurotransmitters and in regulation of gonadotropin release, and reduced life span (54,54a Chandrashekar and Bartke, unpublished observations). Moreover, concentrations of tachykinins in the anterior pituitary are elevated in these animals (54b). The similarity in the effects of elevation of endogenous GH to the effects of overexpression of bGH in transgenic mice is consistent with the evidence that bGH binds to the murine GHR but not to the PRL-R, and thus mimics the effects of mGH (22,55,56).

Endoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria possess a high capacity to sequester Ca2+, although under physiologic conditions the total mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and free Ca2+ reflect and parallel cytosolic Ca2+. The inner mitochon-drial membrane possesses a uniport carrier for Ca2+, which allows the electrogenic entry of the cation driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by respiration or ATP hydrolysis. Calcium efflux, on the other hand, takes place by a different pathway, which appears to catalyze the electroneutral exchange of internal calcium by external sodium or protons. Biochemical evidence for mitochon-drial Ca2+ uptake is available in malaria parasites (Uyemura et al., 2000), and preliminary evidence suggests the presence of a uniport mechanism in T. gondii (Vercesi and Moreno, unpublished observations). Unlike the mammalian mitochondria, where intracellular Ca2+ regulates the activity of several dehydrogenases, no such Ca2+-regulated dehydrogenases have been reported in T. gondii. Figure 10.2...

Versatile Application of Transfer by Karl Matings

New recipient strains with desired genetic properties can be constructed by introducing the cloned karlAlS allele using two-step gene replacement methods (18 and Chapter 18). LYS2- and t M3-based integrating plas-mids suitable for this purpose have been generated (E. Vallen and M. Rose, unpublished 14).

Pmlpmlrara Plzfplzfrara and the Expression of p21

Our laboratory has conducted several new studies that may contribute to the overall understanding of the mechanisms of APL. Specifically, we determined the transcriptional effects of PML and PML-RARa or PLZF and PLZF-RARa on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced transcriptional activation in transient transfection assays. PML-RARa expressed in CV-1 cells effectively blocks ligand-dependent transcription of a VDRE-containing reporter gene. PLZF-RARa also blocks transcription of this reporter but to a much lesser extent. PML alone or RARa alone was not sufficient to account for the loss in transcription, supporting earlier work suggesting that the entire fusion protein was necessary for abrogated differentiation. In contrast to previously published work, overexpression of exogenous RXR could not rescue the loss of 1,25(OH)2D3-induced transcriptional activation in the presence of PML-RARa. Interestingly, squelching of 1,25(OH)2D3-activated transcription caused by expression of RARa alone could be rescued...

Transgenic Models of GH Resistance

MT-bGH-Ant mice of both sexes can reproduce, but their fertility is suppressed with deficits in litter size and postnatal survival of the pups. Turnover of dopamine in the median eminence region of the hypothalamus is reduced, but plasma prolactin levels and prolactin responses to pharmacological blockade of catecholamine synthesis are not altered (Steger and Bartke, unpublished). Although most GH-R-knockout males and females can reproduce, their reproductive potential is significantly suppressed. Males exhibit reduced copulatory behavior, an increased interval between mating and conception, and increased incidence of infertility, and sire smaller litters than their normal counterparts (102,103, Danilovich, Wernsing, and Bartke, unpublished data). In female GH-R-knockout mice, puberty is delayed, but can be significantly advanced by injections of IGF-I (104). Moreover, the estrous cycle tends to be irregular, and litter size is reduced, apparently reflecting reduced ovulation rate,...

Tobacco Etch Virus TEV

RTM2 was mapped to a position on chromosome 5, cloned, and found to encode an unusual small heat shock-like protein (smHSP). The predicted RTM2 protein comprises an a-crystallin domain (characteristic of small molecular weight HSPs), a potential transmembrane domain, and an extensive C-terminal extension not found in other smHSPs (Whitham et al. 2000). RTM2 is not induced by heat shock and does not contribute to thermotoler-ance in heat shock assays, indicating that it has other functions within the plant. As with the RTM1 protein, the direct activity of RTM2 protein is not known. A third locus designated RTM3 was also isolated among Col-0 mutants that supported TEV systemic movement however, this gene has not yet been cloned (S. Whitham, M. Yamamoto, and J.C. Carrington, unpublished). From these studies, systemic resistance to TEV infection is dependent on at least three RTM proteins that directly or indirectly interact with TEV-encoded proteins that facilitate long-distance...

Function of 6K During the Alphavirus Life Cycle

The acquisition and analysis of a number of variants of alphavirus, defective in 6K function, have helped to elucidate its role during the virus life cycle. These studies have yielded evidence indicating that 6K may be considered an accessory protein, since defective 6K virions can be obtained, albeit in small amounts (Liljestrom et al., 1991 Loewy et al., 1995 Sanz et al., unpublished results). Although 6K protein provides the cleavage sites in the

Profiling of Gene Expression and Protein Patterns New Tools for Improving Drought Tolerance in Trees

To find common drought-responsive candidate genes in Arabidopsis and trees, we have extended this analysis and compared the list of 27 genes (Bray 2004) with two studies on expression profiling in trees, i.e. pine (Watkinson et al. 2003) and poplar (Bogeat-Triboulot et al., unpublished). None of the Table 13.1. Genes induced in common when expression patterns are compared between three different water-deficit stress conditions done in different laboratories for Arabidopsis (Seki et al. 2001 Kreps et al. 2002 Kawaguchi et al. 2004) as compiled by Bray (2004), pine (Watkinson et al. 2003) and poplar (Bogeat-Triboulot et al., unpublished). The genes are grouped by potential functional categories. Only genes analysed in leaves are compared

Trafficking of micronemes through the secretory pathway

New light has been shed on the sorting signals of MIC3, by complementation of a mic3KO (El Hajj and Lebrun, unpublished). Deletion of the N-terminal propeptide caused mistargeting to the PV, showing that the MIC3 pro-sequence contains microneme targeting information. In addition to the propeptide, each one of the three EGF domains is sufficient for MIC3 delivery to micronemes. Also, both the dimerization of MIC3 and the chitin-binding-like sequence which are crucial for host-cell binding are dispensable for proper targeting. These findings suggest that the two elements, propeptide and EGF-like domain, probably function in different steps in the microneme pathway. Since the propeptide suppresses the receptor binding activity of MIC3's chitin-binding-like domain (CBL) (Cerede et al., 2002), this element may facilitate trafficking by preventing inappropriate association of MIC3 with other parasite proteins early in the pathway. Alternatively, the MIC3 propeptide may function by binding...

Genome Instability in Transgenic Plants

A similar approach was initiated by Fladung and Hoenicka for Populus-aspen transformed with A. tumefaciens (unpublished). One non-transformed control line Esch5 and four independent transgenic lines carrying the 35S-rolC gene construct (Fladung et al. 1997) were included in the study. In respect to the structure of the T-DNA insertion locus, integrated T-DNA borders as well as T-DNA-flanking genomic sequences in the four transgenic lines were previously described (Fladung 1999 Kumar and Fladung 2001, 2002). Three of these transgenic lines contained one single copy of the transgene (Esch5 35S-rolC) while the fourth line harboured an inverted repeat resulting in morphological instability (Esch5 35S-rolC-1) (Fladung 1999). In the AFLP study with the 5 aspen lines, in total, 30 primer-enzyme combinations were tested from which 26 combinations revealed reproducible AFLP patterns (Fladung and Hoenicka, unpublished). Each primer-enzyme combination was repeated at least three times and only...

Proteolytic cleavages during invasion

The most C-terminal cleavage of M2AP is not blocked by ALLN, suggesting the presence of a distinct proteolytic activity, MPP3 (Zhou et al., 2004). Although MPP2 and MPP3 processing events have been proposed to regulate adhesive activity (Carruthers and Blackman, 2005), this hypothesis not been tested. Interestingly, parasites lacking SUB1 are devoid of MPP2 and MPP3 activity, based on analysis of MICs secreted from SUB1 KO parasites (Binder, Carruthers and Kim, unpublished). Whether SUB1 is directly responsible for MPP2 and or MPP3 activities or indirectly regulates these proteases is under active investigation.

Get at Least an Hour Each Day of Physical Activity

It is very difficult to maintain a significant weight loss without a lot of physical activity. NWCR participants are physically active and report an average of about 1 h per day of physical activity, or about 11,000 steps d. Further, we have found that the more weight lost, the more physical activity reported (unpublished). The literature is consistent in that high levels of physical activity are perhaps the best predictor of long-term

Biogenesis of rhoptries and traffic of ROPs in the secretory pathway

As for MICs, tyrosine-based sorting is not applicable to soluble rhoptry proteins. Mapping of the domains involved in targeting of soluble ROP1 involved two domains, the propeptide of ROP1 and a central peptide (Bradley and Boothroyd, 2001 Striepen et al., 2001). An escorter process similar to that used for soluble MICs proteins has not been described for rhoptries in T. gondii, but exists in Plasmodium, in which soluble rhoptry proteins RAP2 and RAP3 form an oligomeric complex with the transmembrane RAP1 protein (Baldi et al., 2000). In the course of identification of signals responsible for sorting into specific compartments with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based motif-trap, Bradley and colleagues have shown that a ROP4-GFP fusion lacking the two previously identified targeting signals (a dileucine and YXX motif) is correctly delivered to rhoptries (Bradley et al., 2004). Similarly, ROP17 and ROP18, two others members of the ROP2 family, localize to rhoptries although they do...

Evidence Against a Role of Hybrid Insulin Igf1 Receptors in Embryonic Growth

Are mediated by holodimeric IR (composed of two a- and two P-subunits) or by heterodimeric receptors composed by an IR a p monomer and an Igf1r-a p monomer. Evidence that hybrid receptors do not play a significant role in growth-promoting interactions during murine embryogenesis is derived from studies of transgenic knockout mice in which kinase-inactive IR have been expressed in a null-IR background (D. Lauro and D. Accili, unpublished observations). The rationale for this experiment is that, if kinase-inactive IR engage in dimer formation with Igflr, they should yield inactive hybrid receptors and produce a dominant negative inhibition of Igf2 action during development, resulting in dwarf mice. The results of this experiment indicate that hybrid receptors composed of an IR monomer and an Igf1r monomer are indeed present in embryos of transgenic knockout mice. Nevertheless, the growth of these mice is not impaired compared with IR-deficient mice. Thus, it is unlikely that hybrid...

Sampling of Macrofauna the TSBF Methodology Sampling designs

A method for the collection of soil macrofauna in the field, which had originally been proposed by Lavelle (1988), has been adapted to the needs of the TSBF (Anderson and Ingram, 1993) and has recently been re-evaluated and improved within the Macrofauna Programme of the International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY D. Bignell et al., unpublished). The original sampling design comprised ten samples of 25 cm x 25 cm and 30 cm depth, distributed every 5 m along a transect chosen on a random basis. A problem with this design has been the strongly aggregative distribution of most invertebrate groups in the field, which results in high variance and creates autocorrelation among the sampling points. To avoid this problem, it is now recommended that the distance between sampling points is increased, whenever possible, to at least 20 m.

Developing farmers criteria for evaluating soil erosion

Farmers' knowledge about soils and soil-related processes has been found to be quite consistent across farming communities, especially with similar agro-climatic conditions. A study in Nepal (P.K. Shrestha, unpublished) shows consistency in farmers' knowledge about soil physical properties and their association with soil erosion and soil fertility across three different communities in the western middle hills. Some of such knowledge, however, is patchy or specific to a location, community or even individual farmers within a community due to differences in agro-climatic conditions, cultural tradition, gender and personal experience. The research will be better adapted to the environment farmers have detailed local knowledge of what is often a highly heterogeneous environment, especially in hilly or mountainous areas where soil erosion studies are likely to be carried out. For example, studies of farmers' knowledge in Nepal showed that agroforestry systems have quite different...

Fingerprints of tumorassociated p53 alleles using quantitative yeastbased assays

Development of a p53 mutant functionality database. Construction of any missense p53 mutant can be accomplished rapidly with the delitoperfetto in vivo mutagenesis system 192 . The GAL1 p53 expression cassette is cloned into a yeast chromosomal locus to obtain a p53-host strain. A number of isogenic derivatives of this strain are created that have a CORE cassette (containing a counterselectable gene and a reporter gene that identifies cassette integration) 192 inserted at different sites (amino acid 250 in the example, Jordan and Resnick, unpublished). By placing a CORE cassette at 200 nucleotide intervals, the entire p53 can be subjected to mutagenesis. Introduction of oligonucleotides that surround the CORE allows for creation of specific mutants (R273H in the example) or the generation of many different mutants in a small region if degenerate oligonucleotides are used. Only DNA sequencing of the region surrounding the replacement site is needed to confirm the nature of...

General Structure and Physicochemical Properties

QS-21 is anionic at neutral pH, because of the carboxyl group on glucuronic acid. It is insoluble in aqueous solution in the protonated form, but soluble in the sodium salt form where QS-21 forms micelles in solution. The critical micellar concentration of QS-21 was estimated to be 26 M in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.0 (17). However, micelle formation is not required for adjuvant activity as significant adjuvant effect has been observed at QS-21 concentrations below the critical micellar concentration (17). Although QS-21 may associate with hydrophobic antigens or hydrophobic sites of amphipathic antigens, this association is not required for adjuvant effect. QS-21 induces strong antibody and CTL responses to undenatured OVA despite lack of association. In addition, strong adjuvant effect is still observed if QS-21 is given up to 24 hours in advance of the antigen at the same injection site (Aquila Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Framingham, MA, unpublished data). QS-21 is...

Consequence of RLN Injury

Rat Larynx

But not all reports are consistent with this perspective. In a study of 15 patients undergoing a reinnervation procedure for laryngeal paralysis, Damrose et al. failed to record an evoked potential from the laryngeal mucosa during RLN stimulation in all but one patient. They concluded from these findings that laryngeal paralysis stemmed from complete muscle denervation 30 however, there is concern regarding their interpretation. In order to definitively rule out the presence of any dysfunctional reinnervation, needle electromyography in the awake patient should have been performed. Furthermore, the methodology employed was not optimally suited for measuring evoked potentials from paralyzed laryngeal muscles. Near-field recording from the laryngeal mucosa surface may not have had sufficient sensitivity to detect subnormal EMGs of the paralyzed fold. More importantly, stimulation was applied to regenerated axon filaments distal to the site of injury,...

Systematic Literature Review

Leiomyomata and embolization, fibroids and embolization, and embolization and uterus. Literature was also identified by requesting reference lists from interventional radiologists known to perform the procedure (identified by membership in the professional society of interventional radiologists), authors of papers identified via Medline, and expert panel members. Abstracts were also identified from a comprehensive hand search of the SCVIR Annual Scientific Meeting Program 19961999, and from a targeted search of programs from other relevant scientific meetings. References of identified articles were also searched for previously unidentified reports. Authors of papers on UAE were asked about ongoing trials of the procedure (conducted by them or other investigators) and unpublished reports. Authors of multiple reports were contacted and asked to identify any papers or abstracts which presented data on patients who had been the subject of previous reports. Duplicative reports were...

The Role Of Ikaros And Aiolos In Lymphocyte Homeostasis

Most of the cell lines established from these mice express CD25, strongly suggesting that expression of CD25 correlates with a high degree of malignancy. Interestingly, however, we have found no evidence of production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by these transformed cells (Susan Winandy and Katia Georgopoulos, unpublished). Genetic analysis of the malignant T cells in the Ikaros DN+ - mice revealed loss of Ikaros heterozygosity (LOH) at the DNA level. However, loss of wild-type Ikaros expression is not a prerequisite for transformation to occur. Mice transgenic for high copy numbers of a dominant negative Ikaros isoform (Ik-7, Fig. 12.1) develop leukemias and lymphomas with 100 penetrance indistinguishable from those that develop in the Ikaros DN+ - mice (Susan Winandy and Katia Georgopoulos, unpublished). The malignant T cells in these mice invariably retain normal levels of Ikaros expression from the wild-type Ikaros alleles. Mice that express low levels of the...

The Role Of Nfe2 In Megakaryocyte Differentiation And Platelet Biogenesis

Although p45 NF-E2 is expressed in selected nonerythroid blood cell lineages, it was expected to manifest its most important functional requirements within developing red blood cells. However, the most remarkable aspect of mice with targeted disruption of p45 NF-E2 is profound thrombocytopenia (Shivdasani et al., 1995). Whereas automated platelet counts are approximately 10 of normal values, few if any platelets are detected on peripheral blood smears, and the mice display a florid hemorrhagic diathesis that results in > 90 neonatal lethality. It is now apparent that the majority of particles recognized as platelets by automated means in fact represent small red cell fragments (RAS, unpublished data), presumably attesting to an independent requirement for NF-E2 function in erythroid homeostasis. The small minority of particles with platelet features show marked ultrastructural abnormalities and fail to be activated by platelet agonists in vitro (J.-P. Peng, S. A. Burstein, and RAS,...

Toxoplasmosis In Other Animals

Sanger and Cole (1955) were first to isolate T. gondii from a food animal. Dubey and Beattie (1988) reviewed the worldwide literature on toxo-plasmosis in humans and other animals. The discovery and naming of two new organisms, Neospora caninum (Dubey et al., 1988) and Sarcocystis neurona (Dubey et al., 1991), which were previously thought to be T. gondii resulted in new information on the host distribution of T. gondii. We now know that cattle and horses are resistant to clinical T. gondii, that N. caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide (Dubey, 2003), and that S. neurona is a common cause of fatal encephalomyelitis in horses in the Americas (Dubey et al., 2001). There have been no confirmed cases of clinical toxoplasmosis in either cattle or horses (Dubey, unpublished).

The Use Of Smoke As A Mosquito Repellent

Merlin Willcox

In the Brazilian Amazon Hyptis sp., locally called Hortela-do-campo, is traditionally burnt and leaves are rubbed on the skin in order to keep mosquitoes away (Sears, 1996). Here, its repellent activity is associated with its strong smell. In West Africa the fresh plant is sometimes used or the aerial parts of the H. suveolens are placed on charcoal and the resulting smoke repels the mosquitoes (Palsson and Jaenson, 1999a), although thermal expulsion of the plant volatiles actually attracted mosquitoes (Seyoum et al., 2002b). In Tanzania, freshly picked and bruised sprigs of H. suaveolens, hangazimu, are hung in the house to try to prevent mosquitoes from entering (Curtis et al., 1991). However, fresh H. suaveolens did not cause reduction in biting when hung in an experimental hut (Curtis and Lines, 1986, unpublished). In comparison, when tested in Guinea-Bissau, the fresh plant was able to provide approximately 70 protection from biting for 2 hours (Palsson and Jaenson, 1999b). The...

Toxoplasmosis In Humans

Sabin (1942) summarized all that was known of congenital toxoplasmosis in 1942, and proposed typical clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis hydrocephalus or microcephalus, intracerebral calcification, and chorioretinitis. These signs helped in the clinical recognition of congenital toxoplasmosis. Frenkel and Friedlander (1951) published a detailed account of five fatal cases of toxoplasmosis in infants that were born with hydrocephalus T. gondii was isolated from two. They described the pathogenesis of internal hydrocephalus as a blockage of the aqueduct of Sylveus due to ventriculitis resulting from a T. gondii antigen-antibody reaction. This lesion is unique to human congenital toxoplasmosis, and has never been verified in other animals (Dubey, unpublished). This report was the first in-depth description of lesions of congenital toxoplasmosis not only in the central nervous system but also in other organs. Hogan (1951) also provided the first detailed clinical description of...

Perceptual Categorization Deficit and Disorders of Orientation Processing

Simultagnosia

There are a number of reasons to question the relevance of perceptual categorization deficit to understanding visual object recognition, and even orientation constancy in particular. Warrington (1985) points out that orientation shifts are not the only manipulations of perceptual quality that pose problems for these patients. She cites unpublished data of Warrington and Ackroyd demonstrating that the matching impairment extends to photographs ofobjects with uneven lighting for example, the

Components of the Phage T4 DNA Packaging Machine

Gpl6 forms stable oligomeric rings and double rings with a diameter of -8 nm and a central channel of -2 nm11 (Fig. 2). Each ring apparendy consists of about 8 gpl6 monomers. Since expression vector synthesis of gp 16 with or without a his-tag, and refolding of gp 16 from 6M urea lead to the ring and double-ring structures and little, if any, monomeric gpl6, these structures are strongly and preferentially formed.11,12 They are also observed to be active for in vitro DNA packaging. Sequence analysis identifies a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acid sequence in the center of the protein, which may be responsible for the protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization (Fig. 3).5'11 Consistent with this hypothesis, truncation experiments show that the N-terminal 55 residues do not oligomerize whereas the COOH terminal 121 residues do oligomerize (N. Malys, unpublished). An analogous site was recently There are two forms of gpl6 synthesized in vitro and in vivo, most...

Densegranule protein function more hypotheses than functions

Stabilizes these preformed membranous tubules. However, despite such a dramatic disruption of the MNN architecture, both the GRA2 and GRA6 KO parasites displayed normal in vitro growth rates (Mercier et al., 1998b), indicating that the network organization is dispensable for parasite intracellular replication. However, in vivo, both the GRA2 and GRA6 KO parasites are less virulent than their parental RH strain, allowing mice to survive acute infection and to develop brain cyst-like structures (Mercier et al., 1998b Mercier et al., unpublished). Whether this avirulent phenotype is linked to the absence of intravacuolar tubular structures remains to be investigated. To date, no key information on the function of PVM-associated GRAs is available since a TgGRA5 KO did not lead to any obvious phenotypic changes (Mercier et al., 2001). Finally, despite numerous attempts, it appears impossible to knock out TgGRA1 or TgGRA4, suggesting that some GRAs may be essential for tachyzoite...

The mitochondrial genome

So is there a genome in the T. gondii mitochondrion The answer is likely yes. Matsuzaki et al. (2001) described DAPI-stained nucleoids in the T. gondii mitochondrion, and Williamson et al. (2001) noted unspecified mitochondrial sequences in a band from an isopy-cnic CsCl gradient of T. gondii DNA. As this chapter was being prepared, a preliminary T. gondii mitochondrial genome sequence was assembled as an outgrowth of the parasite genome project, and confirmed by amplification and mapping studies (D. Shanmugam, L. Peixoto, and D.S Roos, personal communication). Its characteristics are quite similar to other apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes, as shown in Figure 9.11. The draft sequence is 6 kb in length, and includes the three expected protein coding genes, although all are encoded on the same DNA strand (in contrast to the situation in other apicomplexans). The T. gondii mitochondrial genome also includes sequences similar to highly conserved regions of rRNAs...

Applications of Particle Bombardment in Tissue Repair

Since the efficiency of cellular targeting with gene gun technology is about 10 , and the primary target is the basal cells of the epidermis, the principal application of gene gun therapy in the wound-healing arena has been to utilize targeted cells for production of secreted factors that can act in trans. Recently, one group has shown that transfection with the transcription factor Egr-1 also has a positive effect on wound repair (48). This appears to be owing to the ability of this intracellular protein to stimulate the expression of several growth factors. Similarly, we have observed significant effects in two wound-healing models with a gene product involved in growth factor signal transduction (unpublished observations).

Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective

Under these conditions, roots accumulate ABA, which is necessary for sustained growth (Sharp et al. 1994, 2004a,b). It has been proposed that the role of ABA in controlling root and shoot growth was indirect, via ethylene. High ABA concentrations prevented ethylene accumulation and enabled growth, whereas low shoot ABA caused growth decline (Sharp et al. 2000 Sharp 2002). Although these results were obtained with maize, tomato, and other crops, they seem to be valid for trees as well. In a very detailed analysis of growth during the development of drought stress, it was found that radial stem growth was the most sensitive parameter, declining already before any decreases in plant water potential, stomatal conductance or other ecophysio-logical parameters were apparent (Bogeat-Triboulot, Fayyaz and Polle, unpublished). When drought stress increased further, shoot extension growth also decreased whereas root growth was affected only when drought stress had caused a severe decline...

Improving GFP Fluorescence

In some cases, there are problems that remain to be overcome, even when using the more optimized mutant derivatives of GFP. For example, clonal populations of bacteria expressing mutant derivatives of GFP may sometimes still exhibit variable levels of fluores-cence.29 There have also been reports of no detectable fluorescence in bacteria containing GFP, even when the Gfp gene is controlled by a promoter known to be active in that bacterium. For example, Kremer et al observed blue color in all E. coli cells harboring a plasmid with the lacZ gene controlled by a heat shock promoter (hsp60).30 However, when the lacZ gene in this plasmid was replaced with the Gfp gene, no fluorescence was observed. Egener et al. (1998) observed fluorescence in Azoarcus sp BH72 harboring the gene encoding GFPmut2 under the control of the nifH promoter.31 However, they could not detect fluorescence in bacteria harboring the genes encoding wtGFP or the P11 mutant GFP expressed from the same promoter....

Antral Follicle Development Sensitivity To Extra Ovarian And Intra Ovarian Regulation

In contrast to the inhibin-deficient mice, mice lacking one of the activin receptors, activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA), have dramatically suppressed serum and pituitary levels of FSH. These results indicate that ActRIIA is the major pituitary receptor through which activins affect FSH synthesis and secretion (90). ActRIIA-deficient ovaries display a block in folliculogenesis at a slightly later developmental stage than that seen in FSH-deficient mice (i.e., the small antral follicle stage). This suggests that the block in folliculogenesis is a result only to the decreased FSH concentrations (that is, the pheno-type is similar to an FSH hypomorphic allele) and not to the lack of paracrine signaling through ActRIIA in the ovary. These findings are similar to the findings in human female, with low-level activity of the FSHR in the granulosa cells (73). Consistent with the primary role of ActRIIA in the pituitary, ActRIIA-deficient ovaries transplanted into ovariectomized...

Methods for Potassium Calcium and Magnesium in Soil

Some trees promote the accumulation of cations in the topsoil, presumably through efficient uptake by a large root system and subsequent release from litter. Reported cases include calcium accumulation by Gmelina arborea (Sanchez et al., 1985 Fisher, 1995) and Senna siamea (Drechsel et al., 1991). Elevated calcium contents also characterize the leaf litter of Terminalia superba (F. Bernhard-Reversat, unpublished data). Several tree species increased the calcium and potassium contents in the topsoil of a degraded rainforest site (Fisher, 1995). Relatively high potassium concentrations are found in the biomass of the large herbaceous plant, tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia), which is also rich in nitrogen and

Soil organisms and their functional domains

Soil organisms have evolved in an environment that imposes three major requirements (i) to move in a compact environment with a loosely connected porosity (ii) to feed on low-quality resources and (iii) to adapt to the occasional drying or flooding of the porous space (Lavelle, 1997). A continuum of adaptive strategies based on size is observed in soils, from microorganisms to macroinvertebrates (Swift et al., 1979). Soil invertebrates have been divided into micro-, meso- and macrofauna depending on the average size of the individuals. Microfauna comprises invertebrates < 0.2 mm that live in the water-filled porosity of soil mesofauna includes invertebrates 0.2-10 mm in length that live in the air-filled soil porosity and in the litter and macrofauna comprises the largest invertebrates (> 1 cm). In more general terms, a soil macrofauna taxon may be defined as an invertebrate group found within terrestrial soil samples which has more than 90 of its specimens in such samples visible...

Mechanism Of Eklf Transcriptional Activation

The second aspect of EKLF function that was raised by the deletional studies was the importance of protein-protein interactions. Although searches for potential partners by yeast two-hybrid approaches or by probing of an expression library were unsuccessful (Chen, Zhang, and Bieker, unpublished), the possibility that EKLF may also be involved in chromatin structure at the -globin locus led to directly testing whether it interacted with the class of molecules known as histone acetyltransferases (Zhang and Bieker, 1998). These are known to modify histones via The finding that some transcriptional coac-tivators (such as CBP, p300, and P CAF) harbor intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity provides a mechanism to directly link transcrip-tional activation and alteration of chromatin structure (Berger, 1999). In the present case (Zhang and Bieker, 1998), EKLF was found to associate with p300, CBP, and P CAF in vivo. Interestingly, EKLF is itself acetylated by p300 and CBP in vitro, but...

Dissecting Hox Gene Function In Normal Hematopoiesis LossOfFunction Studies

Characterization of hematopoiesis in other Hox knockout mice has been less revealing. Initial reports indicated the presence of mild erythroid abnormalities in Hoxc8-deficient mice and mild myeloid abnormalities in Hoxa10 l animals. No major defects were found in homozygous mutants for Hoxb3 or Hoxc4 (Lawrence et al., unpublished data). Hoxb4 ' mice die perinatally with multiple skeletal defects and develop a macrocytic anemia late in fetal development. However, fetal liver progenitors from these animals can restore long-term

Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

Large, with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucle-oli, although there is variation in morphology between cases 3 . They express pan-B-cell antigens such as CD20, and many express detectable immunoglobulin. In most cases, lymphoma cells express the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and a high proportion of cells (> 40 ) express the cell cycle protein Ki67, indicating that they are in cell cycle. Similar to nodal DLBCL 14 , the germinal center-associated proteins Bcl-6 and CD10 are expressed by approximately 80 and 50 of testicular DLBCL, respectively (unpublished observations).

Acknowledgements

Many people gave their time and expertise to help us complete this book. Joern Fischer, Doug Mills, Anne Findlay from Editing Works, Nick Alexander from CSIRO Publishing, and Julian Fox provided editorial comments that greatly improved earlier versions of the manuscript. Photos were kindly provided by Esther Beaton, Andrew Claridge, Jim Trappe, Dave Milledge, David Jacquier, Linda Karssies, Michael Vardon, Cindy Trewin, John Briggs, Mick Tanton and Doug Mills. Hugo Phillipps of Birds Australia gave permission to use the nest box plan. This book benefited from discussions with many colleagues including Ryan Incoll, Mark Fitzgerald, Kirsten Parris, Mick McCarthy, Doug Mills, Simon Barry, Mick Tanton, Henry Nix, Charlie Mackowski, Kevin Wormington, Bill McComb, John Banks, John Briggs, Stephen Ambrose, Adrian Wayne, Ian Abbott, Warwick Bratby, Anthony Overs, Sue Briggs, Julian Seddon, Stuart Doyle, Sandy Gilmour, Chris Tidemann, Denis Saunders, Chris Davey and various members of the...

P45p45

NF-E2, other defects in erythroid cell morphology are consistently present and point to a regulatory function for NF-E2 in red blood cell differentiation (Shivdasani and Orkin, 1995). As discussed below, mice lacking NF-E2 are profoundly thrombocytopenic and manifest a bleeding diathesis. Hence, the interpretation of an anemic phenotype is clouded by the simultaneous contributions of hemorrhage and intrinsic erythroid cell abnormalities. Nevertheless, experimental results have defined the scope of the latter defects, which include the presence of numerous small red cell fragments, abnormally wide distribution of red cell size, and baseline reticulocytosis of 6-24 (normal < 2 in adult mice). As noted above, the magnitude of some abnormalities, including mean cell volume, hemoglobin content, and reticulocytosis, is very similar to values seen in mice with targeted disruption of the P-globin LCR 5' HS3 (Hug et al., 1996). Importantly, these defects are observed to the same extent in...

Development in vitro

This was first described in astrocytes in the1980s (Jones et al., 1986), and techniques for inducing this stage conversion were identified in the 1990s. It was observed that factors (pH changes, oxygen tension) that induce stress in the culture system appear to stimulate conversion to cyst formation. Unlike the in vivo situation, where there is marked selection of the type of host cell (neurons, muscle cells), in vitro almost any cell type can act as a host cell for cyst formation. In certain in vitro studies (Ferguson, unpublished), the process of cyst formation from the time the parasite entered the host cell is similar to that observed in vivo. However, other studies suggest that there may be some tachyzoite-like development before the vacuole takes on the features of the tissue cyst (Soete et al., 1994).

Overview

We conducted a literature review of Medline (1990-May 1999) using the terms uterine fibroid embolization, uterine artery embolization, leiomyomata and embolization, fibroids and embolization, and embolization and uterus. Literature was also identified by requesting reference lists from authors of papers identified via Medline and expert panel members, and by reviewing reference lists from identified articles. Authors of papers were asked about ongoing trials and unpublished reports. Abstracts were also identified from a comprehensive hand search of the SCVIR Annual Scientific Meeting Program 1996-1999, and from a targeted search of programs from other relevant scientific meetings.

Waistto Hip Ratio

As assessed by a single abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image at the L4-L5 intervertebral space, there is 1.6 to 4.8 times more fat than skeletal muscle in obese men and 2.1 to 7.3 more times more fat than skeletal muscle in obese women (unpublished data). Thus, differences in waist circumference are more influenced by adiposity as opposed to skeletal muscle. This is not true for hip circumferences, as the ratio of subcutaneous fat to skeletal muscle area is much more variable. For example, as assessed by a single MRI image at the hip, the ratio of fat to skeletal muscle can range from 0.3 to 1.7 in men and 0.7 to 5.0 in women. In other words, two men with the same

Discussion

Interaction between microtubules and TMV MP has received a lot of attention and was consequently studied in detail. This interaction not only occurs in plant cells but is conserved upon expression of TMV MP in mammalian cells and in vitro, indicating that MP can function as a genuine microtubule-associated protein (MAP) that binds to microtubules through direct interactions (Ashby et al. 2006). The analysis of a series of TMV derivatives encoding progressive aminoterminal and carboxyterminal deletion mutations in TMV MP fused GFP indicated that the interaction of microtubules requires amino acids 1-213 of the TMV MP, i.e.,the same major part of TMV MP that is also required for its function in TMV movement (Boyko et al. 2000c, Fig. 1). The analysis of a series of internal three amino acid deletion mutations indicated that amino acids 49-51 are important for microtubule association and function of the TMV MP (Kahn et al. 1998, Fig. 1). Moreover, deletion of amino acids 3-5 inactivates...

Testis

Considerably more is known about functions of the Bcl2 family in the postnatal and adult testis than the prenatal testis. Several Bcl2 family members are expressed in the testis, including Bclx (163), Bclw (54,147), Mcl-1 (164), Bax (162), Bak (165), Bok (166), Diva Boo (66), Bid (A. Ross and G. MacGregor, unpublished), Blk (64), and Bod Bim (167). This makes it possible that Bcl2 family members could play many important roles in regulating cell death in the testis. Indeed, as mentioned earlier loss of function transgenic mouse studies mice have demonstrated a requirement for at least two Bcl2 family members in spermatogenesis. Bax is expressed in spermatogonia of prepubertal and adult testes (161). Analysis of prepubertal animals suggests that Bax expression in testis is maximal during the second and third weeks after birth with significantly lower levels of expression observed in the adult testis. The peak of Bax expression coincides with maximal apoptotic germ-cell deaths that...

Mammary Gland

Ingly, both Bcl2 and Bclw are downregulated prior to involution. While Bclw and Bcl2 may function in mammary gland involution, Bclw is not essential for this developmental process, as Bclw-nuW mutant females do not appear to have an overt defect in mammary-gland development (A. Ross and G. MacGregor, unpublished results). It is possible that functional redundancy between Bclw and Bcl2 could mask the effects of loss of Bclw function in this tissue.

Dead trees

There is a perception that hollows in dead trees are of diminished value for hollow-using fauna. It is true that dead wood does not have the same insulative properties as live wood, although Mackowski (1987) suggested that the decaying material in dead trees may produce a considerable amount of heat. There is also a greater chance that hollows in dead trees will be interconnected (Ambrose 1982), which may preclude co-occupancy by certain species (Lindenmayer et al. 1990a). The water content of dead standing hollow-bearing trees in the Victorian Mountain Ash forests appears to have an effect on occupancy by arboreal marsupials. Macfarlane and Walters (unpublished data) found that 'wet' trees, where the wood had a very high water content, were never occupied. Stag watching of more than 2500 individual hollow-bearing trees in these same forests has shown that dead trees characterised by an orange tinge on the outer bark layer (due to the presence of lichen) were never occupied (D....

Radiotracking

Radio-tracking is a valuable method for detecting cavities used by fauna. It involves fitting a transmitting device to an animal and following its movements via a radio receiver. Several studies have employed the technique to identify the location and number of hollow-bearing trees occupied by animals. Extensive radio-telemetry has been completed for a range of species including (among others) the Greater Glider (Kehl and Borsboom 1984, Comport et al. 1996, Pope et al. unpublished data), Leadbeater's Possum (Lindenmayer and Meggs 1996), Mountain Brushtail Possum (Lindenmayer et al. 1996c), Agile Antechinus (Lazenby-Cohen and Cockburn 1991), Brown Antechinus (Watt 1991), Mahogany Glider (Jackson 1999), various bat species (Tidemann and Flavel 1987, Lunney et al. 1988, Lumsden and Bennett 1995), Lace Monitor (Weavers 1983) and Broad-headed Snake (Webb and Shine 1997). Similarly, many radio-tracking studies of den use by the Common Brushtail Possum have been completed in New Zealand...

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