Renal Calculi Kidney Stones

Renal calculi, more commonly known as kidney stones, are another disorder of the genitourinary system. Substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate sometimes separate from the rest of the urine solution and form a solid deposit. These formations can occur anywhere in the urinary tract, but they usually develop in the renal pelvis or the calyces of the kidneys. There may be one kidney stone or several. The size of the stones vary. Kidney stones develop in...

Etiology Of Urinary Tract Infections

The cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) can be traced to the presence of infectious microorganisms located anywhere between the kidneys and the urethral opening. The common pathogens are the gram-negative bacilli, often found in the colon, especially E. coli, klebsiella, and proteus. Microorganisms acquire access to the kidneys by ascension from the lower urinary tract beginning at the urethra. Bacterial infections of the lower urinary tract occur about 10 times...

Acute Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis, a form of nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) in which the lesions involve primarily the glomeruli, is the most common kidney disease. In this disease, antibodies formed in response to streptococci attach themselves to the glomerular membrane and injure this membrane. (Glomeruli are the small, coiled mass of blood capillaries within Bowman's capsule of the kidney.) These damaged glomeruli allow protein, especially albumin, to filter into Bowman's capsule and, ultimately,...

Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly fail to function. As a chief organ of the excretory system, the kidney is important in the elimination of some soluble waste products from the body, and the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the body. Renal failure stops these all-important functions, and disrupts the fine balance of the body's systems. Medical treatment can usually reverse this problem. If medication is unsuccessful, the condition may progress to end-stage renal...

Femal Genital System

The vulva and its parts make up the external genitalia. The word vulva is a term that has been designated to stand for the external genitalia of the female. See figure 1-10. (1) Mons pubis. The elevated, fatty tissue covered with coarse pubic hair and which lies over the symphysis pubis is the mons pubis. Pubic hair appears at puberty. The function of the mons pubis is to protect the pelvic bone. (2) Labia majora. The labia majora are large longitudinal folds of skin and...

CMost Commonly Seen Signs and Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure As

A 91W30, you are most likely to see these signs and symptoms of renal failure (1) Mental disturbances such as confusion, lethargy, and stupor. (2) Less than 30 cc an hour urine output despite replacement. (3) Respiratory conditions such as respiratory muscle paralysis. (4) Cardiac problems such as tachycardia and dysrhythmias. d. Treatment of Acute Renal Failure. Treatment for acute renal failure in the Intensive Care Unit consists of the following (1) Initiate an IV of 0.9 percent normal...