The confirmation of two normal semen analyses, with no clearly identified risk factor in the history or physical examination of the male patient, should prompt evaluation of the female counterpart. Abnormal parameters may exist in isolation (uncommon) or in combination (more often); this is called oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT) syndrome. Some of the common abnormalities are described below:

Low volume

• Short period of abstinence

• Retrograde ejaculation (check urine for sperm)

• Infection (seminal vesiculitis, prostatitis)

• Obstruction (azospermia—ejaculatory duct obstruction, congenital absence of the vas)

• Endocrine disorder (check FSH, LH, and testosterone)

Variations in semen pH

• pH may become acidic in the presence of infection or congenital absence of vas

Low (oligospermia) or absent sperm (azospermia)

• Non-obstructive—varicoele, cryptorchidism (unilateral or bilateral), injury, illness, stress, or testicular failure

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Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Whether you call it erectile dysfunction, ED, impotence, or any number of slang terms, erection problems are something many men have to face during the course of their lifetimes.

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