Although the majority of patients need no further assessment other than a baseline evaluation, indications for advanced tests include—
• Patient request
• Medicolegal cases
• Absence of any obvious disorder (psychogenic or organic)
• Suspicion of endocrine disorder (e.g., hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia)
• If surgical intervention is being considered in a patient with suspected vascular insufficiency
• In patients with structural/congenital penile deformities
• Patients with complex psychiatric or psychological illness
Types of advanced tests are summarized in Table 12.2.
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