The advances in computed tomography (CT) scanning have revolutionized uroradiological imaging, such that in many practices it often is the first—and only—investigation performed for a variety of urological complaints. Collimation allows a rotating thin beam of X-rays to pass through the patient's body, which is attenuated by absorption and scattered as it is passed through the patient. A computer produces a composite image using the transmitted beams.
The present third- and fourth-generation CT scanners are faster and offer outstanding picture definition. The current spiral (helical) CT scanners permit continuous X-ray exposure through a fast rotating X-ray tube (often one rotation in <1s), thereby allowing superior images for 3D reconstruction. CT scanning technology continues to develop, and it is beyond the realm of this book to deal with the entire array of radiological techniques and findings. Therefore only important principles pertaining to urological practice are highlighted.
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