• Urine in which albumin is not the primary protein
The detection of proteinuria on a dipstick is a measure of protein concentration and not protein excretion; therefore, measurement of 24-hour urinary protein excretion and protein electrophoresis is mandatory to rule out underlying renal disease.
Proteinuria can be classified by timing into—
1. Transient: common; occurs in children; also in patients with sepsis, cardiac failure and following exercise; spontaneous resolution
2. Intermittent: occurs in young men in the upright position due to increased renal vein pressure; not pathological
3. Persistent: pathological and requires further evaluation with 24-hour urine collection for protein excretion
(Proteinuria is further discussed in the section on 24-hour urine collection. Section 1f-page 28)
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