Direct endoscopic visualization of the lower urinary tract still remains the gold standard procedure for the diagnosis of struc tural abnormalities in the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy will allow demonstration of pathologies such as—
• Bladder tumors and stones
• Diverticula and scarring
• Urethral lesions (stones, strictures, prostatic occlusion)
• Provide access to the upper urinary tract
Cystoscopy requires an endoscope, camera head, irrigation, a light source, and a TV monitor (ideally with video recording facility).
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