1. Kidneys, adrenals, and ureter

• Possible upper tract obstruction (Fig. 3.3a)

• Suspected renal/adrenal mass (Fig. 3.3b)

• Investigation of renal failure

• Investigation of hematuria

• Monitor renal cystic disease

• Diagnosis of urinary stone disease

• Aids access to kidneys for interventional procedures

FIGURE 3.3. USS showing (a) mild hydronephrosis and dilated upper ureter, (b) 4-cm solid RCC interpolar region of kidney (Courtesy of Dr A Bradley, Wythenshawe, Manchester)

• Color doppler to demonstrate vascular lesions

• Visualize a transplanted kidney

• Visualize peri-renal area and the retroperitoneum

2. Bladder

• Bladder outflow obstruction—measurement of residual urine

• Investigate intra-vesical mass (e.g., clots, stone, tumor)

• Aid suprapubic aspiration

3. Prostate and seminal vesical

• Suspected prostate cancer (+biopsy)

• Investigation for chronic pelvic pain

4. Scrotum

5. Penis

• Investigation of erectile dysfunction

• Peyronie's disease

• Diagnose high-flow priapism

• Can aid visualization of urethral strictures

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