Some urological applications of Doppler studies are briefly described below:

■ Arterial or venous abnormalities (such as thrombosis, stenosis, occlusion, aneurysm or fistula)

■ Calculation of the resistive index (RI) can help diagnose obstructive uropathy. An RI of >0.75 is indicative of obstruction. The following calculation is used:

RI peak systolic velocity - lowest diastolic velocity peak systolic velocity

■ Assessment of vascularity of renal lesions

• Ureter: the absence of ureteric flow or jets on color Doppler is indicative of ureteric obstruction

• Bladder: in pediatric patients reflux of bladder urine into the ureter may suggest VUR

• Testis: Doppler sonography can visualize testicular blood flow and can assist in the diagnosis of torsion (absent flow) or acute inflammation (increased flow)

■ Essential in the assessment of patients with ED, as it readily demonstrates penile vasculature, including the cavernosal arteries

■ Can help distinguish between high- and low-flow priapism

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