• UPM3TM is based on a specific gene PCA3
• PCA3 is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissue (average 34fold, range 10-100-fold) compared to benign prostate tissue
• No other human tissues have ever been shown to produce PCA3.
• The DD3PCA3 gene is located at chromosome 9q21-22 and even minute amounts in urine can be detected using a nucleic acid amplification assay
• Following prostatic massage, the first 10-20 mL of urine is collected and tested for DD3PCA3, which is over-expressed in 95% of CAP and therefore CAP-specific
• This is a relatively new test requiring specialized laboratory facilities and experience in a routine clinical setting is limited
• Detection depends on prostate cancer cells shed in the urine after prostate massage, which then need to be transported to the laboratory, resulting in potential loss of specimen quality
• Represents an exciting and promising non-invasive technique for the investigation of men with suspected CAP
The reported sensitivity and specificities of the uPM3 assay are as described in Table 1.13.
• UPM3 appears to be twice as specific as PSA for the detection of CAP, especially in men with a PSA <10 ng/L
• Up to 75% of men with a positive uPM3 test will go on have histological evidence of CAP following transrectal biopsy
• In addition, uPM3 seems to be a better predictor of outcome in patients undergoing a repeat prostate biopsy
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