Info

Testicular failure

Low

Normal/ high

High

Normal

Isolated spermatogenic failure

Normal

Normal

High

Normal

Kallmann's syndrome (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism)

Low

Low

Low

Normal

Hyperprolactinaemia

Low

Low

Low/ normal

High

Androgen resistance

High

High

High

Normal

Cortisol and androgen secretion is dependent on circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. All these hormones are subject to diurnal variations, as well as changes in response to factors such as stress and injury. Therefore random estimations of serum hormones are of limited use.

• Adrenal medulla—secretes catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and is controlled by the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system

Adrenal disease may include—

• Adrenal insuffiency/hypoadrenalism—e.g., Addison's disease

• Glucocorticoid excess—e.g., Cushing's syndrome

• Hyperaldosteronism—e.g., Conn's syndrome

• Catecholamine excess (e.g., pheochromocytoma)

Serum-based tests for the diagnosis of—

1. Hypoadrenalism—e.g., Addison's disease (Table 2.10)

2. Glucocorticoid excess—e.g., Cushing's syndrome (Table 2.11)

3. Hyperaldosteronism—e.g., Conn's syndrome (Table 2.12)

4. Catecholamine excess (e.g., pheochromocytoma)

TABLE 2.10. Serum based tests for the diagnosis of hypoadrenalism

Serum Tests

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