Overview

• Hydronephrosis is not a diagnosis in itself, but merely a description of dilatation of the collecting system

• Detectable early within the prenatal period (from week 16) and in most instances will resolve within 1 week of birth

• May be unilateral or bilateral

• May be acute or chronic (often associated with thinning of renal cortex)

• May be seen in conjunction with dilatation of the ureters (hydroureteronephrosis)

The commonest causes of hydronephrosis in the pediatric population are—

• Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO)

• Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

• Megaureters

• Urethral valve syndrome

• Multicystic renal dysplasia

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