Technique

This technique is similar to conventional cystometry, but with the addition of a radioopaque filling medium, video recorder, and

X-ray equipment. Some authors have used real-time ultrasound scanning, arguing its distinct advantage in abolishing the radiation risk and providing adequate bladder images. However, the other anatomical information obtained by USS is limited and it has not gained widespread acceptance.

• Most units use 200-250 mL of water-soluble contrast, and complete bladder filling using saline

• During voiding, females will often have to void standing up to allow fluoroscopic imaging of the lower urinary tract

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