• Vesico-ureteric junction obstruction
• Duplication anomalies
UTI in children is classified as—
• Asymptomatic bacteriuria—significant bacteriuria on MSU analysis but without any symptoms
• Cystitis—irritative symptoms related to bladder involvement, no systemic symptoms or fever
• Acute pyelonephritis—febrile infection of the renal parenchyma
• Complicated UTI—secondary to anatomical or functional abnormality
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