• Arteriography has been the gold standard technique to demonstrate extracranial carotid occlusive disease.
• It outlines the inner surface of the arterial wall by providing direct visualization of blood flow inside the artery acting as a mould of the lesions from the arterial wall.
• It was first obtained by direct puncture of the common carotid.
• Following the development of arterial catheterization, it became standard practice to do it through selective retrograde catheterization, from the femoral or brachial/axillary arteries, providing full visualization of the extracranial vessels (Fig. 2.2.4) and also of the intracranial circulation.
• It provides no direct visualization of the arterial wall and its morphologic alterations, thus limiting its ability to reveal the underlying changes leading to stenosis or occlusion.
• Its use as a diagnostic tool in extracranial carotid disease was limited by local complications from arterial access (haematomas, false aneurysms) requiring treatment, allergic reactions to the contrast and deterioration of renal function.
• Digital subtraction techniques and the introduction of safer nonionic contrast media reduced its complications and improved the outcome of carotid arteri-ography, although recent published results  documented a stroke risk of 1.2%.
Was this article helpful?
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...