References

Ecology and vegetarian considerations does environmental responsibility demand the elimination of livestock Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994 59 1110S-1116S. 2. Nestle, M. Animal v. plant foods in human diets and health is the historical record unequivocal Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1999 58 211-218. 3. Messina, M. and Messina, V. The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets. Gaith-ersburg, MD Aspen Publishers, Inc., 1996. 4. Ziegler, E.E. and Filer, L.J., Eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 7th ed. ISLI...

Summary And Conclusions

The purpose of this chapter was to assess the adequacy of vegetarian diets in maintaining normal reproductive function in women throughout their life-span. Taken together, the available data suggest few, if any, differences in reproductive function between vegetarians and omnivores, although several questions remain unanswered. Based on the literature available, the following conclusions can be reached 1. Provided that adequate energy is available to support normal growth, vegetarian diets do...

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is required for the normal maturation of red blood cells and for the synthesis of sphingomyelins, which occur in large amounts in the myelin sheath of nerve tissue. Without sufficient B12, changes will occur in nerve function, and red blood cells remain as large immature megalo-blasts, producing macrocytic anemia. Because vitamin B12 is not naturally found in any significant amounts in plant foods, some vegetarians, especially vegans, may be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency....

Body Mass Index

Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. in men (Figure 5.3). A higher proportion of meat eaters than non-meat eaters were overweight or obese (21 vs. 10 of men and 13 vs. 8 of women), whereas a lower proportion of meat eaters had a BMI < 20kg m2 (9 vs. 17 of men and 18 vs. 33 of women). No...

Natural Resources

Fishing and hunting directly exploit natural resources. Several natural resources are used in agricultural production, the most vital being land and water. Energy resources, such as mineral oil, a number of metal ores, phosphate rock, and natural gas (which is used in fertilizer production), are also important. A matter for discussion is whether these resources are used optimally, and what, if any, effect current use will have on their future availability. The natural resources that are...

Plant Based Mixed Diet Diet

High cholesterol High saturated fat High protein High heme-iron High carbohydrate High dietary fiber High antioxidants Figure 12.4 A plant-based diet is associated with a macro- and micro-nutrient profile that is conducive to both health and endurance performance. 1. Nieman, D.C. Exercise Testing and Prescription, A Health-Related Approach. Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View, CA, 1999. 2. Messina, M. and Messina, V. The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications....

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Starch or complex carbohydrates, and both soluble and insoluble fiber, are carbohydrate molecules made up of the monosaccharide glucose. Free sugars of glucose, fructose, and sucrose (a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose), along with starch, are the main source of energy in human diets, accounting for some 40 to 80 of human energy intake.75 In the starches and the fibers, the alpha- and beta-linkages at the glycoside carbon largely regulate whether the human digestive tract can digest...

Herbs

Many of the commonly used herbs contain phytochemicals, such as the carotenoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phytosterols, saponins, and phenolic acids, which are similar to those found in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, and also those associated with disease prevention (see Table 14.4). The therapeutic value of many of these herbs owe their health-promoting properties to the phytochemicals they contain.152 Table 14.4 Phytochemicals in Common Herbs also Found in Vegetables, Fruit and Whole...

Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Vegetarian Societies

As mentioned, interest in the relationship between dietary habits and human health has existed since antiquity. It was not until the early part of the 20th century, however, that systematic efforts to quantify the relation between human nutrition and cancer were undertaken. These studies were possible because death certification was becoming universal and reasonably complete for all causes of death and because of statistical and epidemiologic methods to conduct relatively sophisticated analyses...

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Vegetarian dietary practices have been associated with many health benefits, including reduced death rates from ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer,2,5-8 and decreased risk of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension.2,9-11 Vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, typically have a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, dietary fiber, antioxidant nutrients, phytochemicals, and folic acid, with a lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol,12-15 each of which has been...

Type 2 Diabetes

Dietary surfeit is a contributing factor to the disproportionately increased incidence of type 2 diabetes seen in the U.S., and is capable of precipitating the disease onset in those who are genetically susceptible. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, accounting for approximately 70 of the variance in disease prevalence.72 Therefore, plant-only and plant-based eating patterns that assist in weight management will have preventive effects in individuals at high...

The Pubertal Transition And Menarche

Menarche, the first menstrual bleeding, is understood by many to signal the onset of a woman's reproductive life. Yet, as will be described herein, the pubertal transition takes place over several years, with menarche occurring not at the onset, but relatively late in the process. Moreover, in most cases, women are not fertile (i.e., capable of becoming pregnant) until some period of time after menarche. This section will examine whether vegetarianism affects the pubertal transition, first by...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The recommended daily allowance for dietary protein intake appears to be the same for the elderly as for young adults, at 0.75 g kg of body weight for both age groups.10 This is surprising, because the protein content of the adult body diminishes with age, with apparent exchanges of fat for muscle. Changes in muscle mass are related to whole-body protein turnover and changes in the rate of protein synthesis. The recent work by Campbell et al.,11 recommends 1.0 gm kg of protein daily to maintain...