Vegetarian Bodybuilding

V3 Plant-based Fitness

Chris Willitts, creator of V3 has been in the bodybuilding and vegetarian for over 20 years and 10 years respectively. He was inspired to launch his vegetarian bodybuilding platform having seeing the need the vegetarianism is an effective tool to be applied in the bodybuilding industry. He majored in flexibility, strength, and mind-body interrelation. Having switched to the plant-based diet he included meditation. V3 Vegetarian Bodybuilding System is a combination of Chris advice and science on how to eat in line with one's fitness goals, infusing the whole program with mind-body awareness. The system is designed not only for vegetarians, but semi-vegetarians, part-time vegetarians, vegans, or undecided. The V3 Bodybuilding system is a self-guided system the does not include one-on-one coaching. The V3 has been deliberated upon by top plant-based fitness experts in the industry before coming up with something that has an assurance of getting positive results to the general populace. The V3 Bodybuilding System is not an eBook. It is actually a membership-based online resource (which some parts of the worksheet are available for download as PDFs). This product is easy to understand and it is newbie friendly that do not require any level of technical skills. More here...

V3 Plantbased Fitness Summary

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My V3 Plantbased Fitness Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Vegetarianism And Coronary Heart Disease A Observational Studies

The relatively low plasma cholesterol concentrations of vegetarians would be expected to reduce the risk of CHD. The first epidemiological study of CHD in vegetarians was published by Phillips et al.76 They reported that the risk of fatal CHD was three times greater in non-vegetarian than in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventist men aged 35-64 the difference was smaller for older men and for women, but in the same direction. The lower risk in vegetarians was partly due to differences in other risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, and exercise, but substantial differences in mortality remained after adjusting for these risk factors. Data on mortality rates in Western vegetarians are available from the early study reported by Phillips et al.76 and from four other cohort studies that included a large proportion of vegetarians. Two of these studies were conducted among Seventh-Day Adventists in California, two among members of the Vegetarian Society and others in Britain, and one among...

Intervention Trial of a Low Fat Vegetarian Diet

Ornish et al.22 conducted a randomized controlled trial among 48 patients with moderate to severe CHD to compare the effects of usual care with a more intensive lifestyle change program that included a low-fat vegetarian diet. After 5 years, coronary artery percent diameter stenosis decreased in the low-fat vegetarian arm of the trial and increased in the control group. The risk ratio for any cardiac event in the control group was 2.47 (95 CI 1.48-4.20). After 1 year of intervention, LDL cholesterol had decreased by 40 in the experimental group, but had decreased by only 1 in the control group, and, although this difference diminished during further follow up, it is possible that the beneficial effects observed were due to the reduction in LDL cholesterol. It should be noted that the reductions in fat intake and in LDL cholesterol in the experimental group were much larger than the differences observed between vegetarians and meat-eaters in free-living populations.

Foods Nutrients Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart Disease

It is likely that the reduction in CHD among vegetarians is, at least partly, due to a lower serum cholesterol concentration caused by a lower dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. Unfortunately, none of the five prospective studies of mortality in vegetarians has complete information on serum cholesterol concentrations in all subjects, therefore, it is currently impossible to investigate whether the difference in CHD between vegetarians and non-vegetarians can be statistically explained by the difference in cholesterol levels. Some data are available, however, on the relationships of various foods to CHD within the cohort studies of vegetarians. Meat intake was strongly positively associated with CHD among male Seventh-Day Adventists in the two large prospective studies in California.49,77 There was also a positive, but weaker, association with meat intake among women in the earlier study,77 but not in the more recent study.49 Eggs, but not dairy products, were also...

Coronary Heart Disease in Vegetarian South Asians

South Asian migrants from the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) have higher mortality from CHD than other ethnic groups living in the new host country.84 Reliable population-based CHD mortality data are not available from South Asia, but mortality is probably low in rural areas and high in urban areas.84 Many South Asians are vegetarians, which might suggest that this type of vegetarian diet does not reduce the risk for CHD. However, South Asians differ from other ethnic groups, both in many aspects of lifestyle and also genetically, and a case-control study of risk factors for CHD (specifically acute myocardial infarction) in Bangalore, India, did observe a 45 reduction in risk in vegetarians, which was partly explained by their lower blood glucose concentration and lower waist to hip ratio.85

Alternative Explanations for Low Cancer Risk in Vegetarians

Vegetarians differ from non-vegetarians in many ways besides diet. Differences between the two groups may account for observed differences in cancer mortality or incidence, rather than differences in diet itself. Several aspects of lifestyle must be considered when evaluating the health and mortality experience of vegetarian and non-vegetarian populations. Smoking The reduction in cancer mortality (and incidence) in vegetarians appears to be stronger in men than women and the possibility that differences in alcohol and tobacco consumption in vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians must be considered as an explanation for this finding. The use of tobacco, generally lower in vegetarian populations,12 is clearly related to cancer risk. A recent review indicated that 38 of cancer deaths among males in the U.S. could be attributed to cigarette smoking, while among women, 23 of all cancer deaths are due to cigarettes.63 These estimates do not include the impact of cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco,...

Meta Analysis of Nutritional Studies on Vegetarians

In 1954, Hardinge and Stare13 compared the nutritional status of strict vegetarians (vegans) and lacto-ovo vegetarians with non-vegetarians of southern California. No differences in height were reported, but vegetarians and especially vegans weighed about 10 kg less than the non-vegetarian counterparts. Since the publication of this landmark research, scores of similar small studies have been conducted comparing vegetarians from many countries with their non-vegetarian counterparts.14 Evidence from these small-sample-size studies of vegetarians indicates that BMI values are either similar to or lower than non-vegetarians. On these types of studies, however, differences between vegetarian and non-vegetarians were most likely minimized due to the selection criteria for study participants (i.e., matching on anthropometrics, ineligibility of obese people). Vegetarian Non-Vegetarian Appendices D and E of The Dietician's Guide to Vegetarian Diets by Messina and Messina.14 While...

Weight Loss And Vegetarian Diets

Data showing that vegetarians tend to have lower body weights and BMI scores than those who do not abstain from meat are quite consistent. There are, however, virtually no appropriate studies evaluating the use of vegetarian diets for weight loss. Nicholson et al.23 reported that, in a very small 12-week pilot intervention study of type 2 diabetic patients, those on a low-fat vegan diet lost a mean of 7.2 kg, compared with those on a conventional low-fat diet where the weight loss averaged 3.8 kg. This study is flawed regarding its weight loss component in that the diets were not isocaloric. A vegetarian diet may be attempted with relative frequency by those wishing to lose weight. Gilbody et al.24 evaluated the dietary practices of 131 young adult women and found that 34.3 reported that they had used or were using a vegetarian diet. There was, however, no evaluation of the relative effectiveness of a vegetarian diet compared with a conventional weight loss intervention in terms of...

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

While data indicate that vegetarians may weigh less than other population subsets, it does not necessarily follow that it is their avoidance of meat that is responsible. Vegetarians are also more likely to adopt other healthy life-style habits, such as regular exercise and reduced alcohol consumption, that also impact their lack of obesity. There is some evidence, however, that eating more vegetables and abstaining from meat does play a significant role in their leaner profiles. A study by Kahn and others of 79,000 Vegetarian diets can be lower overall in total energy intake. Also, the macronutrient composition and sources of macronutrients tend to be different in vegetarian diets, as compared to the omnivore diet. They are overall higher in dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates and lower in protein and fat. Their nutritional differences may partially account for the potential anti-obesity effect of vegetarian diets. The fiber intake of the average American adult amounts to around...

Counseling The Vegetarian Mother

A recent report found that LOVs felt that they did not receive useful dietary advice from health professionals.5 This may occur because health professionals do not have good information regarding vegetarian diets. This, in fact, appeared to be the case in a study of midwives in England where two-thirds reported that they were concerned about their knowledge of vegetarian diets.91 The lack of appropriate advice may also occur because vegetarian diets have often been regarded with suspicion as to their nutritional adequacy. Such concerns have been supported by case studies of persons with nutritional problems apparently caused by the vegetarian diet they followed. Short-term studies of the availability of nutrients, especially trace minerals, and understanding of the effects of certain plant food constituents that may limit uptake of nutrients, e.g., fiber or phytate, have led to questions regarding the adequacy of vegetarian diets. Questions relating to the nutritional adequacy of...

Lipid Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarian Or Vegans

The elderly vegetarian, particularly the elderly vegan, is in a protective life-style that minimizes ischemic damage, plaque formations, and lipid depositions involved in atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, stroke, or rheumatic heart disease. Plant dietary protein minimizes endogenous Vegetarian *Two tailed p 0.05, **p 0.01. Categories nonsmoker, pipe or cigars only 1-14 cigarettes day, 15 cigarettes day, ***includes current cigarette smokers, (8 men and 13 women). **** The 33 women who smoked pipe or cigar only were included in the category 1-14 cigarettes day along with the 13 women who did not declare how much they smoked. Adapted from Key, T.J.A., Thorogood, M., Appleby, P.N., and Burr, M.I. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people results of a 17-year follow up. BMJ, 313, 775, 1996. With permission from the BMJ Publishing Group.40 cholesterol and triacylglycerol production as previously discussed. Exogenous plant dietary fat supplies a...

Introduction Advocating Vegetarianism

For more than 20 years, noted philosophers, conservationists, and health advocates have aggressively called for people to embrace the vegetarian way of life. Over these years, the burden of proof has fallen upon the advocates of vegetarianism. In popular literature and obtuse philosophical treatises, the benefits of meat eating are increasingly questioned, and the harms are more and more evident. This includes harm to the creatures prepared for slaughter, the land on which they depend, and the people who eat their flesh. Advocates of vegetarianism argue that virtually no one and no thing is truly better off as a result of the modern-day meat industry. Much has already been accomplished through the advocacy of vegetarianism. In general, vegetarianism is now more widely practiced and more socially accepted in America. Multiple studies show that advocates of vegetarianism are correct it is a better way of life. And when we speak of vegetarianism as a better way of life, we move beyond...

Vegetarianism And The Medieval Church

Does speak more loudly than the conscience, and it is deaf to pleas to deny self for the sake of others, particularly other species. The rise of Christianity to cultural dominance, moreover, did nothing to strengthen the voice of conscience with respect to animal welfare. There were vegetarian sects within the medieval church (like the Manichees, for example), but the orthodox position, presented by Aquinas, was that the human race was given dominion over the animal creation, and could use it as best served human needs. The ideal of kinship between people and animals that had been put forward by ancient vegetarians was overridden by Aquinas' principle that the possession of rationality was necessary for moral consideration to be extended to a creature.6 To be sure, certain prominent churchmen Saints John Chrysostom and Benedict, for example did forswear the eating of flesh food their motivation, however, was primarily the desire to suppress their own carnal appetites, rather than to...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The percentage of calories contributed by protein in human diets, from vegan to omnivore, can vary from 8 to 18 , with approximately 2 to 10 greater intake of protein by the omnivore subjects vs. the vegetarians. The lowest level of protein intake is in vegans.12 Animal protein is considerably higher in essential amino acids and sulfur amino acid content and promotes a higher rate of growth in a growing animal than will any single dietary plant protein. When two or more dietary plant proteins are combined in a single meal or meals for the day, however, this potential for growth difference is offset in growing children.13,14 Additional advantages from the decrease or elimination of animal protein for the elderly can be seen in the lower serum lipid levels of vegetarians or vegans. The type of dietary protein, animal or plant, is the primary factor in the effect of proteins on serum cholesterol levels. Thus, the amino acid composition of the protein is a controlling factor for serum...

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Vegetarian dietary practices have been associated with many health benefits, including reduced death rates from ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer,2,5-8 and decreased risk of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension.2,9-11 Vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, typically have a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, dietary fiber, antioxidant nutrients, phytochemicals, and folic acid, with a lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol,12-15 each of which has been related to decreased risk of chronic disease.16-21 The question of whether the multiple benefits of vegetarian dietary practices extend to enhanced physical fitness and performance has been explored since early in the 20th century.2-4 A few simple studies conducted prior to 1910 reported augmented muscular endurance (e.g., holding arms out horizontally, deep knee bends, and leg raises) in vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian subjects, but these results have not been confirmed in subsequent...

Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Vegetarian Societies

Possible because death certification was becoming universal and reasonably complete for all causes of death and because of statistical and epidemiologic methods to conduct relatively sophisticated analyses of data. For example, studies in Britain in the early part of the 20th century evaluated death in religious orders that consumed little or no meat. These early studies found essentially no relationship between vegetarianism and cancer mortality.3 However, elevated mortality from colorectal cancer was observed in persons with comparatively lower intakes of carrots, onions, cabbage, beets, and turnips in a separate study.4 Subsequent studies by the same investigator revealed additional negative associations between green vegetable intake and intestinal cancer.5 These early studies suggested a protective impact on cancer risk of dietary regimens rich in fruits and vegetables. Subsequent observations in migrant groups to the U.S. showed a dramatic increase in cancer mortality...

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Polysaccharides (hemicelluloses, pectin, gums, and mucilages). These become the indigestible bulk of the stool. The free sugars of fruits are accompanied by protein, a small amount of lipid, minerals, a variety of accessory food factors including vitamins, and the soluble and insoluble fiber fraction.76,77 Elderly vegetarians or vegans have a high amount of fiber as a natural part of their dietary intake. This contrasts to the omnivore diet, which is either deficient in fiber or requires fiber supplements to obtain adequate stool bulk.

Epidemiological Studies of Vegetarians

Data from the Adventist Health Study (AHS) is of interest in comparing the effects of a vegetarian diet on obesity. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church doctrine promotes a healthy life-style and includes the recommendation of a vegetarian diet for its members. This study collected diet and other life-style characteristics of some 34,000 individuals, following them for several years and recording the incidence of chronic disease and death. Data recorded in 1976 indicated that about 45 of Californian Seventh-Day Adventists were vegetarian, with the remaining 55 consuming flesh food from occasionally (less than once per week) to daily. This fact makes this a valuable study population in which to compare the differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians, since both groups share many socio-demographic and life-style characteristics, differing primarily in diet. In three dietary subgroups of the Adventist Health Study cohort, the prevalence of obesity at baseline between vegetarian and...

The Process Of Developing The Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide

Vegetarian Pyramid Pic Loma Linda

In 1995, an international group of scientists, academicians, and medical practitioners with expertise in vegetarian nutrition was identified to assist in the process of developing a de novo vegetarian food guide with a graphic. Emphasis was placed on selecting individuals who would represent diverse vegetarian traditions and practices. Those organizing the alliance were involved with program planning for the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, scheduled in 1997.35 At the two previous meetings of the International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition in 1992 and 1987, there were numerous requests for tools to use in the nutritional guidance of vegetarians. Most health practitioners were using a vegetarian-adapted USDA food guide pyramid sans meat, published by the General Conference Nutrition Council (GCNC) of Seventh-Day Adventists.25 This pyramid has been and continues to be useful for a large number of lacto-ovo-vegetarians, but it fails to address frequency and the...

Minerals And The Elderly Vegetarian Or Vegan

Mineral metabolism in human nutrition still remains a subject that requires extensive study. Even routine mineral evaluation methods are lacking, particularly as an inexpensive sampling technique that will answer adequacy or deficiency questions of whole body content. For the elderly vegetarian or vegan, this chapter will confine the discussion on minerals to a short presentation on calcium metabolism, while placing the emphasis on magnesium and selenium because of their major importance and frequently low intake in the elderly. The elderly vegetarian or vegan has a signifi cant advantage for dietary sources of magnesium because seeds, nuts, legumes, unmilled cereal grains, and dark green vegetables are high in magnesium, while diets high in refined foods or dairy products are low in magnesium.97 The potential for mineral defi ciencies and toxicities in the elderly are well studied.98 Pharmacological doses of vitamin D increase magnesium absorption in both the defi cient and replete...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

A near-vegetarian diet is often needed to take advantage of high carbohydrate plant foods such as cereals, pasta, grains, dried fruits, and legumes. In one study of 347 marathon runners, more than 75 reported higher intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and lower intake of red meat and eggs when compared with pre-running dietary habits.37 (See Figure 12.2.) Nonetheless, in most studies, intake of carbohydrate by endurance athletes falls below recommended levels, although there are some noteworthy exceptions (e.g., Tarahumara Indian ultramarathon runners, and triathletes).137-41 The Tarahumara Indians, a Ute-Aztecan tribe inhabiting the rugged Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains in the north-central state of Chihuahua, Mexico, are extraordinary endurance runners who consume a simple, near-vegetarian diet composed primarily of corn and beans (75-80 of total energy intake is carbohydrate).38 Some athletes, especially elite male and female endurance athletes, test positive for...

Vegetarianism In Antiquity

The term vegetarianism was coined relatively recently in the mid-1800s when abstinence from meat began to take on the form of an organized movement. As a practice, however, it dates to quite early times in Western society, at least to Pythagoras, the Greek natural philosopher of the 6th century BC, who founded a religious community in southern Italy in which vegetarianism is supposed to have been part of the rule of life. Pythagoras' rejection of the eating of meat seems to have been based on the doctrine of the transmigration of souls in Orphic tradition, the human spirit was reborn in other creatures. If so, animal souls were of the same quality as human souls, and animals thus of the same moral standing as people. Slaughtering an animal equated to murder, and eating it was akin to cannibalism.2-3 Additional justifications of vegetarianism on moral grounds were put forward by other writers in later antiquity. During the first two centuries of the Christian era, Ovid and Plutarch...

17TH AND 18Thcentury Vegetarianism A Thomas Tryon

It was not until the 1600s that any significant addition to the vegetarian polemic was made. But then one encounters, in the writings of Thomas Tryon, the most comprehensive brief yet, for the virtues of flesh-free diet (that an Englishman should revive vegetarianism was prophetic, for England would serve as the fountainhead of vegetarian thought well into the 19th century). Tryon, a dissenting religionist cum health reformer and sometime poet, was one of his era's better known commentators on the rules of right living, both the moral and physical. In The Way to Health, Long Life and Happiness (1683), he brought the two spheres together, asking The intertwining of the medical and the moral would remain central to the vegetarian rationale throughout the 18th century. During the later 1700s, moreover, each theme would take on additional import. More serious consideration of the moral implications of diet was encouraged by developments in two areas of thought in particular physiology and...

Components Of Vegetarian Diets That May Be Associated With Altered Cancer Risk

The vegetarian diet differs from the non-vegetarian diet in more ways than the mere absence of meat. Some vegetarians often consume vegetarian protein products (e.g., soy) as meat substitutes and also tend to consume more fruits and vegetables and more whole wheat grains, which are rich in many micronutrients thought to offer some protection against cancer. Thus, the question that remains is whether it is something in meat itself (or perhaps the cooking of meat) or the lack of protective substances in the non-vegetarian diet that increases cancer risk in non-vegetarians. In this review, the common components of a typical vegetarian diet, including the role of soy, fiber, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, are reviewed in reference to cancer risk.

Vegetarian Children and Obesity

The physical growth and development of vegetarian children and adolescents is addressed in another chapter of this volume. In general, younger vegetarian children tend to be leaner than non-vegetarians,20 and this Vegetarian Non-vegetarian Figure 5.4 Mean BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians from four epidemio-logical studies. attribute also tends to be present among older vegetarian children and adolescents, although limited research data are available for older children. Lousuebsakul and Sabate21 studied anthropometric data of 870 children aged 7 to 18 years who were attending Seventh-Day Adventist schools in California. One third of them were vegetarian. A vegetarian lifestyle was associated with lower BMI and a decreased tendency to be overweight, especially in adolescent girls. Specifically, age- and height-adjusted analysis showed that vegetarian boys and girls were, on average, 1.4 kg and 1.0 kg, respectively, leaner than their non-vegetarian classmates. Also, BMI values and...

Promoting A Sciencebased Vegetarian Food Guide

For the average consumer, selecting a nutritious dietary pattern is a daily challenge. Food processing and marketing, fast food, variety, quality, availability, cultural influences, work schedules, family structure, food-related beliefs, economics, and food habits all contribute to complex dietary patterns documented among industrialized countries. During the mid 20th century, research on vegetarian populations shifted from describ ing nutrient deficiencies to documenting health benefits related to consuming fewer animal prducts.35-42 In 1987, in support of vegetarian dietary practices, the American Dietetic Association adopted a position statement on vegetarian diets stating that, appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. 43 Other professional and scientific organizations have also recognized the benefits of vegetarian diets as both disease-preventive and therapeutic...

Possible Risk Factors 1 Homocysteine

Typically, vegetarians have relatively high intakes of folate and similar intakes of vitamin B6, as compared with the general population.58 However, vegetarians (and particularly vegans) typically have relatively low intakes of vitamin B12.59 Vitamin B12 is essentially absent from plant foods and is present in small amounts in dairy products (but in somewhat higher amounts in eggs). Therefore, dietary intake of vitamin B12 in vegetarians is low unless they consume large amounts of dairy products and eggs, or regularly consume fortified foods or vitamin supplements. For example, Hokin and Butler60 reported that 73 of vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventist ministers in Australia had low serum vitamin B12 (

Topics Requiring More Research A Coronary Heart Disease in Vegans

There are few data on the long-term health of vegans. The pooled analysis of five prospective studies described above included 27,808 vegetarians, but only 753 of these subjects were vegans.52 Compared with regular meat-eaters in these cohorts, the death rate ratio for CHD in vegans was 0.74 (95 CI 0.46-1.21). The confidence interval for this estimate is wide, so that it is currently impossible to say whether mortality from CHD in vegans differs from that in regular meat-eaters, although the death rate ratio is similar to that observed for vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians in this analysis.

Studies in Seventh Day Adventists

Seventh day Adventists (SDAs) are a conservative Christian denomination dating back to the mid-19th century in the U.S By religious belief, the SDA church proscribes the use of tobacco, alcohol, and pork among church members and recommends, but does not require, that members practice a vegetarian lifestyle. As a consequence, a small number (

Public Health Implications

The degree of protection against cancer afforded by a vegetarian diet might be estimated by examining the decreased risk of cancer experienced by male and female vegetarians. As noted above, the protective effect of vegetarianism in males might be explained, in part, by differences in tobacco and alcohol use in vegetarian men compared with non-vegetarian men. In women, the role of these substances may not be as pronounced and hence the true effect of vegetarianism on cancer risk might be reflected among female rather than male vegetarians. However, for all cancer sites combined, the alteration in cancer mortality among female vegetarians compared with female non-vegetarians ranged from a 39 increase to a 32 decrease (average reduction in mortality was 12 ). For males, the reduction was substantially greater, with a decrease in mortality ranging from 31 to 60 (average reduction of 38 ). Where incidence data are available, the reduction in risk among females was 8 , while for males, the...

Studies Relating Very Low Meat Intake To Longevity

Oxford Vegetarian Study German Vegetarians In 10 of the 12 studies considered, the problem of low prevalence of meatless diets was addressed by either (1) over-sampling the vegetarians (Oxford Vegetarian Study90), (2) studying populations with a high prevalence of low meat consumers (Adventist Studies,96,97 Health Food Shoppers Study,91 studies that include a sizable number of subjects following a Mediterranean Diet pattern99-102), or (3) studying a vegetarian population and focusing on duration of adherence to a very low meat intake diet as the exposure of interest (German Vegetarians,94,95 Adventist Studies). In the remainder of this section, the design, findings, and limitations of the 12 studies relating very low meat intake to mortality that are listed in Table 7.3 are discussed. a. Oxford Vegetarian Study (U.K.) In the Oxford Vegetarian Study,90 6000 vegetarians, defined as those who never eat meat or fish, were recruited through the Vegetarian Society of the U.K. and...

Summary And Conclusions

When attempting to conclude whether these trends support a causal protective effect of low meat consumption, two major questions must be addressed. First, does confounding by the high prevalence of healthful behaviors among vegetarians bias the effect of low meat consumption toward greater protection Second, is the apparent protective effect of a low meat intake diet attributable, at least in part, to the benefits obtained from plant foods that replace meats in the diet The findings from this chapter do, to a noteworthy extent, address the first question in their indication that a significant reduction in risk for very low meat intake persists even after controlling for a number of important predictors of longevity (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, education, body mass index) in very health conscious study populations (i.e., Adventist Studies, Oxford Vegetarian Society Study). It is not possible, however, to adequately address the second question using the current data.

The Reproductive Years

The time between menarche and menopause, during which reproduction is possible, spans a period of almost 40 years in women. Although the presence of menstrual bleeding is often equated with the ability to conceive, establishing a pregnancy actually depends on the presence of a normal ovarian cycle (i.e., a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle). If vegetarianism affected women's reproduction, it would necessarily affect the characteristics of the ovarian cycle. To provide background information for an examination of this issue, the normal ovarian cycle will be described, as will subclinical and clinical disturbances of the cycle and their potential impact on reproduction. This will be followed by a discussion of the effects of various dietary and non-dietary factors on cycle characteristics, and finally, by a review of the available literature assessing whether differences exist between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Either inadequate or excessive energy availability can lead to...

The Menopausal Transition

Menopause signals the end of child-bearing capacity, and is also associated with changes in susceptibility to various chronic diseases, including breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.66 Differences in age at menopause between vegetarian and omnivorous women, should they exist, could be associated with differences in chronic disease patterns between these groups. Furthermore, some women experience unpleasant symptoms during menopause (vasomotor symptoms such as night sweats and hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, weight gain, headaches, and fatigue),67 and these symptoms have been observed to differ among women in different cultures.67,68 Whether dietary variables contribute to these differences in symptom experiences has not been clearly established, but there is speculation that they could.68-70 Some of these dietary differences may also exist between vegetarian and omnivorous women. Accordingly, after defining and describing the menopausal transition, available research on...

Accessory Growth Factors

While the diet of an older vegetarian may not contain all nutrients in sufficient quantities, it does contain a greater dietary variety compared with those elderly subjects on the omnivore diet who appear to be lacking in many B vitamins and the antioxidant fat soluble vitamins.81 However, there are two obvious exceptions to this generality for the vegetarian or vegan that deserve special emphasis. The first of these is vitamin B12, and the second is vitamin D, which acts as a hormone rather than a vitamin.39 To provide the proper conditions for vitamin B12 absorption, the elderly vegetarian should be tested for adequate iron stores,82 as prolonged iron deficiency damages the gastric mucosa and promotes gastric atrophy, including loss of gastric acid and intrinsic factor (IF), with diminished vitamin B12 absorption.83 It is highly recommended that screening should be done every 5 years beginning at the age of 55 because there is a gradual loss of absorbance capability of vitamin B12...

Diseasespecific Guidelines

Hypertriglyceredemia secondary to low fat intake is not seen with lower energy or calorie content of diets, or when accompanied by weight loss.39,40 It is also not seen if the diet is high in plant foods with ample whole grains and fiber, or among populations in developing countries consuming mostly unrefined plant-based diets containing low quantities of animal foods.41 (30-40 of kcals), the Mediterranean diet is relatively low in saturated fat and effectively helps lower LDL cholesterol levels without reducing HDL cholesterol or increasing plasma triglycerides. In the mind of nutritionists, the Mediterranean diet is one in which olive oil is the dominant fat and the diet includes plenty of vegetables (including legumes) cereals, fruits and vegetables, nuts, and small amounts of cheese, fish, and meat or, it is a plant-rich vegetarian-like diet.19 4. Vegetarian Diets The relationship between diet and coronary heart disease is more complex than one that simply considers the influence...

Moving Beyond Yeah

Each of the arguments noted above has enjoyed widespread acceptance in both philosophical and popular audiences, but the numbers of those who are choosing the vegetarian life-style are not reflective of these levels of acceptance. People are giving intellectual assent to the arguments while enjoying yet another hamburger. These great advocates of ethical vegetarianism have established the fact that meat eating is at least morally troublesome, even if the sense of obligation we feel as an audience has not brought about greater numbers of converts. It is true that vegetarianism is more acceptable now than it was 20 or 30 years ago, but why don't more people make this life-style change And of those who do make the change, as Amato and Partridge's survey shows, why are they doing it largely out of concern for animals who suffer the cruel fate of human consumption The two most widely successful moral and philosophical arguments for vegetarianism emerge from the animal rights movement and...

The Responsibility For And Care Taking Of Nature

The initial religious construct justifying and compelling vegetarianism is that of caring for nature. This is expressed as a religious duty demanding a responsibility for nature in terms of preserving and maintaining its function. This stems either from a belief in a creator originator who assigned this responsibility to humankind, or an understanding of nature itself as a deity demanding reverence and worship. In either case, the unnecessary destruction of both vegetative and animal life is seen as a violation of the principle. Although it can be argued that appropriate use of lower-order animals falls within responsible use, vegetarian adherents maintain that the destruction of animal life for human nourishment is unnecessary when sufficient plant sources are available. As a result, the use of lower-order animals for food is deemed a misuse, and even a sinful act because it violates the caretaking function. The inefficient and wasteful use of nature's resources in animal husbandry...

The Sacredness Of Life

Transmigration of souls from terrestrial, to marine, to bird, and finally to human form.33 A vegetarian diet thus became the only one that would not result in the destruction of another ensouled being. This idea was further developed, particularly in eastern religious thought, to include a backward as well as a forward progression of a soul, depending on the quality of the current life. Premature death at the hands of a human would thus interrupt the process and possibly consign the soul to a lower life form than would have otherwise been the case. The second reason for a vegetarian ideal from a sacred life perspective centers on the sentience of lower creatures. If the animal kingdom could experience emotion, particularly pain, suffering, fear, and deprivation, then causing such negative emotions would constitute a violation of that creature's life. This would be even more serious if death were to result. While most Christian theologians have been reluctant to grant to the animal...

The Pubertal Transition And Menarche

Menarche, the first menstrual bleeding, is understood by many to signal the onset of a woman's reproductive life. Yet, as will be described herein, the pubertal transition takes place over several years, with menarche occurring not at the onset, but relatively late in the process. Moreover, in most cases, women are not fertile (i.e., capable of becoming pregnant) until some period of time after menarche. This section will examine whether vegetarianism affects the pubertal transition, first by describing the transition itself, followed by an assessment of whether nutrition-related variables influence it. Finally, the available data comparing the age at menarche between vegetarians and omnivores will be evaluated. C. Studies of Age at Menarche of Vegetarians and Omnivores As alluded to by the above discussion, although much remains to be learned about determinants of age at menarche, the overall plane of nutrition appears to be an important factor. Accordingly, when examining studies...

Plant Based Mixed Diet Diet

Figure 12.4 A plant-based diet is associated with a macro- and micro-nutrient profile that is conducive to both health and endurance performance. 2. Messina, M. and Messina, V. The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 1996. 3. Nieman, D.C. Vegetarian dietary practices and endurance performance. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 48 754, 1988. 4. Nieman, D.C. Physical fitness and vegetarian diets is there a relationship. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 48 754, 1999. 7. Burr, M.L. and Sweetnam, P.M. Vegetarianism, dietary fiber, and mortality. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36 873, 1982. C.L. Cardiovascular disease risk factors are lower in African-American vegans compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarians. J. Am. Coll. Nutr, 17 425, 1998. 12. Nieman, D.C., Underwood, B.C., Sherman, K.M., Barbosa, J.C., Johnson, M., and Shultz, T.D. Dietary status of Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly women. J. Am. Diet. Assoc, 89 1763, 1989. 14....

Dietary Pattern And Pregnancy Outcome

The first comprehensive study of pregnant vegetarians, including dietary intake, nutritional status and health history, was reported by Hardinge et al. in 1954.2 Although vegans were included in the larger study of which this was a part, none was pregnant consequently, comparisons were made between lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOVs) and omnivores. There was no difference in height, weight, or weight gained during pregnancy and there were no serious delivery complications in either group. Birth weights and lengths were not significantly different. * Vegetarian as used in this chapter includes all types of vegetarian diets that may or may not include animal products. LOV refers to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, which include milk, dairy products, and eggs. Vegan refers to diets that exclude all animal products. Macrobiotic diets emphasize whole grains especially brown rice sea vegetables, legumes and other vegetables. If included, fruit is locally grown dairy products and meat are not...

Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance

Vegetarian diets do not have a well-defined effect on glucose tolerance. Western vegetarian diets generally include more low glycemic index foods, such as legumes and fruit, than non-vegetarian Western diets and might therefore reduce the incidence of glucose intolerance. Snowdon and Phillips43 found that self-reported diabetes was less prevalent among vegetarian than among non-vegetarian Seventh-Day Adven-tists, and that diabetes was only half as common as a cause of death among Seventh-Day Adventists, as compared with the American population as a whole. However, Asian vegetarians from the Indian subcontinent suffer a high incidence of diabetes, despite eating relatively large amounts of legumes. It is possible that a vegetarian diet high in complex carbohydrates has some protective effect against glucose intolerance and diabetes, but other factors such as energy intake, physical activity, and genotype may play more important roles in determining the risk of these conditions.

Fruits and Vegetables

The term vegetarian implies a lifestyle characterized by a diet rich in vegetable intake. A recent review based on 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies concluded that fruits and vegetables were effective in the prevention of several forms of cancer including stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.62 Twenty cohort studies (perhaps offering the strongest type of evidence) were reviewed and indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption afforded protection against lung cancer across all studies reviewed. The 174 case-control studies that were reviewed indicated that there was convincing evidence for a protective role for fruits and vegetables for cancer of the lung, stomach, and esophagus and probable evidence for protection against cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, colon, breast, pancreas, and bladder. In this review, prostate cancer was the one form of cancer not found to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption....

Analysis Interpretation

In general, these studies of vegetarian populations have revealed lower cancer mortality (or incidence) in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. In comparing vegetarians with the general population, in comparing vegetarians specifically with non-vegetarians, in comparing different cancer sites for different genders, ages groups, and time periods, a total of 204 SMRs or relative risks have been evaluated. More than 70 (71 ) of the SMRs or relative risks were decreased (i.e.,

Neurological Disorders

The aging population worldwide yields concern for an increased prevalence of dementia. Hypothetical reasons exist for lifelong dietary patterns influencing the most common forms of dementia. Harman has elucidated a theory that free radicals might be involved in the onset of dementia.97 Vegetarian diets high in antioxidants may confer protection against free radicals and thus reduce the risk of senile dementia.98 Multi-infarct dementia may also be related to the consumption of cholesterol and different fatty acids. Giem et al.99 investigated the relationship between animal product consumption and evidence of dementia in two sub groups of the Adventist Health Study cohort. To ensure a wide range of dietary exposure, 272 California residents were matched for age, sex, and zip code, which included one pure vegetarian, one lacto-ovo vegetarian, and two heavy meat eaters in each of 68 quartets. The second sub group included 2984 unmatched subjects who resided within the Loma Linda area....

Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine

Dietary intake of vitamin B12 can be low in both vegetarians and veg-ans.58-60,86 The sources of vitamin B12 in a vegetarian diet are dairy products, eggs, fortified foods (especially meat analogues, soya milks, yeast extracts, and breakfast cereals) and vitamin supplements. If none of these sources of vitamin B12 is regularly consumed, intake of this vitamin will be low and the risk of deficiency will increase. More data are needed on current intakes of vitamin B12 in vegetarians, and on whether this is a determinant of homocysteine and CHD risk in these populations.

New Adventist Health Study

Vegetarian Protein 0.15(.03-89) Adjusted for several Mills34 Pancreas cancer death was also evaluated in the incidence study. Because survival with this form of cancer is extremely poor, mortality is tantamount to incidence. When patterns of dietary intake were evaluated, risk of pancreas cancer was observed to decrease with increasing consumption of several foods commonly found in the vegetarian diet. Consumption of vegetarian protein products, legumes, and dried fruit all bore substantial reductions in risk of pancreas cancer. When meat consumption was included in the multivariate model, it was not associated with cancer risk although the vegetarian foods were all associated with decreased risk.34

Relation With Living Nature

Extrapolation of American eating habits to countries where the current diet is more vegetarian may illustrate the impact of current practices in industrialized countries. If each Indonesian or Costa Rican had the same diet as the average American, and if the animal produce involved were to come from their own countries, the Indonesian and Costa Rican rainforests would be eliminated in a few years.33 Replacement of nature by cultivated land strongly contributes to the much increased rate of extinction of natural species. 26-28 This, in turn, sharply reduces biodiversity.

Perspective On Us Food Guides

Regarding food and nutrient intake.28-31 Many of these organizations have developed their own food guides with a graphic, using widely varying research outcomes. For example, the recommendations for meat consumption by the federal government, professional, and science-based or academic organizations varies by a factor of more than two. The USDA Food Guide Pyramid recommends 5 to 7 ounces of meat consumption per day the National Cholesterol Education Panel's Step One and Step Two diets respectively include up to 6 and 5 ounces of meat consumption per day and the National Cancer Institute recommends no more than 3 ounces of meat consumption per day. In contrast, the Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid recommends no meat consumption.32 For many in the scientific and academic communities, questions continue to emerge regarding how outside commercial corporations and organizations exert an influence on nutritional recommendations made by both professional organizations and...

Series Preface For Modern Nutrition

We welcome the contribution Vegetarian Nutrition, edited by Joan Sabate with the collaboration of Rosemary Ratzin-Turner. There is a great deal of interest regarding vegetarianism as an alternate dietary pattern. This book discusses that issue in detail and will appeal to nutritionists, dietitians, physicians, students, and professionals in the health sciences and health services arenas.

Dietary Guidelines

Is the Vegetarian Diet Consistent with the Dietary Guidelines 1. What Do Vegetarians Eat The vegetarian label encompasses a wide variety of dietary and life-style values and practices. For the purposes of this chapter, the term vegetarian refers to a diet that avoids flesh foods such as meat, poultry, and fish but may include dairy products or eggs. The term vegan applies to a diet composed entirely of plant foods. Vegetarian and vegan diets emphasize plant foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. Plant-rich diets are those that include a generous proportion of plant foods and relatively small amounts of animal foods, whether meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, or dairy products. Plant-rich diets such as those consumed by traditional populations in Mediterranean countries or the Far East are sometimes referred to as vegetarian-like diets. It is difficult to establish an exact vegetarian pattern of intake. First, individuals and groups who adopt the vegetarian diet...

Coronory Heart Disease

Vegetarianism and Coronary Risk III. Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart B. Intervention Trial of a Low-Fat Vegetarian Diet 45 C. Foods, Nutrients, Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart Disease 45 B. Coronary Heart Disease in Vegetarian South Asians 47 Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of death in most Western countries, and is rapidly becoming a major cause of death in developing countries too. Lopez and Murray1 predicted that, by the year 2020, CHD will be the leading cause of disease worldwide. Differences in the diets consumed by different populations account for much of the observed variation in CHD mortality rates, and the effect of vegetarian diets on CHD is a topic of great interest. Vegetarian diets are defined by what they do not include and can vary enormously in terms of both foods and nutrients. The diets of affluent Western vegetarians are very different from those of poor vegetarians in developing countries. Even within Western countries, vegetarian diets vary...

Hemostatic Factors

Dietary factors influence haemostasis, but the precise nature of these relationships is not well understood.37 Some studies, but not all, have reported lower levels of fibrinogen and of factor VIIc in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians.38-41 However, both Mezzano et al.39 and Li et al.41 reported that vegetarians had higher indices of platelet aggregation than controls, perhaps because of the lower levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in the platelets of the vegetarians. Overall, it is difficult to say whether the effects of a vegetarian diet on hemostatic factors are likely to have any important effect in relation to CHD.

Alcohol

Few studies have reported on alcohol intake in Western vegetarians, but the data available suggest that their alcohol intake is relatively low.52 In theory, this might cause a slight increase in risk of CHD relative to non-vegetarians. However, there is no evidence that alcohol reduces CHD risk among vegetarians in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, CHD risk did not decrease with increasing alcohol intake,53 while in the studies of Seventh-Day Adventists, alcohol intake is very low and no data on alcohol and CHD risk have been published.

Antioxidants

Vegetarian diets are generally higher in carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E than non-vegetarian diets. For example, in a study in New Zealand, Zino et al.62 reported that vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists consumed more fruits and vegetables than both non-vegetarian Seventh-Day Adven-tists and non-Adventist non-vegetarians who were subjected to an intervention designed to increase their intake of fruits and vegetables. Plasma concentrations of P-carotene and a-tocopherol were also higher in the vegetarians than in the other groups. Similar results have been reported in other studies.63 Although vegetarian diets are generally relatively rich in carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, they are not necessarily rich in selenium, another antioxidant nutrient. Selenium levels are high in fish and moderately high in meat, but the selenium content of plant foods is strongly determined by the selenium content of the soil. Some small studies have reported low selenium levels in vegetarians and...

Dn 3 Fatty Acids

Vegetarian diets are, by definition, devoid of oily fish, which are rich sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Dairy products contain negligible amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, whereas eggs may provide significant quantities of these fatty acids, depending on the diet of the hens (see II.B. 3 above). Vegetarian diets usually contain moderate quantities of n-3 a-linolenic acid, particularly from soya and rapeseed (canola) oils (linseed oil is very rich in this fatty acid but is not commonly consumed). However, vegetarian diets are also often very rich in n-6 linoleic acid, which inhibits the elongation of a-linolenic acid to the longer chain derivatives, EPA and DHA. The importance of these factors for CHD (and for other aspects of health) remains to be fully elucidated. However, current knowledge supports the recommendation that vegetarians should select their foods to provide adequate amounts of n-3 a-linolenic acid and to keep consumption of n-6 linoleic acid moderate to...

Introduction

Interest in the relationship between dietary habits and health dates back to antiquity. There are numerous references in the Old Testament to dietary regimens thought to promote or enhance health, and most of the major world religions (both Eastern and Western) have incorporated at least some dietary recommendations, admonitions or proscriptions in their teachings for more than two millennia. Evidence of human cancer has been found in the ancient Egyptian mummies, although only in the 20th century, as life expectancy has increased and after the relative decline of infectious diseases as a cause of death, has cancer emerged as a major public health concern. Many modern-day studies of diet and cancer have focused on religious groups that advocate a vegetarian lifestyle. Vegetarian populations are useful for study because they can be compared with external, non-vegetarian referent populations and the differences in cancer risk can be measured. They are also instructive in that internal...

Conclusion

Data demonstrate that, in general, those following a vegetarian or almost vegetarian dietary regimen tend to have lower body weights and BMI levels than their omnivorous counterparts. The exact mechanisms that produce these results have not been precisely identified. It could simply be that vegetarians have a lower total energy intake than non-vegetarians. Moreover, the lower macro-nutrient density of the vegetarian diet may allow a feeling of satiation at lower energy intake. The high fiber, low fat, and relatively low protein levels in most vegetarian diets also seem to be beneficial in preventing weight gain. While it is obvious that a vegetarian diet is not a panacea for obesity control, it does appear that it may be of use both in preventing the occurrence of obesity and perhaps in dietary intervention for weight loss. Given the documented negative outcomes of obesity and the likelihood of other positive benefits of a vegetarian regimen, it may be a prudent intervention in the...

Definitions

Categories of Vegetarian Diets Two main categories of vegetarian diets can be distinguished. Neither meat, fish, nor poultry are consumed in these categories. The most lenient of the two is the lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) diet, which allows for milk, dairy, and egg consumption. Lactovegetarians (LV), on the other hand, consume milk and dairy products, but do not eat eggs. The pure or strict vegetarian diet, usually referred to as the vegan diet, contains no food derived from animals. Often, the macrobiotic diet is ascribed to the vegan category of diets. However, followers of this largely spiritually based regimen may occasionally use some lean fish and meat. Typical macrobiotic dietary items such as unpolished rice and other whole grain cereals, seaweeds, soya products, and miso soup are eaten regularly, whereas fresh fruit and salads are avoided or used sparsely. This explanation is important because, in the last three decades, the numerous published studies examining the growth...

Adolescents

Reports in the medical literature of vegetarian infants suffering from malnutrition are rather exceptional. These case studies must be interpreted with caution, because they are often not typical for vegetarians as a whole. When such cases of under- or malnutrition are more closely examined, it appears that usually the infants have not been weaned into a varied balanced vegetarian diet, but rather into a more restricted vegetarian regimen.5,14-18 The issues of potential risks of particular restricted vegetarian or macrobiotic diets fed to children should not be ignored, but they should be placed in their proper context, with appropriate attention and respect for the dietary philosophy of the parent(s). In this respect, dietitians who are knowledgeable about balanced vegetarian regimens can play an important role in guiding parents to provide an appropriate vegetarian diet for their children. This chapter will deal with epidemiological research studies using anthropometry related to...

Energy Intake

Vegetarians may be similar in weight to the general populace or weigh somewhat less.16 This is particularly true of vegans, who may weigh as much as 10-20 less than omnivores or LOVs.2,17 This may, in part, be due to dietary factors such as the higher intake of plant foods, which contain much more fiber and are usually less energy dense than animal food products, as well as the somewhat lower fat intake. Thus, some vegetarians may enter pregnancy at a lower weight for height and may need more careful monitoring of weight status. Birth weight among macrobiotic infants was positively associated with maternal weight gain in pregnancy, as it was in the recent study of LOVs.5,18 Although studies have reported birth weight of infants born to vegetarians, little is known about maternal energy intake and gestational weight gain in such populations. Energy intake was reported to be low in Hindu vegetarian women however, there was no evidence that it was lower than in Muslim women.14 Weight...

Riboflavin

Riboflavin deficiency among vegetarians should not be a major concern in the West since there are good riboflavin sources available for the vegetarian. These include dairy products, whole grains, leafy green vegetables, legumes, and sea vegetables. While vegetarian adults in Western nations generally have somewhat lower riboflavin intakes than do omni-vores,77 they still have intakes of riboflavin above the U.S. RDAs (1.3 mg for males 1.1 mg for females). Vegans often report a lower riboflavin intake than omnivores or LOVs, but their intakes are still generally adequate.78 In a study of elderly women in California, the lacto-vegetarians reported slightly higher riboflavin intakes (1.46 mg d) than the omnivores (1.36 mg d).33 Many teenagers have a marginal riboflavin intake, possibly due to poor dietary choices. Among Canadian teenagers, slightly more lacto-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians had inadequate riboflavin intakes than did omnivores.48

The Elderly

In a study of 37 elderly women, vegetarians were observed to consume higher levels of many vitamins and minerals.33 However, both non-vegetarians and vegetarians had some risk of deficiency of key nutrients such as calcium, zinc, vitamin B6, and vitamin E. Vegetarians were significantly more likely to be deficient in vitamins D and B12. The nutritional status of all elderly, both vegetarians and non-vegetarians, should be individually evaluated, paying special attention to vitamin D, B12, calcium, zinc, and folate. Evaluation of vitamin B12 status is particularly important in geriatric patients due to the increased risk of anemia and dementia from atrophy of the small bowel, lack of intrinsic factor, and achlorhydria. A significant number of elderly persons with dementia have been found to be vitamin B12 deficient.117

Conclusions

Vegetarian diets normally contain substantial amounts of potassium, folic acid, magnesium, manganese, copper, fiber, vitamins C, E, and K, and vitamin A (carotenoids). Since the different types of vegetarian diets are quite varied in their composition, nutrient concerns will vary from one to another. Appropriately planned vegan or LOV diets can be nutritionally adequate. However, there are significant nutritional concerns regarding vegetarian diets such as a strict macrobiotic diet. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans tend to consume sufficient protein in their diets. Even though vegetarians consume iron in a less bioavailable form (non-heme iron), the consumption of a well-balanced vegetarian diet is not associated with any greater risk of iron deficiency. Vegetarian females, especially vegans, tend to have a lower zinc intake and possibly a lower zinc status than omnivores. However, the zinc intake of vegetarian males, both LOV and vegan, appears to be adequate. Female vegans should be...

Type 2 Diabetes

Dietary surfeit is a contributing factor to the disproportionately increased incidence of type 2 diabetes seen in the U.S., and is capable of precipitating the disease onset in those who are genetically susceptible. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, accounting for approximately 70 of the variance in disease prevalence.72 Therefore, plant-only and plant-based eating patterns that assist in weight management will have preventive effects in individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Basic research and epidemiological findings are important to consider in reference to the specific components of plant-based and meat-based diets that may protect or contribute to diabetes prevalence. The research on the role of vegetarian diets in the primary and secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes will be reviewed in this section. A. Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Phillips et al.3 noted that non-vegetarians consume less dietary...

Body Mass Index

Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. in men (Figure 5.3). A higher proportion of meat eaters than non-meat eaters were overweight or obese (21 vs. 10 of men and 13 vs. 8 of women), whereas a lower proportion of meat eaters had a BMI 20kg m2 (9 vs. 17 of men and 18 vs. 33 of women). No significant differences in BMI values were observed in this study between long-term vegetarians (5 years or more) and those who had recently given up meat. Figure 5.3 Oxford Vegetarian Study cohort. Comparison of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians by gender and age. Figure 5.3 Oxford Vegetarian Study cohort. Comparison of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians by gender and age. Meat eaters consumed significantly more animal fat and alcoholic beverages and less dietary fiber than non-meat...

Vitamin B12

Found in any significant amounts in plant foods, some vegetarians, especially vegans, may be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Lacto-ovo-vegetar-ians, however, could obtain sufficient vitamin B12 from eggs and dairy products, provided these products are consumed in significant amounts. C. Are Vegetarians at Risk It is essential that pregnant and breast-feeding women have adequate B12 intakes, especially when following a vegan diet. During the latter half of pregnancy, the fetus removes about one fifth of a microgram of B12 per day from the mother's stores, while a nursing mother may give up one third of a microgram of B12 per day in her breast milk. Without a proper B12 intake, fetal stores and breast milk levels of B12 may fall to very low levels, especially in a vegan consuming a diet without any B12 supplement.131 The infant born to a mother who has been a vegetarian for many years is clearly at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Even though the mother may not show signs of...

Obesity

Numerous studies have consistently found that vegetarians are, on average, thinner than comparable non-vegetarians.21,47-49 The data from four large cohorts are shown in Figure 3.1. The average body mass index (BMI) varies substantially between cohorts (higher in the Seventh-Day Adventist cohorts in California than in the European cohorts), but, on average, vegetarians in each cohort have a BMI about 1 kg m2 lower than that of non-vegetarians within the same cohort. The difference is similar in men and women, and is seen in all age groups. The lower mean BMI of vegetarians leads to a substantially lower prevalence of obesity.47 The reasons for this association have not been established. An analysis of data from 5,000 men and women in the Oxford Vegetarian Study suggested that the lower BMI of non-meat-eaters was partly due to a higher intake of dietary fiber and a lower intake of animal fat, and, in men only, a lower intake of alcohol. These factors, however, accounted for only one...

Smoking

Studies of Western vegetarians have generally shown that they have a much lower prevalence of smoking than the general population, and also a substantially lower prevalence than comparable non-vegetarians.48 Therefore, when considering the effects of a vegetarian diet on CHD risk, it is essential to statistically adjust the results for the confounding effect of smoking.

Nutrient Issues

Well-planned vegetarian diets can meet the energy and nutrient needs of pregnancy and lactation.21 If, however, a diet becomes limited in the kinds or amounts of foods that are consumed, there is greater risk for inadequacy and the greater the restriction, the greater the risk. Because the increase in need for nutrients during pregnancy is greater than the increase in need for energy, care must be taken to choose nutrient-rich foods to meet energy needs. Vegetarian diets, particularly those that include no animal products, should include regular consumption of legumes (dried peas and beans). Soybeans are an especially rich plant source of amino acids, as well as other essential nutrients, and may be consumed in various forms. These include cooked dried or green soybeans, tofu, tempeh, soy milk, and commercial meat analogs. A variety of whole-grain products, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and nut butters, as well as milk, dairy products, and eggs for those who use them - contribute to...

N3 Fatty Acids

Vegetarian diets are generally very low in long chain n-3 fatty acids. Eggs can provide significant amounts if the chickens are fed a diet high in a-linolenic acid, but most egg production in Western countries relies on feeds such as corn, which have a very high ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and the resulting eggs are low in long chain n-3 fatty acids.74 Dairy products contain only trace amounts of long chain fatty acids, and plant foods none (with the exception of some algae). Vegetarian diets generally provide reasonable amounts of a-linolenic acid (about 1.5 mg day), but can also be very high in n-6 linoleic acid, which competes for the same enzymes. Tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids are relatively low in vegetarians and vegans.59,75

Summary

Antioxidant intake of the vegetarian or vegan diet, as part of every meal, appears to promote a longer life-span for elderly subjects.9 The necessity of supplemental vitamin B12 and vitamin D for the elderly vegetarian or vegan might be construed as a problem, but less so than for the elderly omnivore, who has a longer list of required supplemental vitamins and minerals. The mineral advantage, in terms of a lower calcium requirement for elderly vegans, is possibly the biggest advantage of all, if they also have supplemental vitamin D. A life-style health advantage can be rated relative to improved mortality of those in other life-styles. Certainly, we must also relate to improved quality of life, or as reduced morbidity. Vegetarians, as health-conscious people, have reduced mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovas-cular disease, and all causes combined.40,41 More specifically, they experience reduced morbidity and mortality due to obesity, constipation, lung cancer,...

The 20th Century

Great Britain and the United States remained the centers of vegetarian philosophy and practice into the 20th century. In the former, the cause of vegetable diet was promoted with particular eloquence by Henry Salt (Mohandas Gandhi, among others, pointed to Salt as the inspiration for his own vegetarianism). Author of numerous books calling for elimination of social injustices, Salt was nevertheless best known most notorious for his advocacy of Animals' Rights, the title of an 1892 volume that subjected every form of exploitation of the brute creation to criticism. There, and in his later The Logic of Vegetarianism (1899), Salt employed a thoroughly unsentimental approach to argue that philosophy and science alike required abstention from meat. Philosophy, his logic of vegetable diet, could not support the common assumptions that human beings have no moral relationship or obligation to other creatures, and that the killing of animals for food is a law of nature. That second belief had...

Vitamin D

Vegetarian Studies Vegetarians have been shown to have a lower mean intake of vitamin D and a lower mean serum vitamin D level. In a study of Finnish women, the dietary intake of vitamin D in vegans was found to be insufficient to maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter.111 Both LOV and vegan premeno-pausal women had vitamin D intakes significantly lower than the omnivores. The vegans had significantly lower (12 ) bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar region of the spine than the omnivores, and the vegans' spinal BMD tended to be lower than the LOVs. In addition, BMD A New Zealand study also found that both LOVs and vegans had significantly lower vitamin D intakes than did omnivores.113 Daily vitamin D intake for the vegans was 1.9 mcg. (76 IU) while the omnivores had a mean daily vitamin D intake of 3.4 mcg. (132 IU). Among elderly Seventh-Day Adventist women in California, vitamin D intake of vegetarians was...

The 19th Century

The moral hideousness of killing animals for food still dominated vegetarian discussions into the early decades of the 19th century. But the physical depravity of flesh food was hardly being overlooked, and by the middle of the century it would ascend to at least equal status with morality. Even Oswald recognized the unsuitability of meat for the human body. Approach, he requested, urging readers to gaze upon the scene of carnage a second time Approach, I say, . and tell me, tell me, does this ghastly spectacle whet your appetite Delights your eyes the sight of blood Is the steam of gore grateful to your nostrils, or pleasing to the touch, the icy ribs of death . or with a species of rhetoric, pitiful as it is perverse, will you still persist in your endeavour to persuade us, that to murder an innocent animal, is not cruel nor unjust and that to feed upon a corpse, is neither filthy nor unfit 16 Filthy and unfit are moral terms, to be sure, but they have physiological connotations as...

Prologue

Editor's Note I would like to recognize Dr. Mervyn Hardinge, a pioneer in the field of vegetarian nutrition. His work and dedication to the scientific investigation of vegetarian diets have served as an inspiration to those who have followed. To this end, Dr. Hardinge has submitted a historical prologue to this volume, for which I wish to thank him. Historical records of ancient times reveal that each nation passes through well-defined dietary stages. When the nation is young and struggling to develop, the people are generally poor and the diet is frugal, consisting chiefly of plant foods. As the nation becomes well established and its people prosper, animal foods become more plentiful. Thus, the interest in vegetarian dietaries has waxed and waned through the centuries. Historians have noted that, in times of plenty, interest in such diets has been low, while during periods of famine, the reverse has been true. During cycles of riotous living and profligacy, non-flesh diets have been...

Osteoporosis

Table 6.1 Seventh-Day Adventist Consumption Patterns According to Vegetarian Status* Food Vegetarian Semivegetarian Nonvegetarian Table 6.1 Seventh-Day Adventist Consumption Patterns According to Vegetarian Status* Food Vegetarian Semivegetarian Nonvegetarian Vegetarian meat substitutes *All differences were significant at P 0.001, except for salads (nonsignificant). Data were adjusted for age and sex. Vegetarians ate no meat, fish, or poultry semi-vegetarians ate meat, fish, or poultry in total 1 time wk. *All differences were significant at P 0.001, except for salads (nonsignificant). Data were adjusted for age and sex. Vegetarians ate no meat, fish, or poultry semi-vegetarians ate meat, fish, or poultry in total 1 time wk. epidemiological studies of different populations around the world. This can be achieved by comparing disease incidence among populations with either differing diet practices (vegetarian vs. omnivorous), or by the presence or absence of specific food groups (meat,...

The answer is e McPhee 2e p 109 Fauci 14e pp 337 and 640

The answer is d. (McPhee, 2 e, pp 111-113 Fauci, 14 e, pp 653-659.) Pernicious anemia, a megaloblastic anemia, results from a complex cascade of events that is autoimmune in origin. Antibodies against gastric parietal cell components and intrinsic factor are common, and antibody-generating B lymphocytes are found in the gastric mucosa. The signs of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency are delayed by the liver storage of cobalamin, provided that the patient's intake has previously been normal. Cobalamin deficiency is almost always due to malabsorption. Normal diets usually provide adequate intake of cobalamin however, in vegetarians the intake is inadequate. Persons suffering from pernicious anemia can develop very low hemoglobin levels, as low as 4 g dL, unlike other anemias. Multiple neurologic findings (due to demyelination at first and then axonal degeneration) include numbness and paresthesias, weakness, ataxia, difficulties with mentation, and abnormal deep tendon reflexes and...

Fasting

Are extremely resentful of the world because they're so miserable. That just changed everything for me. I stopped being a vegetarian, I stopped worrying about my diet, I started to eat what I want and ever since then that's been my approach to healing in terms of diet and physical things. I just listen to my body as much as I can. There have been times that I've craved fasting or I just haven't felt like eating so I don't eat.

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You have a patient who is very health-conscious and regularly ingests a large number of vitamins in megadoses and herbal therapies on a daily basis. She is a strict vegetarian as well. She is going to attempt pregnancy and wants your advice regarding her diet and nutrition intake. Which of the following is true regarding diet recommendations in pregnancy d. During pregnancy, vegetarians obtain sufficient amounts of vitamin B12 in their diet needed for the fetus

Transmission

While congenital transmission and carnivorism can explain some of the transmission of T. gondii, it does not explain the widespread infection in vegetarians and herbivores. A study in Bombay, India, found the prevalence of T. gondii in strict vegetarians to be similar to that in non-vegetarians (Rawal, 1959). Hutchison (1965), a biologist at Strathclyde University in Glasgow, first discovered T. gondii infectivity associated with cat feces. In a preliminary experiment, Hutchison (1965) fed T. gondii cysts to a cat infected with the nematode Toxocara cati and collected feces containing nematode ova. Feces floated in 33 zinc sulfate solution and stored in tap water for 12 months induced toxoplasmosis in mice. This discovery was a breakthrough, because until then both known forms of T. gondii (i.e. tachyzoites and bradyzoites) were killed by water. Microscopic examination of feces revealed only T. cati eggs and Isospora oocysts. In Hutchison's report, T. gondii infectivity

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