Cytodifferentiation By

Retinoids, a Novel Therapeutic Option in Oncology Rational Combinations with Other Therapeutic Agents Enrico Garattini, Maurizio Gianni', and MINEKO TERAO Laboratorio di Biologia Molecolare, Centro Catullo e Daniela Borgomainerio Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ''Mario Negri,'' via Eritrea 62 20157 Milano, Italy I. Premise and Scope Differentiation Therapy with Retinoids Is a Significant Goal in the Management of the Neoplastic Diseases II. The Classical Nuclear RAR Pathway Is Complex and...

And Wayne G Wamer

*National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration Jefferson, Arkansas 72079 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration College Park, Maryland 20740 II. Structure and Physiological Functions of the Skin III. Cutaneous Absorption and Deposition of Dietary and Topically Applied Retinol and Retinyl Esters A. Absorption and Deposition of Dietary Vitamin A by the Skin B. Absorption and Deposition of Topically Applied Retinol and Retinyl...

Overview Of Compartmental Analysis

Mathematical models are mathematically formalized representations of a system that allow for the study of complex processes that are occurring simultaneously. In different disciplines of biology, mathematical modeling has been used to gain a deeper understanding of physiological systems and processes. For example, mathematical modeling has been used to study the rate of uptake of endogenous and exogenous compounds, to calculate enzyme kinetics, to predict pharmacological responses to drugs, and...

Emphysema And Vitamin A

An alternative hypothesis for the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema attributes the disease to consequences of vitamin A deficiency. There is evidence that suggests that cigarette smoke induces vitamin A deficiency and that this deficiency leads to emphysema. Support for this hypothesis is based on a series of related experiments. Weanling rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 6 weeks with no smoke exposure develop emphysema (Baybutt et al., 2000). These pathological effects of...

References

Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., and Walter, P. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell,'' 4th ed., pp. 1090-1118. Garland Science, New York. Andersen, K. B., Nilsson, A., Blomhoff, R., 0yen, T. B., Gabrielsen, O. S. D., Norum, K. R., and Blomhoff, R. (1992). Direct mobilization of retinol from hepatic perisinusoidal stellate cells to plasma. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 1340-1344. Apte, M. V., Haber, P. S., Applegate, T. L., Norton, I. D., McCaughan, G. W., Korsten, M. A.,...

Physiological Activities

FXR acts as a bile acid sensor and is involved in a negative feedback regulation controlling bile acid production (reviewed in Edwards et al., 2002). FXR was initially cloned as an RXR-interacting protein called RIP14 (Seol et al., 1995). Its expression is restricted to adrenal cortex, intestine, colon, kidney, and liver. FXR forms heterodimers with RXR to bind to DNA response elements (FXREs), most often consisting of two hexamers (GGGTCA or close derivatives), organized in an inverted...

Mechanisms For Protection Against Emphysema By Vitamin A

Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe how vitamin A may protect against emphysema. Progressive breakdown of elastin within the alveoli, which is a key feature in development of emphysema (Cardoso et al., 1993), is thought to be caused by excessive activity of elastase (Cichy et al., 1997) and or metalloproteinases (Seagrave, 2000). Cigarette smoke significantly increases lung and lavage macrophage elastolytic activity of smoke-exposed guinea pigs (Sansores et al., 1997). RA inhibits...

Tocotrienols In Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemia is a stage when there is no blood flow in a cell as blood is the only carrier of air or oxygen, cells become subject to a lot of stress due to lack of oxygen. When this kind of situation arises in the heart, the disease is known as ischemia heart disease. Apart from atherosclerotic plaque deposition, oxidative stress is also considered as one of the major causes of ischemic heart disease. The excellent free radical scavenging property of tocotrienols attenuates the oxidative stress...

Carotenoid Cleavage Enzymes During Development And In Various Tissues Of The Adult

Retinoids play an essential role in vertebrate development and the present model assumes that the retinoids needed by the embryo are mainly derived from preformed maternal vitamin A. Since molecular data were missing, it could not be elucidated whether the embryo itself can take also advantage of provitamins. von Lintig and his group Lampert et al., 2003 used the zebrafish Danio rerio as a vertebrate model system to study the expression patterns of Bcmo1 during development. The zebrafish Bcmo1...