Effects of Vitamins Inc Luding Vitamin A on Hivaids Patients

SAurAbh MEhtA AnD WAfAiE FAwzi

I. Introduction 357 II. Vitamins and Immune Function 358

III. Vitamins, HIV Transmission, and Pregnancy Outcomes 360

IV. Vitamins and HIV Disease Progression in Adults 366

V. Vitamins, Growth, and Disease Progression in HIV-Infected Children and HIV-Negative Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers 372 VI. Comment 374 VII. Future Research 377 References 377

ViTamin A and EmphysEma

RichArD C. BAYbutt AnD Agostino MoLtEni

I. Does Vitamin A Protect Against Pulmonary Emphysema? 386 II. Conclusions 397 References 398

index 403

Contributors

Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors' contributions begin.

Kenneth M. Baker (257) Division of Molecular Cardiology, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, College of Medicine, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, Texas 76504.

Richard C. Baybutt (385) Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506.

Hans K. Biesalski (117) Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Mary D. Boudreau (223) National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079.

Gurunadh R. Chichili (117) Institute of Biology I, Animal Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Christopher J. Cifelli (161) Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801.

Dipak K. Das (285) Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030.

Samarjit Das (285) Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030.

Beatrice Desvergne (1) Center for Integrative Genomics, Building Genopode, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Wafaie Fawzi (355) Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

J├╝rgen Frank (117) Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Peter P. Fu (223) National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079.

Denis Gallot (97) Universite d'Auvergne, JE 2447, ARDEMO, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France; CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Maternite, Hotel-Dieu, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Enrico Garattini (301) Laboratorio di Biologia Molecolare, Centro Catullo e Daniela Borgomainerio, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri,'' via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milano, Italy.

Maurizio Gianni' (301) Laboratorio di Biologia Molecolare, Centro Catullo e Daniela Borgomainerio, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri,'' via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milano, Italy.

Joanne Balmer Green (161) Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801.

Michael H. Green (161) Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801.

Paul C. Howard (223) National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079.

Naosuke Kojima (131) Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543, Japan.

Didier Lemery (97) Universite d'Auvergne, JE 2447, ARDEMO, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France; CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Maternite, Hotel-Dieu, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Johannes von Lintig (117) Molecular Immunogenetics Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104.

Geoffroy Marceau (97) Universite d'Auvergne, JE 2447, ARDEMO, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France; INSERM, U.384, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculte de Medecine, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Saurabh Mehta (355) Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

Agostino Molteni (385) Department of Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Missouri, Kansas City Medical School, Kansas City, Missouri 64108.

Kyle A. Murphy (33) Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901.

Kalanithi Nesaretnam (285) Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Donatus Nohr (117) Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Jing Pan (257) Division of Molecular Cardiology, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, College of Medicine, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, Texas 76504.

Loredana Quadro (33) Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901.

A. Catharine Ross (197) Department of Nutritional Sciences and Huck Institute for Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802.

Vincent Sapin (97) Universite d'Auvergne, JE 2447, ARDEMO, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France; INSERM, U.384, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculte de Medecine, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Mitsuru Sato (131) Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543, Japan.

Haruki Senoo (131) Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543, Japan.

Dianne Robert Soprano (69) Department of Biochemistry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140; Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140.

Kenneth J. Soprano (69) Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School ofMedicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140.

Bryan W. Teets (69) Department of Biochemistry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140.

Mineko Terao (301) Laboratorio di Biologia Molecolare, Centro Catullo e Daniela Borgomainerio, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri,'' via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milano, Italy.

William H. Tolleson (223) National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079.

Wayne G. Wamer (223) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland 20740.

Lori A. White (33) Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901.

Qingsu Xia (223) National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079.

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