F9

Not RA regulated

Indispensable for primitive and parietal endoderm and not required for visceral endoderm

RARa2

F9, P19

Primary

RARa needed for efficient differentiation to parietal endoderm. Loss of RARa caused an increase in the metabolism of RA

RARb2

F9, P19

Primary

Required for sustained expression of RA-induced gene expression but not necessary for the initiation of differentiation. Also important for RA-dependent growth inhibition

Hoxa-1

F9, P19, ES

Primary

Not sufficient to induce differentiation without RA. Positive regulator of neuroectodermal and mesodermal differentiation, repressor of endodermal differentiation

Hoxb-2

F9, P19

Primary

Mechanistic studies not performed

Rex-1 (Zfp-42)

F9, ES

Secondary

Important for differentiation to primitive and visceral endoderm but not parietal endoderm

Pbxl

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