1. Rhodes AR, Silverman RA, Harrist TJ, et al. Mucocutaneous lentigines, cardiomucocu-taneous myxomas, and multiple blue nevi: the "LAMB" syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 10(1):72-82.

2. Voron DA, Hatfield HH, Kalkhoff RK. Multiple lentigines syndrome. Case report and review of the literature. Am J Med 1976; 60(3):447-456.

3. Ridley CM. A review of the recent literature on diseases of the vulva. I. General aspects. Br J Dermatol 1972; 86(6):641-647.

4. Fargnoli MC, Orlow SJ, Semel-Concepcion J, et al. Clinicopathologic findings in the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1996; 132(10):1214-1218.

5. Lenane P, Sullivan DO, Keane CO, et al. The Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001; 15(6):574-577.

6. Pandolfino TL, Cotell S, Katta R. Pigmented vulvar macules as a presenting feature of the Carney complex. Int J Dermatol 2001; 40(11):728-730.

7. Vega Gutierrez J, Miranda Romero A, Martinez G, Torrero MV, Lopez de Juan M. Hyperpigmentation mimicking Laugier syndrome, levodopa therapy and Addison's disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003; 17(3):324-327.

8. Milde P, Goerz G, Plewig G. Dowling-Degos disease with exclusively genital manifestations. Hautarzt 1992; 43(6):369-372.

9. O'Goshi K, Terui T, Tagami H. Dowling-Degos disease affecting the vulva. Acta Derm Venereol 2001; 81(2):148.

10. Stephens-Groff SM, Hansen RC, Bangert J. Benign pigmented apocrine vulvar hamarto-mas. Pediatr Dermatol 1993; 10(2):123-124.

11. Feakins RM, Lowe DG. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study of 45 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1997; 16(4):319-324.

12. Rock B, Hood AF, Rock JA. Prospective study of vulvar nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 22(1):104-106.

13. Rock B. Pigmented lesions of the vulva. Dermatol Clin 1992; 10(2):361-370.

14. Stulberg DL, Clark N. Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults. Part 1. Diagnostic approach, cafe au lait macules, diffuse hyperpigmentation, sun exposure, and phototoxic reactions. Am Fam Physician 2003; 68(10):1955-1960.

15. Grasinger CC, Wild RA, Parker IJ. Vulvar acanthosis nigricans: a marker for insulin resistance in hirsute women. Fertil Steril 1993; 59(3):583-586.

16. Nigricans (accessed October 2005).

17. Stuart CA, Driscoll MS, Lundquist KF, et al. Acanthosis nigricans. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 9(2-4):407-418.

18. Levine N, Baron J, Cruz PD, et al. Acanthosis nigricans. Emedicine June 2002 www. (accessed October 2005).

19. Cruz PD Jr., Hud JA Jr. Excess insulin binding to insulin-like growth factor receptors: proposed mechanism for acanthosis nigricans. J Invest Dermatol 1992; 98(6 suppl):82S-85S.

20. Schwartz RA. Acanthosis nigricans. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 31(1):1-19; quiz 20-22.

21. Katz AS, Goff DC, Feldman SR. Acanthosis nigricans in obese patients: presentations and implications for prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Dermatol Online J 2000; 6(1): 1.

22. Jackson R. Melanosis of the vulva. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1984; 10(2):119-121.

23. Lenane P, Keane CO, Connell BO, et al. Genital melanotic macules: clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42(4):640-644.

24. Rudolph RI. Vulvar melanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 23(5 Pt 2):982-984.

25. Estrada R, Kaufman R. Benign vulvar melanosis. J Reprod Med 1993; 38(1):5-8.

26. Okulicz JF, Jozwiak S, Schwartz, RA. Lentigo Emedicine. topic221.htm (accessed October 2005).

27. El Shabrawi-Caelen L, Soyer HP, Schaeppi H, et al. Genital lentigines and melanocytic nevi with superimposed lichen sclerosus: a diagnostic challenge. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50(5):690-694.

28. Jih DM, Elder DE, Elenitsas R. A histopathologic evaluation of vulvar melanosis. Arch Dermatol 1999; 135(7):857-858.

29. Wolff K, Johnson RS, eds. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Dermatology. Section 12. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, New York, 2005 (online. statref. com).

30. Wechter ME, Gruber SB, Haefner HK, et al. Vulvar Melanoma: a report of 20 cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50(4):554-562.

31. Wilkinson EJ, Kneale B, Lynch PJ. Report of the ISSVD terminology committee. J Reprod Med 1986; 31:973-974.

31a.Sideri M, Jones RW, Wilkinson EJ, et al. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD vulvar oncology subcommittee. J Reprod Med 2005; 50:807-810.

32. NIH Consensus Conference. Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma. JAMA 1992; 268(10):1314-1319.


34. Verschraegen CF, Benjapibal M, Supakarapongkul W, et al. Vulvar melanoma at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center: 25 years later. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001; 11(5):359-364.

35. Raber G, Mempel V, Jackisch C, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva. Report of 89 patients. Cancer 1996; 78(11):2353-2358.

36. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Nilsson BR, Kanter-Lewensohn LR, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva in a nationwide, 25-year study of 219 Swedish females: predictors of survival. Cancer 1999; 86(7):1285-1293.

37. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Kanter-Lewensohn LR, Lagerlof B, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva in a nationwide, 25-year study of 219 Swedish females: clinical observations and histopathologic features. Cancer 1999; 86(7):1273-1284.

38. Scheistroen M, Trope C, Kaern J, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva FIGO stage I: evaluation of prognostic factors in 43 patients with emphasis on DNA ploidy and surgical treatment. Gynecol Oncol 1996; 61(2):253-258.

39. Scheistroen M, Trope C, Koern J, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva. Evaluation of prognostic factors with emphasis on DNA ploidy in 75 patients. Cancer 1995; 75(1):72-80.

40. Phillips GL, Bundy BN, Okagaki T, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva treated by radical hemivulvectomy. A prospective study of the gynecologic oncology group. Cancer 1994; 73(10):2626-2632.

41. Ragnarsson-Olding B, Johansson H, Rutqvist LE, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina. Trends in incidence, age distribution, and long-term survival among 245 consecutive cases in Sweden 1960-1984. Cancer 1993; 71(5):1893-1897.

42. Bradgate MG, Rollason TP, McConkey CC, et al. Malignant melanoma of the vulva: a clinicopathological study of 50 women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990; 97(2): 124-133.

43. Chung AF, Woodruff JM, Lewis JL Jr. Malignant melanoma of the vulva: a report of 44 cases. Obstet Gynecol 1975; 45(6):638-646.

44. Stang A, Streller B, Eisinger B, et al. Population-based incidence rates of malignant melanoma of the vulva in Germany. Gynecol Oncol 2005; 96(1):216-221.

45. Creasman WT, Phillips JL, Menck HR. A survey of hospital management practices for vulvar melanoma. J Am Coll Surg 1999; 188(6):670-675.

46. Wechter ME, Reynolds RK, Haefner HK, et al. Vulvar melanoma: review of diagnosis, staging, and therapy. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2004; 8:58-69.

47. Raspagliesi F, Ditto A, Paladini D, et al. Prognostic indicators in melanoma of the vulva. Ann Surg Oncol 2000; 7(10):738-742.

48. Irvin WP Jr., Legallo RL, Stoler MH, et al. Vulvar melanoma: a retrospective analysis and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83(3):457-465.


50. Granter SR, Lazar AJF, Haefner HK, McKee PH. Melanocytic Lesions of the Vulva, in Diagnostic Gynecologic and Obstetric Pathology. Crum CP, Lee KR eds. Elsevier Saunders, 2006:169.

51. Johnson TM, Smith JW 2nd, Nelson BR, et al. Current therapy for cutaneous melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995 32 (5 Pt 1):689-707.

52. Arca MJ, Biermann JS, Johnson TM, et al. Biopsy techniques for skin, soft-tissue, and bone neoplasms. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 1995; 4(1):157-174.

53. Finan MA, Barre G. Bartholin's gland carcinoma, malignant melanoma and other rare tumours of the vulva. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 17(4):609-633..

54. Clark WH Jr., From L, Bernardino EA, Mihm MC. The histogenesis and behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin. Cancer Res 1969; 29:705-727.

55. Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg 1970; 172(5):902-908.

56. Hopkins MP, Nemunaitis-Keller J. Carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001; 28(4):791-804.

57. Reintgen D, Thompson JF, Gershenwald JE. Intraoperative mapping and sentinel node technology. In: Balch CM, Houghton AN, Sober AJ, Soong S, eds. Cutaneous melanoma. 4th ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 2003:353-377.

58. Yu LL, Flotte TJ, Tanabe KK, et al. Detection of microscopic melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes. Cancer 1999; 86:617-627.

59. Bleicher RJ, Essner R, Foshag LJ, et al. Role of sentinel lymphadenectomy in thin invasive cutaneous melanomas. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(7):1326-1331.

60. McMasters KM, Reintgen DS, Ross MI, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: controversy despite widespread agreement. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19(11):2851-2855.

61. Balch CM, Buzaid AC, Soong SJ, et al. Final version of the American Joint Committee on cancer staging system for cutaneous melonoma. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 3635-3648.


63. Wilkinson EJ. Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinomas and malignant melanomas of the vulva: a basis for checklists. Cancer Committee of the American College of Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000; 124(1):51-56.

64. Armstrong AW, Liu V, Mihm MC, Jr. Pathologic characteristics of melonoma. 2005, UptoDate Online;

65. Blessing K, Sanders DS, Grant JJ. Comparison of immunohistochemical staining of the novel antibody melan-A with S100 protein and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and melanoma variants. Histopathology 1998; 32(2):139-146.

66. Chen YT, Stockert E, Chen Y, et al. Identification of the MAGE-1 gene product by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91(3):1004-1008.

67. Hofbauer GF, Schaefer C, Noppen C, et al. MAGE-3 immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary and metastatic melanoma: frequency and distribution. Am J Pathol 1997; 151(6):1549-1553.

68. Hochberg M, Lotem M, Gimon Z, et al. Expression of tyrosinase, MIA and MART-1 in sentinel lymph nodes of patients with malignant melanoma. Br J Dermatol 2002; 146(2):244-249.

69. King R, Googe PB, Weilbaecher KN, et al. Microphthalmia transcription factor expression in cutaneous benign, malignant melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25(1):51-57.

70. Busam KJ, Iversen K, Coplan KC, et al. Analysis of microphthalmia transcription factor expression in normal tissues and tumors, and comparison of its expression with S-100 protein, gp100, and tyrosinase in desmoplastic malignant melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25(2):197-204.

71. Salti GI, Manougian T, Farolan M, et al. Micropthalmia transcription factor: a new prognostic marker in intermediate-thickness cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Res 2000; 60(18):5012-5016.

72. Hofbauer GF, Kamarashev J, Geertsen R, et al. Tyrosinase immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary and metastatic melanoma: frequency and distribution. J Cutan Pathol 1998; 25(4):204-209.

73. Bostick PJ, Morton DL, Turner RR, et al. Prognostic significance of occult metastases detected by sentinel lymphadenectomy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in early-stage melanoma patients. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17(10):3238-3244.

74. Shivers SC, Wang X, Li W, et al. Molecular staging of malignant melanoma: correlation with clinical outcome. JAMA 1998; 280(16):1410-1415.

75. Goydos JS, Ravikumar TS, Germino FJ, et al. Minimally invasive staging of patients with melanoma: sentinel lymphadenectomy and detection of the melanoma-specific proteins MART-1 and tyrosinase by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Am Coll Surg 1998; 187(2):182-188; discussion 188-190.

76. Li W, Stall A, Shivers SC, et al. Clinical relevance of molecular staging for melanoma: comparison of RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining in sentinel lymph nodes of patients with melanoma. Ann Surg 2000; 231(6):795-803.

77. Blaheta HJ, Ellwanger U, Schittek B, et al. Examination of regional lymph nodes by sentinel node biopsy and molecular analysis provides new staging facilities in primary cutaneous melanoma. J Invest Dermatol 2000; 114(4):637-642.

78. Chang AE, Karnell LH, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84,836 cases from the past decade. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Cancer 1998; 83(8):1664-1678.

79. Panizzon RG. Vulvar melanoma. Semin Dermatol 1996; 15(1):67-70.

80. Ragnarsson-Olding BK. Primary malignant melanoma of the vulva-an aggressive tumor for modeling the genesis of non-UV light-associated melanomas. Acta Oncol 2004; 43(5):421-435.

81. Balch CM, Soong SJ, Gershenwald JE, et al. Prognostic factors analysis of 17,600 melanoma patients: validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19(16):3622-3634.

82. Balch CM, Buzaid AC, Soong SJ, et al. Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma. J ClinOncol 2001; 19(16):3635-3648.

83. Egan CA, Bradley RR, Logsdon VK, et al. Vulvar melanoma in childhood. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133(3):345-348.

84. Friedman RJ, Kopf AW, Jones WB. Malignant melanoma in association with lichen sclerosus on the vulva of a 14-year-old. Am J Dermatopathol 1984; 6(suppl):253-256.

85. Pack GT, Oropeza R. A comparative study of melanomas and 58 epidermoid carcinomas of the vulva: a review of 44 melanomas and 58 epidermoid carcinomas (1930-1965). Rev Surg 1967; 24(5):305-324.

86. Trimble EL, Lewis JL Jr., Williams LL, et al. Management of vulvar melanoma. Gynecol Oncol 1992; 45(3):254-258.

87. Woolcott RJ, Henry RJ, Houghton CR. Malignant melanoma of the vulva: Australian experience. J Reprod Med 1988; 33(8):699-702.

88. Hulagu C, Erez S. Juvenile melanoma of clitoris. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1973; 80(1):89-91.

89. Hassanein AM, Mrstik ME, Hardt NS, et al. Malignant melanoma associated with lichen sclerosus in the vulva of a 10-year-old. Pediatr Dermatol 2004; 21(4):473-476.

90. Ruiz-Maldonado R, Orozco-Covarrubias ML. Malignant melanoma in children. A review. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133(3):363-371.

91. Bottles K, Lacey CG, Goldberg J, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 63(3 suppl):61S-65S.

92. Santos-Briz A, Antunez P, Lopez-Rios F, et al. Human papillomavirus-negative spindle cell carcinoma of the vulva associated with lichen sclerosus: case report and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol 2002; 24(2):135-138.

93. Thomas RH, McGibbon DH, Munro DD. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva in association with vulval lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. J R Soc Med 1985; 78(suppl 11):16-18.

94. Rosamilia LL, Schwartz JL, Lowe L, et al. Letter: Vulvar melanoma in a 10 year old child in association with lichen sclerosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54(2 suppl):S52-S53.

95. Carlson JA, Mu XC, Slominski A, et al. Melanocytic proliferations associated with lichen sclerosus. Arch Dermatol 2002; 138(1):77-87.

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment