Waste Stream Ebook
Erythrocytes (also called red blood cells or RBC) transport oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the small intestine to the cells of the body. They also transport carbon dioxide and other waste materials from the body's cells to the lungs and kidneys where the waste products are removed and expelled.
In general the characteristics of the solid wastes generated reflect the type of animal being killed, but the composition within a particular type of operation is similar regardless of the size of the plant. The reason for this is that the nature of the waste is determined by the animal itself and the quantity is simply a multiplication of the live weight of material processed. For example, the slaughter of a commercial steer would yield the products and byproducts shown in Table 3.2. Other solid waste requiring treatment or disposal arises mainly in the animal receiving and holding area, where regulations may demand that bedding is provided. In the European Union the volume of waste generated by farm animals kept indoors has been estimated by multiplying the number of animals by a coefficient depending on types of animals, function, sex, and age. Examples of coefficients that can be used for such calculations are given in Table 3.3 5 . These
Before the actual refining process is carried out, the CPO is pretreated with phosphoric acid to eliminate impurities such as gums and trace metals. A bleaching technique is then used to remove phosphoric acid and its content under vacuum, followed by a filtration method. Solid waste in the form of sludge is disposed and buried in a landfill.
Air Flotation and Dissolved Air Flotation. Mechanical removal of FOG with dissolved air flotation (DAF) involves aerating a fraction of recycled wastewater at a pressure of about 400-600 kPa in a pressure chamber, then introducing it into a flotation tank containing untreated dairy processing wastewater. The dissolved air is converted to minute air bubbles under the normal atmospheric pressure in the tank 6,32 . Heavy solids form sediment while the air bubbles attach to the fat particles and the remaining suspended matter as they are passed through the effluent 6,9,25 . The resulting scum is removed and will become odorous if stored in an open tank. It is an unstable waste material that should preferably not be mixed with sludge from biological and chemical treatment processes since it is very difficult to dewater. FOG waste should be removed and disposed of according to approved methods 32 . DAF components require regular maintenance and the running costs are usually fairly high.
In Industrial Wastewater Control Gurnham, C.F., Ed. Academic Press New York and London, 1965. 24. Kostyshyn, C.R. Bonkoski, W.A. Sointio, J.E. Anaerobic treatment of a beef processing plant wastewater a case history. Proceedings of 42nd Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, 1987, 673-692. 33. Eldridge, E.F. Meat-packing and slaughterhouse wastes. In Industrial Waste Treatment Practice McGraw-Hill, London and New York, 1942. 36. Camin, K.Q. Cost of waste treatment in the meat packing industry. In Proceedings of 25th Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University Lafayette, IN, 1970 193 -202. Rollag, D.A. Dornbush, J.N. Design and performance evaluation of an anaerobic stabilization pond system for meat-processing wastes. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed. 1966, 38, 1805-1812. Witherow, J.L. Small meat-packers waste treatment systems. In Proceedings of 28th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, 1973 994-1009....
The lymphatic vessels drain fluid containing waste materials from the breast into a series of filters called lymph nodes (fig. 2.4). These are situated under the armpit (axillary lymph nodes), under the breastbone (internal mammary lymph nodes), and above the collarbone (supraclavicular lymph nodes). The nodes contain collections of immune system cells that detect and destroy invading foreign organisms and antigens (substances that elicit an immune response). When breast cancers spread, the cells tend to invade the lymphatics and travel to the axillary nodes Surgeons will often removed a number of nodes to check for the
The highly variable nature of dairy wastewaters in terms of volumes and flow rates (which is dependent on the factory size and operation shifts) and in terms of pH and suspended solid (SS) content (mainly the result of the choice of cleaning strategy employed) makes the choice of an effective wastewater treatment regime difficult. Because dairy wastewaters are highly biodegradable, they can be effectively treated with biological wastewater treatment systems, but can also pose a potential environmental hazard if not treated properly 23 . The three main options for the dairy industry are (a) discharge to and subsequent treatment of factory wastewater at a nearby sewage treatment plant (b) removal of semisolid and special wastes from the site by waste disposal contractors or (c) the treatment of factory wastewater in an onsite wastewater treatment plant 25,26 . According to Robinson 25 , the first two options are continuously impacted by increasing costs, while the control of allowable...
Same risk as other Americans if they move to the United States. This observation and others suggest a role for environmental factors in the development of the disease. Scientists have studied the effects of exposure to many environmental and dietary factors that might contribute to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Western countries. They have examined the effects of dietary fat, air and water pollutants, pesticides, radiation, alcohol, stress, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and even abortions. They have also studied the effects of chemicals known as xenoestrogens, environmental chemicals that behave like estrogens. Organochlorines, for example, are common pollutants that exhibit estrogenic activity. These chemicals include PCBs, organic components of industrial waste that may leak into the water table. To date, none of the studies has revealed a specific environmental cause for breast cancer.
Reduction of wastewater pollution levels may be achieved by more efficiently controlling water and product wastage in dairy processing plants. Comparisons of daily water consumption records vs. the amount of milk processed will give an early indication of hidden water losses that could result from defective subfloor and underground piping. An important principle is to prevent wastage of product rather than flush it away afterwards. Spilled solid material such as curd from the cheese production area, and spilled dry product from the milk powder production areas should be collected and treated as solid waste rather than flushing them down the drain 6 .
The major types of wastes found in seafood-processing wastewaters are blood, offal products, viscera, fins, fish heads, shells, skins, and meat fines. These wastes contribute significantly to the suspended solids concentration of the waste stream. However, most of the solids can be removed from the wastewater and collected for animal food applications. A summary of the raw wastewater characteristics for the canned and preserved seafood processing industry is presented in Table 2.1.
In the treatment of seafood-processing wastewater, one should be cognizant of the important constituents in the waste stream. This wastewater contains considerable amounts of insoluble suspended matter, which can be removed from the waste stream by chemical and physical means. For optimum waste removal, primary treatment is recommended prior to a biological treatment process or land application. A major consideration in the design of a treatment system is that the solids should be removed as quickly as possible. It has been found that the longer the detention time between waste generation and solids removal, the greater the soluble BOD5 and COD with corresponding reduction in byproduct recovery. For seafood-processing wastewater, the primary treatment processes are screening, sedimentation, flow equalization, and dissolved air flotation. These unit operations will generally remove up to 85 of the total suspended solids, and 65 of the BOD5 and COD present in the wastewater.
The blood, now saturated with oxygen, is collected by the pulmonary venous system. The blood flows through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium of the heart. From the left atrium, it flows into the left ventricle. When the left ventricle contracts, the oxygen-rich blood is forced into the aorta of the systemic blood circulatory system. Other arteries branch off of this large artery and carry the oxygen-rich blood to all living cells within the body. As the arteries continue to subdivide and get smaller, they eventually reach the capillary stage. At this stage, oxygen moves from the blood into the surrounding body cells and carbon dioxide, a waste material, travels from the body cells to the blood. The blood then flows from the capillaries into veins and eventually returns to the right atrium of the heart.
The second type of body fluid is the extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid is located outside the body cells. The extracellular fluid (ECF) composes approximately one-third of the water contained in the body and it accounts for approximately 20 percent of a person's body weight. The extracellular fluid also has several functions. One, it carries nutrients and oxygen to the cells and waste materials from the cells. Also, it serves to bathe the cells in order to keep the cells moist.
A flow equalization step follows the screening and sedimentation processes and precedes the dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Flow equalization is important in reducing hydraulic loading in the waste stream. Equalization facilities consist of a holding tank and pumping equipment designed to reduce the fluctuations of the waste streams. The equalizing tank will store excessive
To complete the treatment of the seafood-processing wastewaters, the waste stream must be further processed by biological treatment. Biological treatment involves the use of microorganisms to remove dissolved nutrients from a discharge 15 . Organic and nitrogenous compounds in the discharge can serve as nutrients for rapid microbial growth under aerobic, anaerobic, or facultative conditions. The three conditions differ in the way they use oxygen. Aerobic microorganisms require oxygen for their metabolism, whereas anaerobic microorganisms grow in absence of oxygen the facultative microorganism can proliferate either in absence or presence of oxygen although using different metabolic processes. Most of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment systems use the organic content of the wastewater as an energy source to grow, and are thus classified as heterotrophes from a nutritional point of view. The population active in a biological wastewater treatment is mixed, complex, and...
Anaerobic digestion facilities have been used for the management of animal slurries for many years, they can treat most easily biodegradable waste products, including everything of organic or vegetable origin. Recent developments in anaerobic digestion technology have allowed the expansion of feedstocks to include municipal solid wastes, biosolids, and organic industrial waste (e.g., seafood-processing wastes). Lawn and garden, or green residues, may also be included, but care should be taken to avoid woody materials with high lignin content that requires a much longer decomposition time 19 . The digestion system seems to work best with a feedstock mixture of 15-25 solids. This may necessitate the addition of some liquid, The flow of anaerobic digestion resembles that of an activated sludge process except that it occurs in the absence of oxygen. Therefore, it is essential to have a good sealing of the digestion tanks since oxygen kills some of the anaerobic bacteria present and...
Lymphoedema is an excess of water, large proteins and waste material, which has accumulated in the tissues. This is an ideal environment for bacteria to manifest. In some cases, the lymph nodes may have been removed, therefore, the local immune system may be compromised in the swollen area. All of these factors contribute to the increased risk of developing an AIE (cellulitis). Taking care of your skin, minimises the increased risk of infection, which often accompanies lymphatic disorders.
The HBsAg, HCV, HTLV-l, and so forth positive material and disposal equipment used in testing for HBsAg should be placed in Ieakproof containers, labeled as infectious, and autoclaved or incinerated. Appropriate disposal methods must be used with all radioactive waste material. Consult the radiation safety official or committee of your institution for instructions regarding discarding radioactive materials.
Floc formation (industrial wastewater) Poorly soluble and insoluble substrates as well as nondegradable pollutants are adsorbed to the surface of bacterial cells or floc particles (Figure 8.3). Adsorbed substrates and pollutants are removed from the waste stream directly by electrochemical process (compatible charge) and indirectly through the coating action of secretions of higher life forms, ciliated protozoa and metazoa, especially rotifers and free-living nematodes. If substrates and pollutants have compatible charge, they attach to the negatively charged fibrils of bacterial cells that extend into the bulk solution (Figure 8.4). If the substrates and pollutants do not have compatible charge for direct adsorption to fibrils, their charge is made compatible for adsorption by the coating action of these higher life forms.
Activated sludge processes can be operated in different modes including complete mix and plug-flow (Figure 19.10). Each mode of operation impacts differently the significant components in a waste stream. Complete mix mode of operation dilutes nutrients, substrate (food), and toxic wastes into each aeration tank. The dilution of toxic wastes may help to prevent toxicity in the activated sludge process. Plug-flow mode of operation establishes nutrient, substrate, and toxic waste gradients from the first aeration tank to the last aeration tank. The toxic waste gradient may promote toxicity in the upstream aeration tanks of the activated sludge process.
The arteries branch into billions of tiny vessels called capillaries. The capillaries have very thin walls through which food and oxygen pass from the blood to the cells. While food and oxygen are passing through the walls of the capillaries, another process is going on. This process causes the waste materials and carbon dioxide from the cells to pass back into the capillaries. Thus, the capillaries make the necessary exchanges of water, gases, salts, food, and wastes between the blood and the tissues. (3) Veins. As carbon dioxide and waste materials enter the capillaries and as the blood loses oxygen and food, it turns from a bright red to a darker red. Here the venous system begins. The vessels, now called veins, are no longer elastic and muscular. Their walls are thin and collapsible. Veins have paired valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins, like arteries, resemble a tree with many branches and eventually form major trunks leading back to the heart (see...
Anaerobic digestion of abattoir solid wastes is not common in the United States, UK, or elsewhere, despite the potential for stabilization of the solid residues with the added bonus of fuel gas production. Cooper et al. 30 looked at the potential in New Zealand for production of methane from both the solid and liquid fraction of abattoir wastes. Based on tests carried out by Buswell and Hatfield in 1939, they concluded that paunch contents and fecal matter would not give an economic return. In these very early tests it was reported that a retention time of 38-40 days might be required and that the expected gas yield would be 2500 ft3 lb solids added (156 m3 kg). In the UK the first of a new generation of well-mixed digestion plants to treat slaughterhouse wastes was installed in 1984 to treat all the paunch wastes, blood, and settlement tank solids produced by a small abattoir in Shropshire. The operation and performance of a 3531 ft3 (100 m ) demonstration-scale anaerobic digester...
The manufacturing of wood pulp for the production of paper involves the digestion of wood with steam, high pressure, and calcium bisulfite (Ca(HSO3)2) or magnesium bisulfite (Mg(HSO3)2).The digestion of wood removes most of the lignin (a complex phenolic polymer) and other compounds from the wood but does not remove the cellulose or pulp. The lignin and other removed compounds are sulfonated by the bisulfite and may be released into solution.The waste material containing sulfonated lignin, residual bisulfite, and other compounds is known as sulfite waste liquor.
Floc formation does not occur in an anaerobic digester. Septicity in the digester destroys floc formation. Floc formation does occur in the activated sludge process and is essential for its success. Floc formation permits the packaging of a large and diverse population of bacteria in numerous floc particles that (1) can be separated from the waste stream in the secondary clarifier and (2) can be recycled (Figure 14.1) as needed to achieve the following treatment objectives
Flotation is one of the most effective removal systems for suspensions that contain oil and grease. The most common procedure is that of dissolved air flotation (DAF), which is a waste-treatment process in which oil, grease, and other suspended matter are removed from a waste stream. This treatment process has been in use for many years and has been most successful in removing oil from waste streams. Essentially, DAF is a process that uses minute air bubbles to remove the suspended matter from the wastewater stream. The air bubbles attach themselves to a discrete particle, thus effecting a reduction in the specific gravity of the aggregate particle to less than that of water. Reduction of the specific gravity for the aggregate particle causes separation from the carrying liquid in an upward direction. Attachment of the air bubble to the particle induces a vertical rate of rise. The mechanism of operation involves a clarification vessel where
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