Components Of Energy Expenditure And Their Relevance To Obesity

Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) varies substantially in humans (42) such that two adults of the same size could have an EE that varies by 1500 kcal/d. The largest determinants of TDEE are weight, height, age, and gender (42). Whereas both weight and height are positive determinants of TDEE, age is a negative predictor in adults. Across all ages, TDEE is approx 11% higher in males, after adjustments for body size (42). With the increasing prevalence of obesity, understanding the inherent interindividual variation in TDEE is important. The variability in daily energy requirements is related to the variability in the energy expended in its three major components: resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis, and activity thermogenesis (Fig. 2).

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