Energy Expenditure and Obesity

Energy expenditure is made up of three components: basal metabolic rate (BMR), which can be estimated as resting energy expenditure (REE), which has also been called resting metabolic rate (RMR); thermic effect of food, which makes up only a small fraction of total daily energy expenditure; and energy expended in physical activity (EEPA), which is by far the most variable among individuals. Although patients often complain that they have a "low metabolic rate," careful studies have conclusively shown that REE is linearly related to lean body mass (72). This means that heavier people have higher REE than thin individuals, and as a result need to eat more on average each day to maintain their higher weight. It is likely that the rise in the prevalence of obesity is the result not only of increased EI associated within the modern food environment, but also of a reduction in the habitual levels of EEPA associated with a modern environment filled with technologies designed to reduce the need for physical labor (73). There is

Table 6

Popular Internet Diet and Exercise Tracking Tools

Table 6

Popular Internet Diet and Exercise Tracking Tools

Program Name/Website

PDA/PC

Comments

Cost

Balance Log

Both

$29.95 PDA

www.healthetech.com

(software)

$49.94 Both

BeNutriFit

PC

$19.95 PC

www.benutrifit

(software)

Calorie King

Both

$19.95 PDA

www.calorieking.com

(software)

$29.95 PC

Cros strainer

Both

In addition to tracking, provides exercise

$49.95 PC

www.crosstrainer.ca

(software)

prescription

$64.95 Both

Diet and Exercise Assistant

Both

$19.95 PDA

www.keyoe.com

(software)

$9.95 PC

DietPro

PC

In addition to tracking, provides

$64.95 PC

www.dietpro.net

(software)

menu plans/diet prescription

FitDay

PC

Tracks mood in addition

$29.95 PC

www.fitday.com

(Internet and software)

to diet and exercise

Health Fit Counter

Both

$29.95 PDA

www.heatlthcoutner.com

(software)

$29.95 PC

Mealformation

PC

No exercise tracking. Focuses on food

$49.00 basic

www .mealfonnation.com

(software)

menu plans, and shopping lists

$169.00 expanded

My Food Diary

PC

In addition to tracking, provides

$108/year

www.myfooddiary.com

(Internet)

social support for sharing ideas, recipes, and social support

My Sport Training

Both

In addition to tracking

$24.95 PDA

www.mysporttraining.com

(software)

provides exercise prescription

$24.95 PDA

Nutrawatch

PC

$14.95/year

www.nutrawatch.com

(Internet)

Nutrigenie

PC

In addition to tracking, provides

$49.00 PC

www.nutrigenie.biz

(software)

menu plans/diet prescripton

Small Steps

PC

No diet tracking, only

Free

www. smallstep.gov

(Internet)

exercise tracking

USDA Food Pyramid

PC

In addition to tracking, provides

Free

www.mypyramid.com

(Internet)

basic menu plans and exercise prescription

increasing evidence that the low levels of physical activity that characterize a sedentary lifestyle are associated with not only obesity (74) and type 2 diabetes (75), but also increased mortality (76,77). Conversely, increased levels of physical activity and high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced levels of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality (78-80).

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