Denswapping behaviour

Roost or den lability is common among hollow-using fauna, particularly those that use the resource for roosting or denning as well as rearing young. Such behaviour has been observed among reptiles (Thompson 1993, Webb and Shine 1997), birds (Kavanagh 1997, Brigham et al. 1998) and mammals (Table 3.3). Mammals appear to employ the most extreme denswapping behaviour. Lindenrnayer et al. (1996c) studied patterns of den use by the Mountain Brushtail Possum. Sixteen radio-tracked individuals used...

Hollows in branches and the main stem or trunk

Hollows in the main stem either occur in the trunk or a short section of residual branch that connects to a pipe in the main stem (Figure 4.4A). Hollows of this type accounted for 32 Figure 4.4 The four main types of hollows that occur in eucalypts (A) main stem (B) crown branch (C) fire scar and (D) fissure. (P. Gibbons and D. Lindenmayer) Figure 4.4 The four main types of hollows that occur in eucalypts (A) main stem (B) crown branch (C) fire scar and (D) fissure. (P. Gibbons and D....

Protecting retained trees

Trees selected for developing hollows in the future must have good prospects of survival. In an examination of trees retained on clearfelled and burnt sites in lowland forest in East Gippsland, trees were at greatest relative risk of collapse if they had a fire scar at their base were surrounded by a low basal area of retained trees were retained some distance from intact forest or * were retained on steep slopes. Mattheck et al. (1995) showed that trees (including eucalypts) were more likely...

Fauna

Double-eyed Fig Parrot (southern ssp) Five-striped Palm Squirrel Flame Robin Fletchers Frog Forest Kingfisher Forest Raven Forty-spotted Pardalote Frilled Lizard Galah Giant Tree Frog,White-lipped Tree Frog Glossy Black Cockatoo (King Island ssp) Calyptorhynchus lathamii halmaturinus Greater Broadnosed Bat Greater Glider Greater Horseshoe Bat Greater Long-eared Bat Green Pygmy-goose Green Python Green Ringtail Possum Green Rosella Green Tree Frog Green-rumped Parrotlet Grey Butcherbird Grey...

Fire scars

Another type of hollow often observed in eucalypts is the fire scar. Fire scars form at the base of trees (Figure 4.4C) and are also called basal hollows or butt hollows. Hollows at the butt created by fire scars occurred in 2-12 of eucalypts measured in southern NSW (Linden-mayer et al. 2000c). Of all trees in unlogged damp sclerophyll forest in East Gippsland and south-eastern NSW, 16 contained fire scars (Gibbons 1999). In forest dominated by TREE HOllOWS AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN...

Nest box design

The design of nest boxes and their position can influence patterns of occupancy by different species (McComb and Noble 1981b). Appropriate nest box dimensions have been published for many species in Australia. Examples for some species of bats, birds and mammals can be found in Tidemann and Flavel (1987), Menkhorst (1984a) and Calder et al. (1983) respectively. The Gould League has published a booklet on the construction and installation of nest boxes for a wide range of species of birds and...

Stand structure In dry sclerophyll forests

Dry sclerophyll forests in Australia are characterised by frequent disturbance events. The natural frequency of intense fires in dry sclerophyll forest has been estimated to be approximately 13 years (Vines 1974). Banks (1994) found that seedlings established in a dry sclerophyll forest in south-eastern NSW about every 17 years. Eucalypts in dry sclerophyll forests often have mechanisms that enable them to survive fire (e.g. thick bark), so the proportion of trees killed in the overstorey is...

Case studies of tree retention in managed forests

Case study I Habitat-tree retention in forests of East Gippsland In the forests of East Gippsland, the predominant management regime for hollow-using fauna through the 1990s relied on the protected area network within, and adjacent to, wood production forests, rather than the logged matrix. Harvested areas were managed with a uniform rate of hollow-tree retention (5 trees per 15 hectare). No strategies were implemented to perpetuate the hollow resource. However, a network of linear corridors,...

Mammals arboreal and scansorial

A total of 40 native species of arboreal and scansorial (climbing) mammals appear to use hollows in Australia (see Table 2.6). This is approximately 31 of all Australian terrestrial mammals. An additional five introduced mammal species use hollows in Australia (Table 2.6). Mammals use hollows for a number of reasons. Possums and gliders are probably the most comprehensively studied group, using hollows as diurnal dens or places to rear young. They may also occupy hollows to facilitate ranging...

Alternative nesting sites used by birds from Higgins 1999

Descriptions are restricted to the groups reviewed in Higgins 1999 members of the orders Psittaciformes, Strigiformes, Caprimuigiformes and Coraciiformes. Usually broken-off limb or hollow spout 2-30m high mean size 45x23cm Crevices, caves, holes in limestone cliffs on offshore islands occasionally rabbit burrows Hollow limb or spout 15cm deep 25cm entr. diam. 45cm inside diam. n 1 Hollow in trees 60cm deep 18cm entr. diam. 45cm inside diam. n l Hollow or spout of dead tree near swamp 4.5-21 m...

Tree species

The propensity of eucalypts to form hollows differs between tree species. Tree species has been found to influence the occurrence, or number, of hollows in trees in many studies from different parts of Australia. These include tall forest in the Central Highlands of Victoria Lindenmayer et al. 1993 b , forests in south-eastern NSW and East Gippsland, Victoria Gibbons 1999 , wet and dry forests in north-eastern NSW Clode and Burgman 1997 , south-eastern Queensland Ross 1999 , woodlands in...

Hollow use and reproduction

Hollow-nesting birds typically have larger clutches than open-nesting species von Haartman 1957, Slags void 1982, Martin and Li 1992, Brush 1993, Martin 1995 , but see Nilsson 1986 . Hollow-nesting may result in increased clutch sizes through reduced predation e.g. Lack 1954, Slagsvold 1982 , although Nilsson 1986 found similar rates of mortality among hollow-nesting and open-nesting birds in undisturbed habitats. Martin 1993 observed that primary cavity excavators i.e. birds that excavate...

Stag watching

Fauna can be observed entering, or emerging from, hollows using a method called 'stag watching' Seebeck etal. 1983, Smith et al. 1989 . This technique is most commonly used to count arboreal marsupials Smith et al. 1989 , but it has also been used for bats Tidemann and Flavel 1987, Adam-Gates 1996, Sedgeley and O'Donnell 1999 and diurnal birds Nelson and Morris 1994 . Extensive stag watching studies of arboreal marsupials have been completed in the montane ash forests over the past 17 years...