List of figures

Figure 5.1 Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in US men and women. 93

Figure 5.2 Alcohol consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease in US men. 95

Figure 5.3 Alcohol consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease in US women. 95

Figure 6.1 Mean systolic blood pressures (upper half) and mean diastolic blood pressures (lower half) for white, black or Asian men and women with known drinking habits. 115

Figure 7.1 Antiatherogenic effects of wine polyphenols. 143

Figure 7.2 The effect of alcohol added to whole squeezed grapes on the wine polyphenol content and on its antioxidant capacity. 145

Figure 7.3 The antioxidative effects of red wine compared with white wine consumption on LDL oxidation. 147

Figure 7.4 Effects of catechin, quercetin or red wine consumption by E° mice on the size of the atherosclerotic lesion area of their aortic arch. 149

Figure 7.5 Mechanisms responsible for the antiatherosclerotic effects of red wine consumption by E° mice. 150

Figure 7.6 The effect of catechin, quercetin, or red wine consumption by E° mice on their serum paraoxonase activity. 151

Figure 7.7 Effect of wine polyphenols on LDL cholesterol oxidation and atherosclerosis. 153

Figure 9.1 Ring-numbering system for flavonoids and stilbenes. 200 Figure 9.2 A- and B-ring substitutions for common grape flavonoids. 202

Figure 9.3 trans-Resveratrol, the first stilbene to be produced by grapevines. 206

Figure 9.4 Commonly found resveratrol derivatives in grapevines. 207

Figure 9.5 Biosynthesis of flavonoids and resveratrol. 208

Figure 9.6 Seasonal resveratrol production potential of Pinot noir berries growing in Tumbarumba, New South Wales, Australia. 212

Figure 9.7 Stilbene levels in Pinot noir grapes with and without powdery mildew infection. 212

Figure 9.8 Stilbene levels in Semillon grapes at varying stages of botrytis development. 216

Figure 9.9 Hypothetical relationship between a measured parameter in the grape versus that in the wine. 218

Figure 10.1 Flow diagram of winemaking. 229

Figure 10.2 Diagrammatic representation of a simple, two-branched, metabolic pathway, showing feedback inhibition by selected end products. 232

Figure 10.3 Formation of acetaldehyde, acetoin, and higher alcohols during alcoholic fermentation. 233

Figure 10.4 Profile of aroma of a 'Riesling' wine (after

20 months) fermented with different yeast strains. 234 Figure 10.5 Yeast numbers during fermentation of white and red wines. 239

Figure 10.6 Relationship of body, bitterness and fruitiness to overall quality of Cabernet Sauvignon wine fermented with various malolactic cultures, as evaluated by two taste panels composed of winemakers and a wine research group. 243

Figure 13.1 Percentage of people with age-related macular degeneration by wine consumption in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 287 Figure 13.2 Differences in the incidence of age-related macular degeneration between wine-drinkers and non-wine-drinkers in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 288

Figure 14.1 Survival of E. coli bacteria after exposure to wine, beer, cola, diet cola, water and milk. 302

Figure 14.2 Survival of Salmonella over time when exposed to water, red wine, white wine, Pepto-Bismol®, tequila diluted to 10% ethanol, and ethanol 10%. 304

Figure 14.3 A polyphenol, oenidol. This complex sugar is found in the grape, and is liberated by fermentation. It is antibacterial at low pH, such as is found in wine. 310

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