Answers and Explanations

1. Answer: C. Gap junctions permit cell-to-cell communication by allowing movement of small molecules and ions through connexin channels.

2. Answer: E. Microfold cells (M cells) present antigen to Peyer patches in the ileum.

3. Answer: D. Dynein deficiency results in immotile cilia syndrome characterized by respiratory infections and sterility.

4. Answen B. Kinesin is the ATPase motor protein used in anterograde axonal transport.

5. Answer: D. Membrane proteins are produced by rough endoplasmic reticulum.

6. Answer: C. Clara cells trap airborne toxins and produce cytochrome P-450.

7. Answer: C. Spectrin is the peripheral protein that is defective in red blood cells, resulting in anemia due to excessive destruction of mis-shaped RBCs by the spleen.

8. Answer: C. The addition of sugars to proteins begins in the RER and is completed in the Golgi apparatus.

9. Answer: B. RER produces nonsystolic proteins bound for export, enzymes destined for incorporation into lysosomes, and membrane proteins.

Answer: D. Desmin is an intermediate filament found in skeletal, cardiac, and nonvascular smooth muscle.

Answer: D. Integrin allows interaction between epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix by anchoring the cell surface to the laminin glycoproteins in the underlying basal lamina.

Answer: B. The A band, which contains thick filaments of myosin, does not change its length during sarcomere shortening.

Answer: C. A fascia adherens is a form of a desmosome that provides a site of attachment site for actin intermediate filaments.

Answer; A. The endoneurium is produced mainly by Schwann cells and forms a sleeve for regenerating axons.

Answer: D. Blood formation begins in the yolk sac and proceeds in succession in the liver, spleen, and then bone marrow.

Answer: D. Only pituicytes, a form of glial cell, are found in the neurohypophysis, along with axons of supraoptic and paraventricular neurons, which are found in the hypothalamus.

Answer: D. Patients with vitiligo lack melanocytes in regions of the epidermis that are most noticeable in individuals who have dark pigmentation.

Answer: C. Secretin acts on the exocrine pancreas to increase secretion of bicarbonate into the duodenum.

Answer: C. Paneth cells, which produce lyso2yme that regulates bacterial flora of the intestine, are found at the bases of crypts of Lieberkuhn.

Answer: A. Mesangial cells produce erythropoietin, which induces RBC formation.

Answer C. The cell is an absorptive columnar epithelial cell in the epithelial lining, characteristic of the small intestine. These cells are capped by numerous microvilli and aglycocalyx.

Answer: D. The rough endoplasmic reticulum produces proteins bound for export.


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