Classes Of Cavity Preparations

Cavity preparation is the term used to describe the process of preparing a tooth to receive a restoration. It includes the removal of decayed material, the necessary cutting and shaping of remaining tooth structure, and the cleaning of the prepared area. Certain basic principles of cavity preparation, first advanced by the American dentist, Dr. G. V. Black in the early part of the twentieth century, still serve as standards. These principles provide for convenience in placing the restoration,...

DProcedures for Impression Material

The dental specialist prepares the impression material in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and general techniques discussed in Subcourse MD0502. When the material has been conditioned for making the impression, the dental specialist passes the loaded syringe to the dental officer who then fills the prepared area. While the dental officer accomplishes this step, the dental specialist scrapes the water soaked outer layer of agar from the...

Surgical Knives Handle Surgical Knife Blade Surgical Knife

Surgical knives (figure 3-23) are used to cut soft tissue and incise localized abscesses. A surgical knife is comprised of a handle and interchangeable blades. Four sizes and shapes of detachable blades and three types of handles are available and listed in the Medical Supply Catalog under class 6515 items. Blade number 12 is curved and blade numbers 15 is straight. Figure 3-23. Surgical knife handle and blades.

Exercises Lesson

The following exercises are to be answered by marking the lettered response that best answers the question or best completes the sentence or by following the special instructions. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the lesson and check your answers with the solutions. 1. Extraction forceps vary because of differences in root shape, alignment of the tooth, and location in the mouth. The different types of forceps can be...

B Matrix Bands and Band Material Band Matrix Dental Band Set Matrix Dental Band Copper Dental Plastic Strip Dental

Matrix bands (figures 2-11, 2-12, and 2-13) are used to form missing walls of prepared teeth. They shape and confine restorative materials and wax to areas prepared to receive restorations. These include Ivory matrix band sets, Tofflemire matrix band sets, a cervical set, plastic celluloid strips, and metal matrix strips. Related materials include a celluloid matrix wedge and a crown form set. Celluloid crown forms are designed for specific teeth and are used as matrices for Class IV...

Administration

Students who desire credit hours for this correspondence subcourse must enroll in the subcourse. Application for enrollment should be made at the Internet website http www.atrrs.army.mil. You can access the course catalog in the upper right corner. Enter School Code 555 for medical correspondence courses. Copy down the course number and title. To apply for enrollment, return to the main ATRRS screen and scroll down the right side for ATRRS Channels. Click on SELF DEVELOPMENT to open the...

Amalgam Restorations With Cement Base

Preparing and restoring teeth with silver amalgam is the dental treatment procedure performed most frequently. The properties of silver amalgam are determined largely by how it is handled. Optimum properties can be achieved only through careful attention to details in its preparation and manipulation. Since the dental specialist normally is responsible for the measurement, preparation, and initial handling of the material, the manner in which he carries out these procedures can...

Anesthetic Instrument Setup

As in the basic examination, the anesthesia also requires a certain setup. (Look in Annex A for typical instrument setups for various dental procedures.) One instrument in the setup that always requires autoclaving is the syringe. The other items are sterilized by the manufacturer and packaged in this condition. b. The Topical Anesthetic. The first item in the setup is topical Xylocaine . This anesthetic is produced in a jelly-like or ointment form. It is most often...

Asepsis And Cleanliness

Because surgical procedures expose susceptible areas of tissues to invasion by bacterial organisms, strict attention must be paid to cleanliness and aseptic techniques. All instruments, equipment, dressings, and medication must be carefully sterilized and protected from any contamination that might later be introduced into a surgical site. Possible sources of contamination must be minimized through continual attention and adherence to cleanliness of area, equipment, and personnel. Any time we...

Assisting During Surgery

One of the most helpful procedures performed by the dental specialist in oral surgery is the manipulation of the suction apparatus or the use of gauze sponges in such a way as to keep the surgical field free of blood, saliva, and tissue while interfering as little as possible with the view of the dental officer. To perform oral surgery properly, the surgeon must be able to see the tissue he is manipulating. Other ways in which the oral surgery assistant helps to afford...

B Instrument Setups

See figure 3-34. PERIOSTEAL ELEVATOR ROOT ELEVATORS EXTRACTION FORCEPS PERIOSTEAL ELEVATOR ROOT ELEVATORS EXTRACTION FORCEPS CURETTE GAUZE TISSUE FORCEPS Figure 3-34. Instruments and materials for uncomplicated extraction. (2) Surgical extraction and bone removal. See figure 3-35. Figure 3-35. Instruments and materials for surgical extraction and bone removal. Figure 3-35. Instruments and materials for surgical extraction and bone removal.

BMaxillary Anterior Forceps

(1) Forceps number 65 is a bayonet-shaped forceps with pointed nibs used primarily to remove crowded maxillary incisors and root fragments (figure 3-1). (2) Forceps number 150S is an S-shaped forceps designed for maxillary anterior and bicuspid teeth and roots (figure 3-2). The Universal Forceps number 150A also is S-shaped and used to extract all maxillary teeth. (3) Forceps number 286 is a bayonet-shaped forceps (figure 3-3). It is used primarily for extracting maxillary anterior teeth and...

Bone Files File Bone

Bone files are made in various sizes. They are used to smooth the edges of bone. Seldin bone file number 11 (figure 3-19) is double-ended, with the file surface at one end being larger than the file surface at the other end. Figure 3-19. Bone file. 3-11. BONE CHISELS (CHISELS, DENTAL) Figure 3-19. Bone file. 3-11. BONE CHISELS (CHISELS, DENTAL) Bone chisels are used to remove bone or section teeth. Some are designed for use with a hand mallet. Another type is driven by a special handpiece,...

C Compound Heater Bath Water Dental Impression Compound

The compound heater (figure 5-3) is an electrically operated water bath used to soften modeling plastic. Temperature of water is controlled thermostatically. Figure 5-3. Dental impression compound water bath. Figure 5-3. Dental impression compound water bath. d. Spatulas (SPATULA, LABORATORY) (SPATULA, DENTAL). Spatulas are used for mixing impression material and artificial stone and heating and manipulating wax. Laboratory spatulas are made of hard rubber or of metal with wooden handles...

C Motor Driven Rotary Finishing Instruments

(1) Finishing burs (BUR, DENTAL, FINISHING, AHP or SHP). Finishing burs (figure 2-24) are used to even the margins and polish the surface of dental restorations. They are available in round, oval, bud, sugarloaf, and tapered fissure shapes. Round and bud shapes are available for both AHP and SHP the remaining shapes for AHP only. (2) Mandrels (MANDREL, DENTAL HANDPIECE). Mandrels are used to hold disks and wheels during their use. Snap-head mandrels (figure 2-25) are used only for sandpaper and...

Complete Denture Insertion And Adjustment

At the time of denture insertion, minor corrections in occlusion may be necessary or the denture base may require grinding and polishing. The patient is instructed in the use and care of his dentures and a subsequent appointment is given for observation and evaluation. Many Prosthodontic Sections have printed instructions for denture patients. If these are used, the dental specialist should have a copy ready for the patient. Figure 5-15 depicts instruments and materials used for insertion of...

Complete Denture Tryin

Complete dentures are usually inspected in the mouth after the denture teeth have been set in wax. This provides an opportunity to verify the occlusion and visualize the appearance of the finished denture before final processing. Changes needed in the denture tooth arrangement can be made at this time. Figure 5-14 depicts instruments and materials used for complete denture try-in. Figure 5-14. Instruments and materials for complete denture try-in. Figure 5-14. Instruments and materials for...

Composite Resin Restorations

Composite resin is commonly used as a restorative material in anterior teeth because of its resistance to wear and its excellent aesthetics. The design of the cavity preparation will differ from the design of the amalgam, but most of the dental specialist's duties will be the same as those when amalgam is used. See figure 2-32 for steps of procedure when preparing restorations made of composite resin. Basic axam and amiagam instruments provided. Syringe with local a nest hp lie...

CProcedure

(1) Resistance form, retention form, and convenience form. The dental officer will begin each procedure by selecting one of the burs previously discussed and then outlining the cavity preparation. This establishes the general outline that the preparation will take or how it will appear on the surface of a tooth. The bur used to accomplish this procedure will depend on the dental officer's preference. The bur that might be used is the inverted cone bur, straight fissure bur, or tapered fissure...

D Placement of a Metal Matrix Band

(1) Proper placement of amalgam requires condensation by applying strong pressure to the surface of the amalgam with amalgam pluggers. In cavities involving more than one tooth surface, it is usually necessary to surround the tooth with a matrix band to help confine the restorative material to the cavity preparation during condensation. The matrix band also helps determine proper contours and the location and form of proximal contacts in the restored tooth. A number of types of matrix retainers...

Dental Aspirator Suction Apparatus Dental

The dental aspirator (figure 3-26) is an electrically operated vacuum suction unit used to maintain a clear operating field by removing blood, bone chips, debris, and other materials. The unit is fitted with a tube running from a vacuum bottle that ends in a handle and suction tip. The handle fitted with a suction tip is controlled by the oral surgery assistant in the removal of extraneous material from the surgery site.

Dental Sick Call

Dental sick call is a provision made to enable authorized personnel to request needed dental service in the absence of a dental appointment. In many clinics, a definite period during the day is set aside for dental sick call. Those who are suffering from pain, injury, infection, or situations that may be called a dental emergency may be seen at any time (a dental officer of the day and often a dental charge of quarters are available during other than normal duty hours). All persons reporting to...

Denture Repair Reline And Rebase

It may become necessary to repair, reline, or rebase dentures. Clinical aspects for these procedures vary and the assistance required by the dental specialist will be as directed by the dental officer. a. Repair. Dentures occasionally require repairing. Some repairs may be done without seating the denture in the mouth. Other repairs will require that an impression be made of the dental arch with the denture in place so that a cast can be made with denture properly related to the teeth and...

Description Of Individual Items

Impression Tray (IMPRESSION TRAY, DENTAL). Impression trays (figure 5-1) are carriers for the material used in making impressions of the teeth, alveolar ridges, and adjacent structures. They are manufactured in various sizes and shapes to accommodate the size and shape of the arch, the type of impression material to be used, and the impression technique to be followed. (1) Edentulous impression trays. Two types of edentulous impression trays are available. One type is for use with modeling...

General

The dental specialist in the Restorative Dentistry Section performs duties common to all specialists. His duties are largely related to assisting the dental officer in cavity preparation, placement of restorations, and fabrication, and placement of crowns. a. Procedures Vary. Procedures followed in restorative dentistry vary with the operator, location and extent of the tooth structure to be replaced, and restorative material to be used. Local anesthesia is used routinely by most dental...

Gold Alloy Inlays Crowns

In making a gold alloy inlay or crown, the dental officer first prepares the tooth to receive the restoration. The next step is obtaining a wax pattern. A wax pattern is an exact duplicate in wax of what is desired in the finished restoration. Most wax patterns will be used to form a mold into which melted gold alloy is cast to form the inlay or crown. Wax patterns are used also in the formation of acrylic resin crowns. Wax patterns may be obtained by either...

Info

Instruments and materials for jaw relationship registrations in complete c. Lateral and Protrusive Relationships. Right and left lateral and protrusive positions of the mandible in relation to the maxillae may be registered by a needle point-tracing for transfer to an adjustable articulator. NOTE The shades and mold of denture teeth to be used are usually selected during this phase of complete denture fabrication.

Instruments

Instruments used in the treatment of periodontal diseases are designed for one or more of the following objectives determining soft tissue pocket depth surgically incising and removing soft tissue to eliminate soft tissue pockets removing calculus and debris from roots of teeth removing soft tissue from periodontal pockets and removing, reshaping, or contouring hard structure (alveolar bone). Other instruments (such as scalpels, needle holders, hemostats, and suture needles) used in...

Irrigating Syringe Syringe Irrigating Dental

Irrigating syringes (figure 3-25) are used to wash pus, debris, and other extraneous material from tooth sockets, cavities, or inflamed gingival flaps. The tip is usually metal and should be blunt. If a syringe with a glass barrel is used, particular care must be exercised the glass barrel could shatter if it is hit with a surgical bur.

Jaw Relationship Records In Complete Denture Fabrication

Three types of jaw relationships will be discussed--centric jaw relationship, maxillo-temporomandibular joint relationship, and lateral and protrusive relationship. a. Centric Jaw Relationship. When final casts have been obtained and occlusion rims or trial bases fabricated, the next procedure is to determine the correct positional relationship of the maxillary cast to the mandibular cast for setting the denture teeth and establishing occlusion. Determinations are usually made and recorded in...

Lesson Assignment Lesson Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to 2-1. Define the meaning of the following terms 2-2. Name the classes of cavity preparations. 2-3. Identify the instruments used for examinations and diagnosis. 2-4. Identify the four identifying characteristics of burs and the uses of them in cavity preparation. 2-6. List the various types of stainless steel burs. 2-7. Cite the size and description of each of the following hand instruments. 2-8. Describe the uses of matrix retainers and bands....

List Of Instruments Used In Restorative Procedures

The following is a list of instruments appropriate for each step of the restorative procedure a. Darby-Perry excavators 5 & 6 (10 Series) b. Darby-Perry excavators 21 & 22 (20 Series) c. Black's excavators 63, 64, (large) 56, 66 (small) (60 Series) 2. Finishing the cavity preparation a. Bi-beveled hatchet number 17 b. Mono-beveled hatchets numbers 51 and 52 (large pair) numbers 53 and 54 (small pair) (50 Series) c. Bin-angled chisels numers 81 and 83 (80 Series) d. Straight chisels...

Parts Of Dental Hand Instruments

There are four parts of a hand instrument (figure 1-1). The longest part is the handle where the dental officer holds the instrument when using it. The shank joins the handle and a blade or nib. A cutting instrument has a blade and a cutting edge, whereas a non-cutting instrument has a nib and a face or point. There are identifying numbers on the handles of each instrument. These numbers must be used when the instruments are requisitioned from the supply section. Figure 1-1. Parts of a hand...

Preparation To Receive The Patient

Preparation to receive a patient begins with the cleanup and sterilization of instruments used during the treatment of the preceding patient. All evidence of treatment of that patient should be removed. Traces of blood should be removed from the dental unit and instrument trays. The cuspidor, aspirator bottles, handles, tips, and tubes should be cleaned. Instruments should be scrubbed and either sterilized or set aside for sterilization. Linens, headrest covers, and bracket table covers should...

Preparing Instrument Setups

A working knowledge of oral surgical procedures is a necessity for the dental specialist. The nature of the work done in oral surgery requires that everything that may be needed during an operation be available immediately. The dental officer will be at the chair-side with the patient therefore, it is imperative that the specialist understands the operation and is able to recognize instruments in order to save time. a. Variation in Procedures. Procedures followed in sterilizing, storing, and...

Removable Partial Dentures

The variations in design and techniques used in the fabrication of removable partial dentures make it impossible to outline standard procedures. One procedure frequently used is described below. (1) In planning the fabrication of a removable partial denture, a thorough examination should be done to include a radiographic examination and making diagnostic casts. After this examination, the patient is evaluated and the treatment plan is started. Next, the teeth are prepared so that...

Root Canal Treatment Conservative Therapy

In preparing for root canal treatment, the dental specialist should always refer to the patient's record. By doing this, he can go through each step of treatment required and lay out each item systematically before treatment starts. This procedure will eliminate rushing to retrieve materials and make the treatment steps progress smoothly and orderly. b. Steps for Treatment. The sequence of treatment for the single appointment method of endodontic treatment is given below. Also,...

Rubber Dam Rubber

Moisture presents a problem in the performance of many dental operations. Dryness of the operative field is essential to the success of restorations and endodontic procedures. The use of the rubber dam is the best method of maintaining a dry field. Rubber dam equipment is listed and illustrated in figure 2-1. See paragraph 2-15 for procedure on how to place a rubber dam in a patient's mouth.

Towel Clamp Forceps Towel

Towel clamps (figure 3-32) are small forceps with curved, claw-like jaws used to hold surgical drapes in place. Figure 3-32. Towel clamp. 3-26. SURGICAL INSTRUMENT STAND (STAND, SURGICAL INSTRUMENT) Figure 3-32. Towel clamp. 3-26. SURGICAL INSTRUMENT STAND (STAND, SURGICAL INSTRUMENT) A surgical instrument stand is shown in figure 3-33. Figure 3-33. Surgical instrument stand. Figure 3-33. Surgical instrument stand.

Use Of Proprietary Names

The initial letters of the names of some products may be capitalized in this subcourse. Such names are proprietary names, that is, brand names or trademarks. Proprietary names have been used in this subcourse only to make it a more effective learning aid. The use of any name, proprietary or otherwise, should not be interpreted as endorsement, deprecation, or criticism of a product nor should such use be considered to interpret the validity of proprietary rights in a name, whether it is...

A Techniques for Sharpening Instruments

The fixed-stone technique is the first of three techniques for sharpening instruments that we will consider. Fixed stones are unmounted stones. There are two types--hand stones with rounded edges, in cylindrical or rectangular shapes, and flat stones, rectangular in shape, which may be smooth without grooves or have one surfaced grooved lengthwise (see figure 1-2). Equipment for the fixed-stone technique consists of either a Carborundum stone or an Arkansas stone,...

Medical Histories

Any dental examination includes taking and recording the patient's medical history. The medical history may be brief or detailed, depending upon the findings and observations made during the examination. The history consists mainly of information pertinent to the conditions revealed during the examination and is obtained from the patient by questions asked by the dental officer. A medical history should be updated at every appointment. b. Importance of Medical Histories. The...

Complete Dentures

Most complete denture techniques require five appointments. On the first appointment, the patient is examined and preliminary impressions are made. The purpose of this is to evaluate the patient and to plan treatment. Diagnostic casts are poured from the preliminary impressions. On the second appointment, final impressions are completed from which the master cast is poured. The purpose of this procedure is to fabricate accurate casts upon which the dentures will be made. On the...

Periodontic Endodontic And Prosthodontic Instruments Section I Periodontic Instruments 41 Introduction

Periodontics is the specialty of dentistry providing prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and abnormalities involving the tissue structures that surround and support the teeth. These structures are the periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and alveolar bone. The signs and symptoms of periodontal disease are loose teeth, sensitivity to pressure, enlarged gingival tissues, bleeding gingival tissues when using a toothbrush, and halitosis (bad breath). Periodontal...

Ultrasonic Dental Unit Ultrasonic Prophylaxis Unit Dental

The ultrasonic unit with insert tips (see figure 4-10) is used to remove supragingival and subginginval calculus, stains, amalgam overhangs, and soft tissue pocket wall (curettage). Operating at 25,000 cycles per second, energy is transferred to the calculus, stain, amalgam overhang, or tissue, causing separation from the tooth surface. Operator fatigue is greatly reduced and productivity is increased with the use of an ultrasonic unit. A high-speed evacuator is necessary to keep the...

Placing A Rubber

A competent general surgeon would not think of operating before the surgical site was carefully isolated with sterile drape so he may work without interference, distraction, and contamination from adjacent structures. It is equally important that the dentist isolate the teeth during restorative procedures in the mouth. Advantages for the dentist include an isolated, controlled, operative field, improved visibility and a dry field for the manipulation of restorative materials....

A Burs Bur Dental Excavating Slowspeed Straight Handpiece Or Slowspeed Contraangle Handpiece

Straight Bur Uses

In discussing the preparation of a cavity for restoration in a modern clinic, it is essential that we talk about the many different kinds of burs available to the dental officer. Regardless of the procedure being done, the burs will probably be used in preparing the cavity for restoration. They are manufactured in different sizes and shapes suited to the various types and forms of the cavity preparation desired. You will be expected to know four different things about the...