Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. Read more...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary


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Aluminiumcontaining antacids are

Aluminium is also contained within multiple negatively charged sulfated groups in sucralfate, which is a basic aluminium salt of sulfated sucrose. Although aluminium can be released from sucralfate with the production of detectable levels in serum, clinical harm from this phenomenon is unlikely, except perhaps in patients with renal failure in whom toxic levels (i.e. > 3.7 mol L) have been reported.

Cooperative gpNulgpA Binding Interactions

Strand-separation releases the right chromosome end (Dr) from the nucleoprotein complex and yields a packaging intermediate composed of the terminase subunits tightly bound to the mature left end of the lambda genome (Dl, Figs. 1B and 2).85 This intermediate is remarkably stable in vitro (T1 2 8 hours),85 and because of this stability catalytic turnover is not observed in the absence of procapsids. Early studies isolated a stable intermediate in the packaging reaction in vivo. This species, known as complex I, could be isolated on sucrose gradients and chased into infectious virus with the addition of a cell extract containing X tails.89 We presume that the stable complex characterized in vitro is in fact complex I characterized in vivo, though this has not been rigorously demonstrated. The stability of complex I, presumably mediated by gpNul interactions with cosB, is likely critical for protection of the matured genome end prior to DNA packaging in vivo should the complex...

Proglucagon Gene Products

The human studies on OXM effect on appetite control may indicate a novel potential role that OXM may have as an antiobesity therapeutic agent. However, more studies research is required to develop the drug into a more user-friendly format (77). GLP-1 Actions. In addition to its central actions, including the transduction of aver-sive signals, regulation of learning and memory, and neuroprotection, GLP-1 acts as a regulatory peptide in appetite control. GLP-1 inhibits food intake (84,85), reduces gastric secretion and motility, and increases gastric satiety. Central administration of GLP-1 in rodents has been shown to inhibit food intake, which, if continued, results in weight loss (84). Seemingly peripheral administration causes reduced food intake (85-87).

Diet and medical problems Diabetes

The major nutrient that affects blood sugar levels is carbohydrate in the form of sugar and starch, as found in grains, fruits, vegetables, sweets, and milk. The total amount of carbohydrate consumed is more important than the source or type (evidence level A). Sucrose, or table sugar, does not increase blood sugar any more than the same amount of starch, so sucrose can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the diet. There is no evidence to support

The Digestion Of Carbohydrates

Completely breaks it down to disaccharide (maltose and isomaltose). Sucrose, maltase, isomaltase, and lactase finally break down this disaccharide, along with other disaccharides ingested in foods (sucrose, lactose) to the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose. These simple sugars are the end products of carbohydrate digestion and are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the bloodstream via a carrier-mediated transport system. They can be either oxidized immediately by the cells to do work or they can be stored until they are needed by the body. They can be stored in two ways

Diabetes And Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in the diet include monosaccharides and disaccharides, the starches and the indigestible carbohydrates, such as cellulose, pectins, gums, and psyllium. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following terms sugars, starch, and fiber, whereas terms such as simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and fast-acting carbohydrates should be avoided because they are not well-defined. Various factors can effect glycemic excursions with food intake, including the type of sugar (lactose, fructose, sucrose, or glucose), the type of cooking and food processing, the type of starch (amylose or amylopectin), the food components (lectins, tannins, or phytates), the levels of preprandial and postprandial glucoses, and the degree of insulin resistance (see Table 1). Sucrose and sucrose-containing foods do not need to be restricted and can be substituted for other carbohydrate sources. Isocaloric amounts of starch and sucrose have equal effects on glycemia, according to the...

How the Healthy Digestive System Works

Digestion transforms fats into fatty acids and glycerol, proteins into amino acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars, all to be used by the body as energy or as chemical building blocks. If a person overeats, all of the nutrients not used as energy or for maintaining body structure and function can be converted into body fat.

From the Top The Mouth and Esophagus

In the mouth, food is mixed with saliva created by the salivary glands and begins to be broken down by ptyalin, the salivary enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars. Food passes from the mouth down the esophagus. At the end of the esophagus is a valve-like muscle (the lower esophageal sphincter), which allows food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach but normally does not allow food to go back up into the esophagus.

Modification of Lignin and Cellulose Content via Ligninenzymes

Lignin is a very complex natural polymer with many random couplings and the exact chemical structure of lignin is still unknown. Lignin is formed by removal of water from sugars to create aromatic structures and the reactions are irreversible. Different lignin monomers have been identified, and the types and proportions of the lignin monomers depend on the source in nature. Lignin resists attack by most microorganisms, and anaerobic processes tend not to attack the aromatic rings at all. Aerobic breakdown of lignin is slow and may take long time periods. Lignin is nature's cement along with hemicellulose, exploiting the strength of cellulose while conferring flexibility.

The aGlucosidase Inhibitors

Miglitol has been shown to inhibit sucrase and a-amylase (responsible for the metabolism of sucrose and starch, respectively) in the lumen of the small intestine. a-Amy-lase facilitates the breakdown of starch into dextrins, maltotriose, and maltose whereas sucrase inhibits the breakdown of sucrose. Miglitol's inhibition of the enzymes delays subsequent carbohydrate degradation, attenuating postprandial plasma glucose elevation by delaying glucose uptake.

Experimental models for determining CNS permeability

It is clear that any in vitro BBB cell model utilized for the screening of potential CNS drugs must display reproducible substrate permeability. The precision of such systems, is improved by comparison of the permeability data for the test molecules to permeability data for low (e.g., sucrose) and high (e.g., diazepam or propranolol) brain-penetrating solutes used as internal controls within the experiment. Beyond this, a number of other general criteria for model appropriateness may be defined 118

Genetic And Biochemical Considerations

The red blood cell membrane is crowded with antigenically active molecules. Prominent among these are large, complex, sugar-and-lipid-containing molecules which carry peripheral chains of sugars attached to a backbone that inserts into the membrane. Specific sugars, in specific linkage conformations, determine the antigenic activities called A and B. The presence of 1 sugar, N-acetylgalactosamine, gives the molecule A activity a different sugar, D-galactose, determines B activity. These sugars, when present, occupy a predetermined location, attached to D-galactose, which resides at the end of a chain containing other sugars in an unvarying order. The D-galactose that anchors the N-acetylgalactosamine (for A) or D-galactose (for B) must also have a second sugar, L-fucose, attached in a specific configuration. Without the L-fucose, the other 2 sugars cannot attach. The D-galactose-plus-L-fucose configuration, without added D-galactose or...

Cellular Route for Viral Systemic Movement

For their movement through the host vasculature, plant viruses are thought to take the same route that the plant utilizes for transport of its pho-toassimilates (Leisner et al. 1993a,b). Tracking radioisotope-labeled sucrose and low molecular weight fluorescent dye in host plants has demonstrated that photoassimilates are transported from lower, fully expanded leaves (source) to the upper, young leaves (sink) (Leisner et al. 1993b Oparka et al. 2000 Roberts et al. 1997 Santa Cruz et al. 1999). Similarly, tracking systemi-cally moving viruses, such as Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) (Leisner et al. 1993c) or GFP-expressing recombinant tobamoviruses and PVX (Cheng et al. 2000 Santa Cruz et al. 1998), showed that these viruses, and presumably many others, move through the phloem from source leaves to sink tissues.

Closing Remarks of Section

Another cellular system is the cytoskeleton. Its most obvious unction is to provide mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape. Mitochondrion is the singular form of mitochondria. Their major role is synthesis of substances from sugars, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen to supply energy to the cellular metabolic processes. These are mobile and flexible organelles, although in some cells they tend to stay in a fixed position (as for example in muscle fibers). Mitochondria are also self-reproducing, they have their own circular DNA. Cells of multi-cellular organisms also receive signals from other cells, including signals for cell division and differentiation. The majority of

Purification of TyVLPs

Add 2.75 mL of the clarified lysate to a 3.2-mL polycarbonate ultracentrifuge tube. Set a Gilson P200 pipet to 250 L, and carefully underlay 250 L of 60 sucrose in TEN buffer at the bottom of the tube (see Note 8). 3. The Ty-VLPs will accumulate just above the 60 sucrose layer, and it may be possible to see a milky band in the tube at this point. Remove the supernatant above this and discard. If no milky band is visible, it will still be possible to distinguish the interface between the sucrose and the supernatant. Remove the supernatant leaving 2 to 3 mm above the interface. 5. Add 1.5 mL of 35 sucrose in TEN to a clean centrifuge tube. Underlay with 250 L 60 sucrose in TEN as before. Slowly layer the resuspended material from step 4 on top of the 35 sucrose. 8. Remove the sucrose from the Ty-VLPs by overnight dialysis in TEN buffer, at 4 C. Measure the protein concentration using, for example, the Bio-Rad protein assay kit. Aliquot and freeze samples for storage at -70 C (see Note...

Scale Up of Purification

Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gel showing purified and unpurified Ty-VLPs. Lanes 1 and 7 molecular-weight markers (A) 175 kDa (B) 83 kDa (C) 62 kDa (D) 47.5 kDa (E) 32.5 kDa. Lanes 2-4 total yeast soluble protein after galactose induction. Lane 2 untransformed yeast. Lane 3 yeast transformed with pOGS40 and pUG41S. Lane 4 pOGS40 with 229 amino acid C-terminal fusion and pUG41S. Lanes 5 and 6 Ty-VLP monomers after sucrose gradient purification. Lane 5 pOGS40 lane 6 pOGS40 with 229 amino acid C-terminal fusion. Fig. 2. Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gel showing purified and unpurified Ty-VLPs. Lanes 1 and 7 molecular-weight markers (A) 175 kDa (B) 83 kDa (C) 62 kDa (D) 47.5 kDa (E) 32.5 kDa. Lanes 2-4 total yeast soluble protein after galactose induction. Lane 2 untransformed yeast. Lane 3 yeast transformed with pOGS40 and pUG41S. Lane 4 pOGS40 with 229 amino acid C-terminal fusion and pUG41S. Lanes 5 and 6 Ty-VLP monomers after sucrose gradient purification. Lane 5 pOGS40 lane 6...

To eat healthily what are you aiming for

The Balance of Good Health (see Figure 2) shows the types and proportion of foods you need to eat to achieve a well-balanced and healthy diet. It is based on the five commonly accepted food groups. It shows that you do not have to give up the foods you most enjoy for the sake of your health. A healthy eating pattern includes the correct balance of foods from the four main food groups every day, plus an allowance for extras from the fats and fatty sugary foods group. All your nutritional needs will be met if you choose foods in these proportions. Remember, however, that everything you eat - snacks as well as meals - counts towards the balance of what you eat. The basic message is Reduce your intake of fats and fatty and sugary foods. Fats in the diet is the main problem as far as heart disease, high blood cholesterol and weight gain are concerned. They are of limited nutritional value and you can obtain a l the fat you need from the milk, dairy, meat and meat alternatives groups. Use...

OSTR Measurement of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Using Isolated Intact Nuclei Perforated Nuclei or Nuclear Envelopes of

Start the time-lapse program or activate the scanner manually. Use a GELoader tip to inject 20 L transport solution 2 into the OSTR chamber between two scans (see Note 6). The transport solution, containing 100 mM sucrose, will displace mock 3, which spills over the edge of the OSTR chamber. Record transport kinetics until substrate has equilibrated between OSTR chamber and TCs. The transport solution used in OSTR measurements contains a transport substrate (e.g., NTF2) and a control substrate (e.g., TRD70). The control substrate permits following the kinetics of solution exchange and checking for a tight seal of the nuclear envelope to the TC array and the integrity of the nuclear envelope. Thus (Fig. 4B), after injection of transport solution, the measuring TCs should be filled by the transport substrate in a time-dependent manner and remain void of control substrate. In contrast, control TCs should be filled immediately with both transport substrate and control substrate. 6. After...

Classifying Carbohydratecontaining Foods Chemical Structure vs Glycemic Index

All dietary carbohydrates, regardless of chemical structure, can be digested or meta-bolically converted to glucose. Classification as simple sugar or complex carbohydrate is based on the premise that rates of digestion and absorption are dependent on saccharide chain length. Based on this classification system, recommendations to consume complex carbohydrate, often in the form of starchy foods, and to restrict sugary products are inherent to most conventional low-fat diets (17,18). However, the overlapping postprandial responses to foods containing carbohydrates that vary in saccharide chain length suggest that this system is overly simplistic and has limited physiological relevance (19,20). For example, Wahlqvist et al. (19) observed similar blood glucose and insulin responses in research subjects who consumed glucose as a monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, or polysaccharide. Bantle et al. (20) found that meals containing sucrose did not cause greater increases in blood...

Type 2 Transglutaminase and Cell Death

30 Kletsas D, Barbieri D, Stathakos D, Botti B, Bergamini S, Tomasi A, Monti D, Malorni W, Franceschi C The highly reducing sugar 2-deoxy-D-ribose induces apoptosis in human fibro-blasts by reduced glutathione depletion and cytoskeletal disruption. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 243 416-425.

Dietary Guidelines

Human Needs.6 The decades after World War II were marked by a progression of thinking among nutrition scientists and policymakers from problems of hunger and nutrient adequacy to the role of diet as a controllable risk factor in chronic degenerative conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer that are the leading causes of death in the U.S.7 The dietary goals report attributed these killer diseases to dietary and other life-style factors and established quantitative standards for what was considered to be a more optimum intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrate, added sugars, cholesterol, sodium, and protein. The report generated much controversy among nutritionists and scientists about the proposed standards and goals. Increase intake of starches and complex carbohydrates as breads, cereals and legumes. Increase of added sugars is not recommended Sugar. Although sugar intake has not been directly linked to risk of disease except for dental...

Systemic Spreading of Silencing

Viral RNA is transported through plasmodesmata and through the phloem. In some cases viruses move as virions and in other cases as nucleic acid movement protein complexes. It is likely that also siRNAs move as complexes with transport proteins. In fact, in pumpkin phloem extracts a candidate for such a movement protein was found and termed phloem-derived small RNA binding protein (PSRP)1. PSRP1 is 21 kD in size and specifically expressed in the phloem (Yoo et al. 2004). Future experiments should address whether this protein is a transporter for both siRNAs and miRNAs. A system specifically allowing study of phloem transport of the silencing system is the silencing by a transgene expressing the chlorata hairpin construct under the control of the phloem specific sucrose transporter (SUC) promoter (SUC-SUL). SUC-SUL silencing results in a white stripe of 10 to 15 cells along the vascular veins and this phenotype can also be transmitted to grafted scions (Himber et al. 2003 Dunoyer et al....

BMedium Interpretation

(a) Lactose or sucrose fermentation results in an acid (yellow) reaction throughout the medium. (c) If no sugars are fermented, an alkaline (dark red) with an orangered butt is usually observed. (d) Gas production in TSI agar from lactose, sucrose, or glucose fermentation results in bubble formation or splitting of the medium in the butt of the tube.

Agouti and Agouti Related Protein AGRP

MC4R-knockout mice are extremely useful in elucidating the function of novel molecules and their complex interactions in the central melanocortin signaling involved in appetite control. Using these mutant mice, it has been demonstrated that lack of MC4R does not prevent feeding responses to a number of anorectic or orexigenic factors, including, CRH or NPY, indicating that these peptides act independently or downstream of MC4R signaling (153). MC4R-knockout mice were used to localize the site of action of the novel mahogany protein within the agouti pathway. The semidominant mutant of mahogany locus (mg) suppresses the Ay-induced obesity, suggesting that for agouti protein action to induce obesity, the mahogany-gene product is required (127,128). Two possible mechanisms of the mahogany-protein action include interference with agouti-peptide synthesis or its interaction with MC4R. When homozygous MC4R-knockout mice were crossbred with a strain of mice homozygous for the mg allele, the...

Construction of GMM Strain CT0370

The recA-alaS region was cloned in E. coli using a vector which could not replicate autonomously in Rhizobium, and contained sacRB (sucrose sensitivity) and aacC1 (gen-tamicin resistance) markers. Following mobilization into strain LRS39401, gentamicin resistant transconjugants were assumed to have undergone a chromosomal insertion of the vector in the target site by homologous recombination. Following selection on sucrose, some transconjugants had lost the gentamicin and sucrose-sensitivity markers of the vector but retained a GUS phenotype. These were tested for vector sequences by extracting DNA, digesting with BamHl, EcoRl and Nrul, and probing gel blots with vector DNA. PCR with primers designed to identify a single GUS gene cassette insertion in the predicted position was used to confirm the structure (Fig. 11.1). Primers were recA forward, uidA reverse, uidA forward, and alaS reverse. PCR products arose only from reactions with recA forward, uidA reverse and uidA forwards, alaS...

Impact of Food and Diet

Though very difficult to measure accurately, dietary excess remains the most likely explanation for most overweight children. Fast food is one such source of excess energy. Children who eat fast food, compared with those who do not, consume more total energy, more energy per gram of food, more total fat, more total carbohydrate, more added sugars, more sugar-sweetened beverages, less fiber, less milk, and fewer nonstarchy vegetables and fruits (5). An association has been demonstrated between the presence of soda machines in schools and intake of sugared sodas by students (33). Studies of dietary intake and adiposity development have not provided a consistent picture of the relationship between early patterns of intake and excessive weight gain, although a recent study involving an adult cohort from Spain demonstrated significant relationships between consumption of soft drinks, hamburgers, pizza, and sausages and subsequent weight gain (34). In one pediatric study, protein intake at...

Nonenzymatic Browning

Nonenzymatic browning is a process in which foods darken without the catalytic effect of enzymes. It differs markedly from the darkening of fresh fruits and vegetables due to enzymatic degradation. The food constituents responsible are certain simple sugars which react with proteins, amino acids, or other substances normally present in the foods.

Adjustment of Volatile Acidity

The decision whether to sterile filter package should be partially based on the inherent chemical and microbiological parameters of the wine. Here, some wines are less likely to exhibit post-bottling microbiological instability than others. As an example, a red wine containing 14.5 v v ethanol, < 2 g L reducing sugars, < 30 mg L malic acid, and > 50 mg L total SO2 is less likely to be a candidate for sterile filtration than a white wine that contains 11.5 v v ethanol, > 5 g L reducing sugars, > 0.5 g L malic acid, and little SO2. Another example would be wines that have some Brett-character before bottling. If unfiltered, there is a high risk that these wines could experience a significant microbiological bloom after bottling.

Luis H Toledo Pereyra and Alexander Horacio Toledo

For rash they used red-oak bark and alum. Goose grease and sorghum, or honey, was a standard remedy for croup, backed up with turpentine and brown sugar. Sassafras tea was given in the spring and fall as a blood medicine. Adults' colds were doctored with horsemint tea and tea from the roots of broom sedge. For eruptions and impure blood, spice-wood tea was given. Wine was made from the berries of the elder bush. For diarrhoea, roots ofblackberry and blackberry cordial and so, also, was a tea made from the leaves ofthe rose geranium. Mutton suet, sweet gum and the buds ofthe balm of Gilead was a standard salve for all cuts and sores. Balsam cucumber was widely used as a tonic, and was considered a specific remedy in burns. Catnip, elecampane, and comfrey root andpennyroyal were in every good housewife's pantry, in which, also, was the indispensable string or red peppers, a bag of sage leaves and of 'balm.' Calamus root for colic in babies was a common dose. The best known standard...

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Starch or complex carbohydrates, and both soluble and insoluble fiber, are carbohydrate molecules made up of the monosaccharide glucose. Free sugars of glucose, fructose, and sucrose (a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose), along with starch, are the main source of energy in human diets, accounting for some 40 to 80 of human energy intake.75 In the starches and the fibers, the alpha- and beta-linkages at the glycoside carbon largely regulate whether the human digestive tract can digest them down to molecules of glucose. The indigestible carbohydrates are those that predominate with beta-linkages like the celluloses, and related Our observations of the incidence of involuntary weight loss find a higher incidence in the elderly. It can, however, be found at any age. Some glucose or related sugar should be a part of the diet to minimize the burning of fat to make glucose, since glucose is needed for brain energy. Increasing protein intake alone will not help. Sugar substitutes,...

Virion subunit vaccines

Removed with a detergent, such as Triton X-100. This releases the glycoproteins, which form aggregates of H 'cartwheels' and N 'rosettes'. These structures are purified by centrifugation in a sucrose gradient, and then material from three influenza virus strains is combined to form the vaccine.

Live recombinant virus vaccines

Figure 24.3 Outline of production method for influenza virus subunit vaccine. Haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) are extracted from inactivated influenza virions and purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The bands from the gradient are harvested and incorporated into the vaccine.

Purification of Adenoviral Vectors

The crude lysate obtained after freeze-thawing is subject to two rounds of centrifugation over CsCl gradients. After the second centrifugation, the virus-containing band is isolated, and CsCl is removed by dialysis. In the final dialysis step, the buffer contains 5 sucrose, which is necessary for virus stability at -80 C. 9. The next day, remove the old 1X TD buffer, add fresh, cold, 1X sucrose buffer, and dialyze for an additional 3 h, at 4 C.

Principle Paracrine Secretion Involved In Inhibition Of Gastric Secretions

The answer is c. (Guyton, pp 761-762.) Facilitated diffusion is the major transport route for fructose. The duodenum and jejunum are the principal sites of carbohydrate absorption in humans. Digestion of carbohydrates is accomplished by amylase and brush border enzymes and results in a mixture of glucose, fructose, and galactose. A common sodium-dependent secondary active transporter absorbs glucose and galactose. Sucrose and lactose are disaccharides that break down into glucose and fructose, and glucose and galactose, respectively.

Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective

Temperatures and was apparently replaced by sucrose for osmoprotection (Rizhsky et al. 2004). These results show that transgenic approaches to engineer drought tolerance directly via constitutive increase of osmolytes or osmoprotectants may be limited. It appears more promising to employ strategies for increasing drought tolerance by manipulation of the transcriptional control, as suggested by Zhang et al. (2004b) and to use drought-induced promoters that have low constitutive expression.

Results And Discussion

Permeability Coefficient

Figure 2 shows the FV database and several excluded and provisional measurements plotted as a function of log Kow. Several of the measurements in Fig. 2 are labeled and deserve further discussion. Digitoxin, with the largest MW in the database (MW 764.9), was excluded from the FV database because the exposure time was not specified and very long times are expected to establish a steady state. Likewise, ouabain (MW 584.6) was made provisional because an exposure time was not specified. Other excluded data include the measurements of fluocinonide and sucrose reported by Anderson et al. (20). According to Anderson (32), an irresolvable discrepancy exists between the original notebook and the published value for fluocinonide. Anderson recommended that the permeability coefficient for sucrose be excluded because it was not measured with a technique that is necessary to measure permeability coefficients of hydrophilic compounds (see further documentation in Appendix B). Etorphine was...

Comparison with the Flynn Permeability Coefficient Database

By contrast, Flynn (21) assembled 97 human skin permeability coefficient values for 94 compounds with a relatively broad range of log Kow (- 2.25 sucrose < log K0w < 5.49 HC-21-yl octanoate mean 2.05, median 2.03, standard deviation 1.40) and MW (18 water < MW < 765 digitoxin mean 238.4, median 184.2, standard deviation 148.8). These statistics are based on the values of log Kow reported by Flynn (21) for all but four compounds (chlorpheniramine, diethylcarbamazine, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, and ouabain). Values of Kow for these compounds were either obtained from Hansch et al. (1) (chlorpheniramine and ouabain) or calculated using Daylight software (2) (diethylcarbamazine and N-nitrosodiethanolamine). The Flynn database includes three in vivo measurements (for benzene, styrene, and toluene). There are nine hydro-philic (log Kow < 0.0) compounds in the Flynn database (2,3-butanediol, ethanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, methanol, N-nitrosodiethanolamine, ouabain, sucrose, scopolamine,...

Appendix B Documentation Of Permeability Coefficient Data

The measured permeability coefficients of fluocinonide and sucrose through isolated SC were taken directly from Table I, while permeability coefficients, for the remaining hydrocortisone esters, also through isolated SC, were taken from Table II. Identical values were included in the Flynn database (21). All chemicals studied were at least 10 nonionized in the vehicle (pH 4). Although the exposure time was not precisely specified, we suspect that the values are at steady state (familiarity with authors). Figure 1 indicates that permeability coefficients, for several of the chemicals studied, are constant between 20 and 100 hours, indicating that excessive exposure times were not required for steady state to be achieved. Several different permeability coefficient values are reported for the hydrocortisone esters, but Anderson (32) recommended that the Table II permeability coefficients be used. Also, Anderson (32) noted a discrepancy between the permeability coefficient of fluocinonide...

Demembranated Sperm Chromatin

Open the peritoneal cavity by creating a midline incision through the abdominal wall. Move the organs of the intestinal tract to one side to reveal the testes. They are located in the midbody on either side of the midline. The testes appear grayish-white and almond shaped and are about 5 to 8 mm long. Remove them by cutting them with dissection scissors along the base. Blot excess blood away from the testes and place them in a Petri dish containing about 2 mL of 200 mM sucrose in buffer X. Repeat steps in Subheadings 3.1.1. and 3.1.2. for the remaining frogs. 2. Transfer the minced testes to a 15-mL screw-cap conical tube using a wide-bore disposable transfer pipet. Rinse the Petri dish with 1 to 2 mL 0.2 M sucrose in buffer X and combine with the testes in the 15-mL tube. Vortex vigorously for 1 min and pellet the larger tissue fragments by mild centrifugation for 10 s at 1000 rpm (170g) in a clinical centrifuge. 3. Transfer the supernatant to a new 15-mL tube. Add 2 to 3 mL 0.2 M...

Anthocyanase activity

F-Glycosidases have garnered most of the attention, even though preparations containing a-arabinosidase, a-rhamnosidase, f-xylanosidase and f-apiosidase activities improve their effectiveness. This results from potential flavourants often being bound to other sugars as well as to glucose.


Ferments and assimilates glucose, sucrose, and raffinose. Another species (C. pulcherrima) ferments glucose but assimilates glucose, galactose, l-sorbose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, trehalose, melezitose, d-xylose, A -acetyl-d-glucosamine, ethanol, glycerol, d-mannitol, d-glucitol, a-methyl-d-glucoside salicin, d-gluconate, succinate, and hexadecane (Meyer et al., 1998).


Grown on malt agar containing 2 w v calcium carbonate, the colonies appear white to cream-colored, ranging from shiny to dull. Edges are entire or lobate (D. anomala) or entire and undulating (D. bruxellensis). Ascospores appear hat-shaped or somewhat spherical with tangential brims. All species ferment glucose, and other carbohydrates such as galactose, sucrose, maltose, and trehalose may be fermented depending on strain. The species found in wines, B. anomalus and B. bruxellensis, can be separated on the basis of lactose fermentation (most strains of B. anomalus ferment the sugar whereas B. bruxellensis does not) and succi-nate assimilation (most strains of B. anomalus assimilate the acid whereas B. bruxellensis does not). Both species can also assimilate nitrate and some Brettanomyces can use ethanol as a sole carbon and energy source (Silva et al., 2004).


This genus is represented by a single species, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, which appears as lemon-shaped cells with blunt tips, sausage-shaped, curved, or elongated with a swelling in the middle (Fig. 1.5). At times, cells are single or appear in pairs or groups of three (Miller and Phaff, 1998b). Asexual reproduction is by bipolar budding. Saccharomycodes produces one to four smooth, spheroid ascospores with a small subequa-torial ledge. Sugars fermented include glucose, sucrose, and raffinose while compounds assimilated are glucose, sucrose, raffinose, glycerol,


Cells of Schizosaccharomyces may be cylindrical, ovoid, or even spherical (Vaughan-Martini and Martini, 1998b). Of the yeasts found in grape juice or wine, this genus uniquely reproduces by fission. Mycelia may form and asci produce two to eight spherical or ellipsoidal ascospores. The primary species found in grape musts or wines, S. pombe, ferments glucose, sucrose, and maltose and can assimilate glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, and d-gluconate. This species cannot use ethanol as a sole carbon source or nitrate as a nitrogen source.


Although only one species is assigned to this genus, O. oeni belongs to a heterogeneous group evidenced by wide variability in the fermentation of specific carbohydrates (Lafon-Lafourcade et al., 1983b Tracey and Britz, 1987 Davis et al., 1988 Kelly et al., 1989 Edwards et al., 1991). Most strains of O. oeni utilize l-arabinose, fructose, and ribose but not galactose, lactose, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, or xylose. By comparison, Lafon-Lafourcade et al. (1983b) noted that only 11 of the strains evaluated in their study utilized both fructose and glucose, contrary to the findings of others (Pilone and Kunkee, 1972 Beelman et al., 1977 Izugabe et al., 1985 Edwards et al., 1991). Davis et al. (1988) determined that only 55 of the strains studied fermented ribose, 27 fermented d-arabinose, and 45 fermented sucrose. Strain A-9 described by Chalfan et al. (1977) fermented glucose but not fructose. Although discrepancies in carbohydrate fermentations are probably the result of strain...

Soluble Solids

Unlike most fruit where sucrose represents the major sugar, grapes consist primarily of glucose and fructose, with much smaller amounts of sucrose. Although sucrose is present in grapes at only 0.2 to 1 w w (Hawker et al., 1976), this sugar is fermentable because Saccharomyces produces an extracellular invertase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to yield glucose and fructose (Goldstein and Lampen, 1975). In addition to six-carbon monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and 12-carbon disaccharides (sucrose), five-carbon pentoses are also present in grape musts. Among these, arabinose is the most abundant although rhamnose, xylose, and ribose have also been detected (Esau, 1967 Franta et al., 1986). According to Amerine et al. (1972), concentrations range from 0.8 to 2 g L in grape musts. Although Saccharomyces cannot ferment pentoses, other yeasts (e.g., Brettanomyces), molds, and bacteria (e.g., some lactic acid bacteria) can metabolize some of these sugars. Thus,...

BAntigen Loci

(2) At the ABO locus, there are three major alleles A, B, and O. However, as stated earlier, phenotypic expression of the A and B antigens are dependent on activity at the H locus. The H gene produces a transferase essential for the expression of A and B antigens on red blood cells. This transferase is responsible for the attachment of the sugar L-fucose to the terminal D-galactose of some carbohydrate chains (oligosaccharide chains) on the red blood cell membrane. Without L-fucose being present on the terminal D-galactose, other sugars may still be attached to these chains. The A transferase (N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase) and the B transferase (galactosyl transferase) attach immunodominant sugars to the carbohydrate chain where L-fucose has been added. If the individual is group O, there are no A or B specified transferases and the H activity remains unchanged. The O gene does control production of a protein which can be immunologically detected, but this protein has not been...

Stable isotopes

Stable isotopes like 15N have only rarely been used for root-activity measurements of annual crops (Gass et al., 1971 Menezes et al., 1997) or trees (IAEA, 1975 Atkinson et al., 1978 Rowe et al., 1999 Lehmann et al., 2001b). The main obstacle for using 15N is the mobility of nitrate, which is rapidly formed from the applied nitrogen source due to the high nitrification rates in many tropical soils. This may not be an important problem in acid soils with variable-charge clays and high oxide contents, which possess a high anion exchange capacity in the subsoil so that the mobility of nitrate is reduced (see Box 8.1). The mobility of the applied 15N in the soil can also be reduced by applying the tracer together with a labile carbon source like sucrose which provokes microbial growth and immobilization of the nitrogen near the point of application (Rowe et al., 1999). The uptake of 15N is very fast and leaf samples can be collected for analysis 2-4 weeks after the application. The root...

Lactase deficiency

Lactase deficiency refers to the loss from the intestinal mucosa of the disaccharidase enzyme required to break down the disaccharide, lactose, i.e. glucose-galactose (or sucrose, i.e. glucose-fructose) to monosaccharides which can then be absorbed. Otherwise these sugars remain in the bowel, where their osmotic load takes up water and produces diarrhoea (q.v.). In the lower bowel, additional bacterial digestion produces even smaller but still non-absorbable fragments, thereby increasing the osmotic effect further.


In many cases laboratory confirmation of species is required. This may be accomplished by a careful study of growth characteristics and the reactions obtained in appropriate carbohydrate media as shown in Table 4-1. To biochemically identify all of the species of the genus, five carbohydrates are normally used. However, to establish species identification of the pathogens, three of these carbohydrates are usually employed glucose, maltose, and sucrose. N. gonorrhoeae produces acid from glucose and is maltose negative and sucrose negative. Neisseria meningitidis on the other hand, is glucose positive, maltose positive, and sucrose negative. It should also be pointed out that Neisseria meningitidis can be further classified into serological types using specific antisera. Serotyping is usually done to support epidemiological studies.

Differential Media

Eosin-methylene blue (EMB) agar contains the dyes eosin and methylene as well as the carbohydrates lactose-and sucrose. The dyes act as inhibitors of most gram-positive bacteria and also as indicators of those bacteria capable of fermenting lactose. Colonies of lactose fermenters appear as dark-colored colonies

A Medium Contents

(2) Triple Sugar Iron Agar is exactly the same formula as KIA, but with the addition of 1.0 percent sucrose. The glucose concentration is one-tenth the concentration of the lactose and sucrose to enable the detection of glucose fermentation alone. The small amount of acid produced by the fermentation of the glucose is oxidized so rapidly in the slant, that the slant either remains or reverts back to alkaline (red), whereas the lower-oxygen tension in the butt retains and maintains an acid (yellow) reaction. Because of this situation that necessitates the free exchange of air with the slant, a tightly stoppered or screw-capped tube creates an acid condition that involves the slant and in this way may give misleading reactions of the medium. Because of the added advantage of three sugars, Triple Sugar Iron Agar is usually preferred to KIA. Table 5-1 gives the reactions that are possible using TSI and the interpretation of each reaction, as well as the organisms that would be the most...

Method B

Because dihydroxyacetone is a reducing sugar alcohol, its presence can be detected using any of several methods for reducing sugars including the widely used Clinitest (Ough and Amerine, 1988 Zoecklein et al., 1995). Using Clinitest , formation of a sharp blue color suggests A. pasteurianus (glycerol was not oxidized) whereas a light olive-green indicates A. aceti (glycerol was oxidized). The detection level for malic acid using this method is approximately 100 mg L. Thus, the absence of a malic acid spot should not be taken to mean that MLF is fully complete (Section 11.3.4). Conversely, presence of a lactic acid spot may not confirm an ongoing MLF because these bacteria produce the acid from sugars (Section 2.4.1). To confirm MLF completion, it may be necessary to perform additional malic acid analyses using


Like some other yeasts, Metschnikowia also forms multilateral buds as well as pseudohyphae. Asci produce one to two needle-shaped ascospores without any terminal appendages. A species found in grape musts or wines, M. pulcherrima (anamorph Candida pulcherrima), ferments glucose and can assimilate a number of compounds including glucose, galactose, l-sorbose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, trehalose, melezitose, d-xylose, W-acetyl-d-glucosamine, ethanol, glycerol, d-mannitol, d-glucitol, a-methyl-d-glucose, salicin, d-gluconate, succinate, and hexadecane but not nitrate (Miller and


Depending on species, various carbohydrates can be fermented and nitrate may be assimilated. P. anomala ferments glucose and sucrose and assimilates glucose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, trehalose, raffinose, melezitose, soluble starch, ethanol, glycerol, erythritol, d-mannitol, d-glucitol, a-methyl-d-glucoside, salicin, dl-lactate, succinate, citrate, and nitrate (Kurtzman, 1998b). P. membranifaciens weakly ferments glucose and assimilates far fewer compounds than P. anomala (glucose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, and ethanol).

Hydrolytic Bacteria

Converts starch to maltose Converts milk protein to peptides and amino acids Converts cellulose to cellobiose Converts gelatin to peptides and amino acids Converts lactose to glucose and galactose Converts lipids (fat) to glycerol and fatty acids Converts maltose to two glucose molecules Converts proteins to peptides and amino acids Converts sucrose to glucose and fructose


As described by Vaughan-Martini and Martini (1998a), Saccharomyces appear microscopically as globose or ovoidal cells with multilateral budding and possibly pseudohyphae (Fig. 1.4). The yeast forms one to four asco-spores, which are smooth and ellipsoidal. Colonies appear smooth, usually flat, and occasionally raised and opaque. The two primary species found in wines, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae (anamorph Candida robusta), ferment glucose, sucrose, and raffinose and assimilate glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, and ethanol but not nitrate. Saccharomyces can not utilize five-carbon sugars (e.g., pentoses).

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