Hair Loss Food List

Peruvian Hair Loss Treatment

Peruvian Hair loss treatment is a natural product, best for hair loss restoration. The hair product works well because its composition is free from chemical impurities. Hair loss is a life-changing occurrence in the lives of many people. As much as people may make fun of a bald head individual, but they fail to understand that this individual is very frustrated as it is already. Hair loss impacts on the overall personality build of an individual. For some, it is what makes them feel less pretty while others have lost their self-esteem to hair loss. Even so, Peruvian Hair loss is not only a powerful anti-hair loss formula, but it also strengthens the hair. Biologically, the leading cause of hair loss is high production of hormone DHT which weakens the hair, and it begins falling off. The hormone DHT is a version of testosterone, but it is more active. The Peruvian Hair loss treatment, however, offers smooth, soothing sensation on the human scalp, thereby increasing the blood flow. Moreover, the hair formulae prevent the conversion of testosterone into DHT. Peruvian hair loss treatment is not only useful in restoring hairlines, but it also makes the hair bulky and shiny. Peruvian hair loss treatment works by stimulating the growth of the hair, thereby making it long and healthy. Read more here...

Peruvian Hair Loss Treatment Summary

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Hair Loss Black Book

Learn how one medical researcher and former hair-loss sufferer is helping both men and women to: Discover what is Really causing your hair loss. and eliminate this problem once and for all at the source. Stop wasting your money on prescriptions, procedures, and miracle products that are messy, dangerous, and down-right ineffective. Stop Hair Loss Permanently and re-grow your hair with your own, natural hair growth cycle. Restore your confidence, your youth and your charisma. Eliminate everyones stares and stop them from thinking about your thinning hair and your receding hair line Read more here...

Hair Loss Black Book Summary

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Official Website: hairlossblackbook.com
Price: $47.00

A child is brought to the clinic by his mother because he has patches of hair loss as well as knots in the back of his

The presentation varies however, most children are brought to a physician because of hair loss or scalp pruritus. Physical Examination. Occipital adenopathy may be present. Small circular patches of alopecia with hairs broken off close to the scalp, the black dot sign, is seen with infection by T. tonsurans. Differential Diagnosis. Seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and psoriasis may be mistaken for tinea capitis.

Alopecia

Alopecia, which refers to loss of bodily hair, can have many causes and may vary in extent from the loss of an area of hair on the scalp to the loss of all bodily hair, even including eyebrows and eyelashes. 1. Alopecia areata is a localized condition of unknown cause, occurring in young people and with one or more areas of complete hair loss, usually on the scalp. There is minimal inflammation clinically (although histological examination shows lymphoid cells around the hair bulbs), and the process is usually reversible within three years. 2. Androgenetic alopecia or male baldness has well known features, though an underlying endocrine disorder should be sought if it occurs in young women. 3. Stress alopecia (telogen effluvium) is a diffuse thinning of the hair following a severe physiological insult which has altered the growth cycle of hairs so as to convert the majority in the active phase to the resting phase. It may follow the use of a number of drugs, most notably cytotoxic...

Lossof Function Bcl2 Family Transgenics

The hair of Bcl2 mutants that survive past the first few weeks turns gray. The timing of this change corresponds to the second cycle of hair-follicle growth, which produces an entire new set of hair starting at around 4 wk of age. Analysis of the hair follicles in these mice shows a reduction in both melanocytes and melanin granules indicating that Bcl2 is important for survival of melanocytes. Significantly, epidermal melanocytes express high levels of Bcl2 (136,137,140).

Pathogenicity Of Staphylococci

The staphylococci (figure 3-2) are ubiquitous in nature. They occur as normal inhabitants on the skin and in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of man. The majority of such forms are the comparatively avirulent organisms. Staphylococcus epidermidis and the related forms of Micrococcus and Sarcina are saprophytes frequently isolated from the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus strains are usually responsible for the staphylococcal diseases of man. These forms occur especially in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic individuals. The asymptomatic carrier is of considerable importance in transmitting these organisms. Staphylococcal diseases are most commonly manifested in localized suppurations that may be in the form of simple pustules, hair follicle infections, boils, or extensive carbuncular conditions that may progress to form metastatic abscesses in any tissue. The latter results from the spread of the organism via the blood...

Pathways Of lOntophoretic Transport

Identification of the pathways of transport during iontophoresis has received some attention (69), and an important role of the follicular or appendegeal pathway has been suggested. Scanning electrochemical microscopy, coupled with video microscopy (70), indicates that the iontophoretic flux of Fe(CN)64 is highly localized, with 40 to 60 of the total transport being associated with skin appendages (71). Transport of the uncharged solute, hydroquinone (again monitored by scanning electrochemical microscopy) also followed the appendegeal pathway, implying that the mechanism of electrotransport does not dictate a particular route. The volume flow in one hair follicle was estimated (72) to be 2.5 nL h, which, taking into account the hair follicle density in hairless mouse skin, suggests a value of 0.25 L cm2-h for a current of 0.1 mA cm2. It appears, therefore, that a significant fraction of electroosmotic flow across hairless mouse skin occurs via hair follicles. The different epidermal...

Hyperandrogenemiahyperandrogenism

Both the adrenal glands and ovaries contribute to the circulating androgen pool in women. In ovarian theca cells, cholesterol is converted to androstenedione. The adrenal preferentially secretes weak androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or its sulfated depot form, DHEA-S (up to 90 of adrenal origin). These hormones, in addition to androstenedione, may serve as prohormones and may be converted to more potent androgens such as testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. The ovary is the preferential source of testosterone it is estimated that 75 of circulating testosterone originates from the ovary (mainly through peripheral conversion of prohormones by liver, fat, and skin, but also through direct ovarian secretion). Androstene-dione, of both adrenal (50 ) and ovarian (50 ) origin, is the only circulating androgen that is higher in premenopausal women than in men, yet its androgenic potency is only 10 that of testosterone. However, it is often elevated in PCOS patients....

Absorption And Deposition Of Dietary Vitamin A By The Skin

Under usual physiological conditions, retinol, taken up from the serum by cells in the skin, is found bound to cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 (CRBP-1). CRBP-1 solubilizes, protects, and, as described below, influences the fate of retinol in the cell. Using immunohistochemical methods, Busch et al. (1992) showed that levels of CRBP-1 are lowest in epidermal basal cells and increase in suprabasal layers of the skin. The highest levels of CRBP-1 were found in the stratum granulosum. There was no evidence for CRBP-1 in the stratum corneum. Consistent with an earlier report (Siegenthaler, 1986), CRBP-1 was also expressed in several dermal structures such as hair follicle epithelium, sebaceous gland epithelium, and vascular endothelium. Retinol is tightly bound in holoCRBP-1 (Kd 0.1 nM) (Napoli, 1999). Because of this tight binding, it may be expected that most retinol in the skin would be associated with CRBP-1. However, Randolph and Siegenthaler (1999) have estimated that the...

Effects On Selected Biological Responses Of The Skin

Most of the effects of vitamin A on the skin are thought to involve its most bioactive metabolite, retinoic acid (Roos et al., 1998 Shroot et al., 1999). Retinoic acid triggers cutaneous biological effects by binding to two families of nuclear receptors. These nuclear receptors are known to be ligand-activated transcription factors. The family of retinoid acid receptors (RAR), including RARa, RARb, and RARg, is activated specifically by all-trans retinoic acid, while the family of retinoid X receptors (RXRa, RARb, and RARg) is activated by all-trans retinoic acid as well as 9- and 13-cis retinoic acids. These families of nuclear receptors are readily detected in human skin and epidermal keratinocytes. Human epidermal keratinocytes express three isoforms of RAR RARa, RARg, and RXRa, abundantly but all RAR and RXR isoforms can be detected immunohistochemically in normal human skin (Reichrath et al., 1997). Billoni et al. (1997) detected consistent RARb expression and variable expression...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy

It is noteworthy that although adjuvant BEP360 chemotherapy may substantially reduce an individual's risk of relapse, 60 of high-risk patients are cured by surgery alone and therefore receive chemotherapy unnecessarily. Moreover, patients managed by surveillance who develop systemic disease almost invariably relapse with good prognosis disease, and for such patients three cycles of BEP results in failure-free survival of at least 90 1 . Therefore, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I nonseminomatous testicular cancer should remain a matter of choice for patients.

Sexsteroid Deficiency

Unlike the case in females, male ERKO and wild-type mice have equivalent basal FSHp mRNA levels. Serum FSH levels are slightly, but significantly, higher in ERKO males than in controls. Following castration, both genotypes show significant elevation in serum FSH, but only wild-type animals display increased FSHp mRNA levels. The postcastration elevation in serum FSH is blocked by testosterone or estradiol, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), treatment in wild-type controls. These data indicate that estrogens, but not androgens, negatively regulate FSH secretion in wild-type males, and that reduction in serum FSH following testosterone treatment may be attributed to aro-matization to estrogen. The data in ERKO mice are consistent with this hypothesis in that

The Limitations of Animal Skin

In other in vitro work (Meidan et al., 1998a), it was shown that the application of a 1.1 MHz ultrasonic free field (i.e. no standing waves) at 0.1 W cm 2 to Wistar rat skin caused sebum to be discharged from the sebaceous glands, thus filling much of the hair follicle shafts. The discharge caused the transfollicular pathway to be blocked for hydrophilic permeants that penetrate via this route. Hence, sonication actually reduced drug transport. Importantly, sebum discharge was not induced in guinea pig skin, and it is not known whether it can occur in human skin. It can be concluded that in order for results to be really meaningful, phonophoresis studies should be performed with human skin.

The Need for Emotional Support

Physicians and others who care for breast cancer patients are becoming more sensitive to quality-of-life issues. An important part of breast cancer therapy is emotional support both for the patient and for the family. Many women feel a deep sense of loss following mastectomy and even lumpectomy, and need the support that can be provided by professional counselors. Chemotherapy often causes hair loss, induces premature menopause, and may cause serious mood swings that affect not only the patient but also her loved ones. Many medical centers now provide integrated services including physicians, surgeons, nutritionists, and social workers as part of a team. Patients often have supportive family members and friends, or may be part of a religious group or other organization that provides support sessions and religious healing services. A diagnosis of cancer is a life-altering event even if the prognosis for long-term survival is excellent.

Caused by Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

Finasteride (Proscar), a selective inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase, decreases the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Therefore, it prevents the growth of the glandular component of the prostate. In several studies, Proscar has been shown to improve urinary symptoms

RFLP Diagnosis of Myotonic Dystrophy

Southern Blot Myotonic Dystrophy

Myotonic Dystrophy The gene involved in myotonic dystrophy encodes a protein kinase whose function is still uncharacterized. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle deterioration, cardiac arrhythmia, frontal baldness, cataracts, and testicular atrophy. Because the disease shows anticipation, symptoms range from mild to a severe neonatal condition.

Keratinocyte Growth Factor

Although the transgenic mice generated by Werner et al. (15) appeared macroscopically normal, a histological analysis of their skin revealed epidermal atrophy, disorganization of the epidermis, abnormal hair follicle morphology, and a 60-80 reduction in the number of hair follicles. Finally, these mice revealed dermal hyperthickening with a gradual replacement of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Histological analysis of full-thickness excisional wounds, where back skin was excised to the level including the panniculus carnosus muscle, revealed a severe delay in wound reepithelialization in the transgenic mice compared with control littermates (15). On d 5 after injury, the number of proliferating keratinocytes in the hyperproliferative epithelium was 80-90 reduced compared with control mice. These results demonstrated an important role for KGF receptor signaling in wound repair, although the type of KGF receptor ligand responsible for this defect was not defined.

Treatment Of Intestinal Nematodes

Albendazole is usually well tolerated when given as a single dose for the treatment of intestinal nematode infections, although some patients develop gastrointestinal discomfort or experience migration of adult A. lumbricoides from the nose or mouth or in the stool. Albendazole is embryotoxic in animals and contraindi-cated during pregnancy. High-dose, prolonged therapy for echinococcal disease is occasionally complicated by alopecia, reversible bone marrow suppression, or hepatocellular injury Mebendazole is only slightly soluble in water and is relatively poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract,13 which limits its effectiveness against tissue-dwelling helminths. The serum half-life of absorbed drug is 2.5 to 5.5 hours. It is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine. Mebendazole is relatively well tolerated in the doses used to treat intestinal helminths. Transient abdominal pain and diarrhea occur in a small number of recipients. Prolonged, high-dose therapy used...

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphlococus Disease The Vaginal

Patients with folliculitis present with painful red papules overlying a hair follicle (Fig. 10). Folliculitis can be exacerbated by friction, shaving, or other trauma to the pubic hair-bearing area. These lesions sometimes enlarge to form furuncles, which are painful, red nodules measuring 1 to 2 cm (Fig. 11). The center of the lesion is filled with purulent material that releases by rupture or surgical incision. Carbuncles represent coalescing furuncles. Constitutional symptoms of fevers, generalized malaise, and chills are uncommon unless significant cellulitis is present.

Molluscum Contagiosum

Vulvovaginal Papillomatosis

Local lymphadenopathy follows, and the ulcer resolves even without treatment in several weeks. Most patients then develop latent disease, but about a quarter-progress to secondary syphilis. This stage is manifested by some or all of the following generalized lymphadenopathy, flat, skin-colored (dry keratinized skin) to moist white (mucous membrane and modified mucous membrane skin) papules of the genital skin (condylomata lata), white mucous patches of the mouth, patchy hair loss, and generalized scaling, inflamed, well-demarcated papules that show a predilection for the palms and soles (Fig. 7). This stage also resolves with or without treatment. Latent infection can ensue, followed much later by tertiary syphilis, manifested by gummas that can be life threatening. alopecia

Cancer Chemotherapy and Immunology

The answer is b. (Hardman, pp 1264-1265,) Dactinomycins major toxicities include stomatitis, alopecia, and bone marrow depression. Bleomycin's toxicities include edema of the hands, alopecia, and. stomatitis. Mitomycin causes marked bone marrow depression, renal toxicity and interstitial pneumonitis. Plicamycin causes thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, liver toxicity, and hypocalcemia. The latter may be of use in the treatment of hypercalcemia Doxorubicin causes cardiotoxicity, as well as alopecia and bone marrow depression. The cardiotoxicity has been linked to a lipid peroxidation within cardiac cells.

Atrophic Vaginitis And Serosanguineous Discharge

Both adrenal tumors and Sertoli-Leydig tumors produce androgens. The androgen production can result in seborrhea, acne, menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, breast atrophy, alopecia, deepening of the voice, and cli-toromegaly. Recurrences of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which seem to have a low malignant potential, usually appear within 3 years of the original diagnosis. Granulosa and theca cell tumors are often associated with excessive estrogen production, which may cause pseudoprecocious puberty, post-menopausal bleeding, or menorrhagia. These tumors are associated with endometrial carcinoma in 15 of patients. Because these tumors are quite friable, affected women frequently present with symptoms caused by tumor rupture and intraperitoneal bleeding. Granulosa tumors are low-grade malignancies that tend to recur more than 5 years after the initial diagnosis. Because their malignant potential is impossible to predict histologically, long-term follow-up is mandatory. Recurrences have...

Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Cancer

Will have been exposed to significant short-term side effects (e.g., myelosuppression, alopecia, nausea). It is noteworthy that although adjuvant BEP360 chemotherapy may substantially reduce an individual's risk of relapse, 60 of high-risk patients are cured by surgery alone and therefore receive chemotherapy unnecessarily. Moreover, patients managed by surveillance who develop systemic disease almost invariably relapse with good prognosis disease, and for such patients three cycles of BEP results in failure-free survival of at least 90 1 . Therefore, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I nonseminomatous testicular cancer should remain a matter of choice for patients.

How does diabetes affect your skin

A small minority of people with diabetes may have skin problems caused by damage to the small blood vessels. When this occurs, it results in reddening and thinning of the skin over the lower shinbones - a condition known as necrobiosis lipoidica. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment. Other skin-related problems that are statistically more likely to occur in people with diabetes include fungal infections, a depigmentation of the skin called vitiligo, and loss of hair on the head, known scientifically as alopecia.

Vogt KoyanagiHarada Syndrome

VKH syndrome is a bilateral, granulomatous panuveitis associated with poliosis, vitiligo, and alopecia with both central nervous system and auditory manifestations 61 . This inflammatory syndrome is considered to be a T-cell-medi-ated autoimmune disorder against a melano-cytic antigen. Typical histopathological features, seen in the early phases of VKH, are a granulomatous T-cell inflammation that primarily involves the choroid, with similar milder inflammatory infiltration in the iris and ciliary body. The retina is preserved except at sites of Dalen-Fuchs nodules, aggregations of proliferating retinal pigment epithelial cells admixed with a few inflammatory cells. Damage of RPE cells is detected by fluorescein angiography as multiple pinpoint areas of leakage at the level of RPE. Disruption of RPE cells is confirmed through electron microscopic examination, by showing M ller cell processes with attachment to Bruch's membrane. Disappearance of choroidal melanocytes, phagocytosis of...

Treatment of Breast Cancer

Surgery is usually followed by an additional (adjuvant) therapy. A lumpectomy is usually followed by a course of radiation to destroy undetected cancer cells that may have been left behind in the breast, chest wall, or lymph nodes and that have the potential to metastasize. Some lumpectomy and most mastectomy patients also receive chemotherapy in which toxic drugs are given orally or by IV to block DNA synthesis or division of cancer cells (table 5.3). Although the drugs target tumor cells, they are not specific and affect all rapidly dividing cells such as those in hair follicles, intestinal lining, and bone marrow. That is why chemotherapy causes such unpleasant side effects as hair loss, vomiting, and low blood cell counts. Chemotherapy may also cause premature menopause and infertility. Chemotherapy is usually given in cycles, with each period of treatment followed by a period of recovery. The total course of treatment can span three to six months. Side effects usually vary with...

Vogt KoyanagiHarada Disease

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a bilateral, granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments associated with systemic manifestations such as meningeal signs and cutaneous signs (poliosis, alopecia, vitiligo) and dysacusis 6 . There is now enough evidence to indicate that the disease is caused by an autoimmune process against melanocytes or an antigen present in these cells, namely tyrosinase or tyrosinase related protein 7 . As for most of these autoimmune diseases an infectious event due to one or several different commonly occurring pathogens probably triggers the reaction in susceptible individuals 7 . The disease is more prevalent in Asians,in particular Japanese 8,9 , in Hispanics and native Americans, but can occur in any individual of any race. A genetic predisposition to the disease that can be suspected as an association with class II human leucocyte antigens (HLA) has been established, mainly HLA-DR4 locus for Japanese 10 , and HLA-A31 and HLA-B55 for...

Other SFG Rickettsioses

Rickettsia slovaca infection occurs in Europe during the cold months when Dermacentor ticks attach, usually to the occipital scalp, followed 7 to 9 days later by the presence of an eschar and painful regional (often cervical) lymphadenopathy, seldom accompanied by fever or rash.65 The complication of prolonged alopecia at the site of the eschar (24 ) and aesthenia persisting even after doxycycline treatment suggests the possibility of co-involvement of other factors or agents.

The Androgen Receptor and Androgen Synthesis

Testosterone is the main circulating androgen and is primarily produced by the Leydig cells in the testes. Its release is influenced by the pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (Fig. 1.2). Once reaching the prostate, 90 of the testosterone is converted intracellularly by the enzyme 5a-reductase to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both DHT and testosterone bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and DHT has 100 times more relative androgenicity than testosterone.

Overexpression of Activin A in Basal Keratinocytes Stimulates Wound Repair

Activin A, a TGF-P superfamily member, is a homodimeric protein comprising two activin PA monomers connected by disulfide linkage. That it might play a role in the skin was first suggested by knockout mouse studies, of activin PA (56) and of the activin antagonist follistatin (57), which both showed clear phenotypes in hair follicle development. Further studies from our laboratory demonstrated activin PA to be strongly induced following wounding (58).

Added value for drug and device development

Also, the fact that only an estimated 10 per cent of pre-clinically tested lead-compounds are likely to ever reach the market must discourage companies from investing into new drug development, in particular for pathologies that are not deemed to constitute a profitable market. Thus, from the point of view of a commercial drug developer, ideal targets are chronic and non-lethal complaints that affect people in the developed world at the prime of their financial viability. In other words, it is 'more economical' to come up with a treatment for obesity, baldness or impotence, rather than to tackle a rare but lethal disease that affects small patient groups or people in underdeveloped regions of the world.

Agouti and Agouti Related Protein AGRP

Normal (wild-type) alleles at the agouti locus in the mouse act on the hair follicle and control deposition of pigment in the emerging hair. Deposition of yellow pigment near the tips of the hair, followed by deposition of black pigment in the remainder of the hair, produces a characteristic uneven brownish coloration of the animal, referred to as agouti (named after a similarly colored South American rodent). Two dominant mutations at the agouti locus, yellow (or lethal yellow, Ay) and viable yellow (Avy) produce increased growth, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia in combination with altered fur color bright yellow in Ay and various degrees of yellowing in Avy. These striking phenotypic alterations are believed to be mediated by ectopic expression of the agouti protein, because ubiquitous expression of either agouti protein or closely related AGRP in transgenic mice produced a phenotype closely resembling the abnormalities of the yellow (Ay) mouse (125,152). A similar...

Clinical Features

Superficial pustular folliculitis is manifested by follicular papules that quickly become pustules. They disappear spontaneously in 7-10 days without leaving a scar. They are generally asymptomatic although in some cases there can be mild itching and, very exceptionally, pain. It occurs in outbreaks, and it is not uncommon that while some of the lesions are disappearing, new lesions are beginning to appear. The most commonly affected locations are the scalp, the proximal extremities, the bearded area (sycosis barbae), the axillae, pubis and the gluteal region (Fig. 25.1). Keloidal folliculitis of the nape of the neck is characterized by the appearance of follicular lesions that when they heal, leave a keloidal scar. As new lesions of folliculitis appear, the keloid grows in size producing a cicatricial alopecia and deformity of the region. (Fig. 25.2). There are two rare varieties of

Alphahydr0xylase Deficiency

Labs Markedly reduced dihydrotestosterone with normal testosterone level. Decreased 5-a-reductase activity. Discussion An autosomal-recessive disorder of virilization affecting genetic males. 5-a-reductase converts testosterone to dihydro testosterone. Lack of type 2 isozyme of 5-alpha-reductase produces a decrease in dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for virilization of the external genitalia.

Vitamin A Toxicity

PF. young, muscular male androgenic alopecia acne testicular atrophy. Anabolic steroids are widely abused by weight lifters, ot her athletes, and the lay public. Although androgens increase muscle mass significantly, they produce only slight increases in strength. Numerous side effects have been reported, including hepatic neoplasia, glucose intolerance, decreased HDL-C levels, hypertension, testicular atrophy and oligospermia, virilization and amenorrhea, acne, and alopecia. Other consequences of androgen abuse include mood disturbances and irritability that may result in aggressive behavior and injury to others.

Other Treatments

Minoxidil has mild efficacy in increasing hair growth in women with alopecia. Ketoconazole is an inhibitor of the P450 enzyme system and thus inhibits androgen biosynthesis, but has hepatotoxicity. Others have given aromatase inhibitors to induce ovulation and lower circulating androgens, although hirsutism has not been the primary focus to date (176).

Items 335336

A 35-year-old woman presents to your office complaining of hair loss, bone pain, and dryness and fissures of the lips. She tells you that she has been taking large amount of vitamins in hopes of preventing cancer and infections. Her symptoms are most likely caused by an excess of

Clinical Picture

Early Distal Subungual Onychomycosis

Trichophytic tinea (Fig. 1.1) causes diffuse alopecia with small and irregular plaques mixed with healthy hairs and scales, ringworm. Microsporic tinea presents as one or a few pseudoalopecic round plaques with short and regular affected hairs that seem to have been trimmed with a lawn mower (Fig. 1.2). The inflammatory type, or kerion, is the most obvious manifestation of acquired immunity. It is more often due to M. canis and T mentagrophytes (Fig. 1.3). This type can be localized to any area in the skin, but it is common on the scalp. The inflammatory plaque is painful and has abscesses, pustules, ulcers, and crusts. Adenopathy without fever is frequently present. In the early stages, it is a der-matophytic folliculitis, and in late stages the kerion is evident, so named from the Greek word honey comb because of its appearance. T. verrucosum (T. ochraceum) can cause a wide ulceration. The alopecia is quite evident, but parasitized hairs are hard to find. With proper treatment, it...

Questions 300301

A 48-year-old female with a history of sarcoidosis comes to the ED with a chief complaint of syncope. She admits to anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. She stopped going to work because she is too tired. Physical examination is significant for hyperpig-mented lesions and alopecia. Initial laboratory findings show a glucose level of 50 mg dL and a potassium level of 5.4 mEq L. What is the MOST likely diagnosis

Laser Hair Removal

Hair removal lasers all target melanin. Unwanted hairs tend to be relatively large and dark. There is a much higher concentration of melanin in the hair follicle than in the surrounding skin this difference provides selectivity so that the laser's effect is much greater on the hair follicle than elsewhere. Human hair varies widely in diameter and color as well as in growth characteristics the response to laser hair removal treatment is affected by all of these physical features. Because of the broad range of wavelengths that affect melanin (see chapter 4), several different lasers are effective for hair removal ruby (694 nm), alexandrite (755 nm), diode (810 nm), and Nd YAG (1064 nm) lasers. These lasers have variable power settings, spot sizes and pulse durations, all of which can affect the efficacy of treatment. The hair follicle is a relatively large structure, and significant amounts of energy are required to damage it a relatively long laser pulse is required to deliver the...

Questions

Bacteria can infect the skin through accidental or deliberate breaks in it or through the hair follicle. Which one bacteria causes one of several differing infections of the skin including necrotizing fasciitis, erysipelas, impetigo contagiosa, and necrotizing myositis

Answers

The answer is d. (Fitzpatrick, 3 e, pp 22, 72-74, 76-79, 610, 704-709. Sapira, p 121.) The history is most consistent with tinea capitis due to either Trichophyton tonsurans or Microsporum canis. It is usually seen in school-age children and may be transmitted from person to person. Psoriasis is a hereditary disorder characterized by scaling patches and plaques appearing in specific areas of the body, such as the scalp, elbows, lumbosacral region, and knees. The lesions are salmon pink with a silver-colored scale that on removal produces blood (Auspitz sign). The Koebner phenomenon (with trauma, the lesion jumps to a new location) is also elicited in patients with psoriasis. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic dermatosis occurring in areas with active sebaceous glands (face, scalp, and body folds) and may occur either in infancy or in people over the age of 20. The eczematous plaques of seborrheic dermatitis are yellowish red and are often greasy with a sticky crust....

The Skin

Oil Gland Drawings

Other special structures in the dermis include hair follicles and sweat glands. These structures are composed of modified keratino-cytes and can be thought of as invaginations of epidermal-type cells deep into the dermis thus, they are literally epidermal appendages. The specialized keratinocytes that compose hair follicles differentiate into a hair shaft rather than into the stratum corneum that lies atop the epidermis. Many hair follicles, especially on the face, are associated with sebaceous (oil) glands, which are themselves composed of another type of modified keratinocyte (fig. 2.2). The lowermost extent of larger hair follicles may lie near the bottom of the dermis, and sometimes deeper still in the subcutaneous fat. Just as in the basal layer of the epidermis, there are melanocytes in the deeper part of the hair follicle. These melanocytes produce melanin, which is transferred to the keratinocytes within the developing hair shaft. The amount of melanin and even the type of...

Physical Abuse

On examination the physician should evaluate whether there are fractures or bruises in various stages of healing. Bruises, especially patterned bruises, and those on the buttocks and lower back should make one suspicious of physical abuse. For example, cigarette burns are circular, punched out lesions with uniformity in size. Immersion burns may have a stocking or glove pattern if the child's extremities are immersed in scalding water. Bite marks greater than 3 cm should be attributed to those of an adult. The patient may have alopecia from having the hair pulled and broken at various lengths. The patient with head trauma may present with coma, seizures, apnea, and evidence of increased intracranial pressure. The practitioner should check for retinal hemorrhages that are associated with the shaken baby syndrome.

Treatment Resistance

Hsp Prostate

The hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis and the intracellular action of the androgen receptor (AR). ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone AR, androgen receptor DHT, dihydrotestosterone HSP, heat shock protein LH, luteinizing hormone LHRH, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Fig. 1.2. The hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis and the intracellular action of the androgen receptor (AR). ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone AR, androgen receptor DHT, dihydrotestosterone HSP, heat shock protein LH, luteinizing hormone LHRH, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

Psoriasis

Several systemic disorders occur more often in patients with vitiligo, including thyroid disease (e.g., hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease and thyroiditis), Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, uveitis, and diabetes mellitus. Vitiligo may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expression. Most studies, however, point to an autoimmune basis (circulating complement binding anti-melanocyte antibodies have been detected).

Hair Removal Lasers

In the late 1990s, new lasers were developed for the purpose of removing unwanted hair. All of these lasers target the chromophore melanin, which in dark hair is present at greater concentrations in the hair follicle than in the surrounding skin. White or gray hair follicles cannot be treated as effectively because they lack melanin. Most of the lasers used for hair removal are similar to the Q-switched lasers (ruby, alexandrite, Nd YAG) but are run in normal mode with pulses of laser energy much longer than those generated by a Q-switch. The longer pulses are needed to impart sufficient energy to the hair follicle to cause its destruction. Many of these laser systems require simultaneous use of a skin coolant to protect the epidermis, with its lower melanin content, from excessive heating. Ironically, cutaneous lasers seem to have come full circle since the

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