New approach could reverse liver failure

Liver Tracker

This new program is designed to help you live with your liver disease, and make it easier to live with liver problems. If you join Liver Tracker, you have the ability to get a supportive community that helps you cope with your liver problems in an environment that will help with your liver issues. If you non-alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, Hepatitis A and B, or alcoholic fatty liver disease, you will be a fit for this community AND we can offer you the help that you need! You will also get healthy recipes that are created by dietitians; you never again have to wonder if it is safe to eat what you are eating! You will get progress tracking to check and see if you are meeting your health goals, and the direct help of a health team. You do not have to go through this alone; let us help you!

Liver Tracker Summary


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Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis usually occurs in men over 40 who for years have been drinking a lot of liquor (alcohol) and eating poorly. Cirrhosis starts like hepatitis, with weakness, loss of appetite, upset stomach, and pain on the person's right side below the ribs. When cirrhosis is severe, it is hard to cure. There are no medicines that help much. Most people with severe cirrhosis die from it. If you want to stay alive, at the first sign of cirrhosis do the following If a person with cirrhosis has swelling, he should not use any salt in his food.

Biliary cirrhosis see also Cholangitis and

Biliary cirrhosis may be either primary or secondary. Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune disease. It is thus also associated with other autoimmune diseases, particularly scleroderma, CREST syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome and renal tubular acidosis. There is a genetic predisposition because of the association with the HLA-DR8 haplotype. Clinical features of primary biliary cirrhosis typically are manifest in women aged 30 50 y. There is the gradual onset of pruritus, fatigue and increased skin pigmentation. Late features include jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, multiple xanthomas, osteoporosis (with bone secondary biliary cirrhosis Secondary biliary cirrhosis arises from chronic biliary tract disease due to obstruction or prolonged inflammation. This leads to the irreversible histological changes of cirrhosis.

Pseudomembranous Colitis

With hepatitis B virus infections and with cirrhosis. There is a dramatic predisposition to this neoplasia in Africa and in parts of Asia it is the most common visceral neoplasia in African men. Causative theories include the carcinogenic action of aflatoxins on genetically susceptible individuals. Anatoxins are produced by the contamination of peanuts (staple food in many African countries) with the fungus Aspergillus favus.

Production And Degradation Of Ecm Components By Hscs

In pathological conditions such as liver cirrhosis, the HSCs lose vitamin A, proliferate vigorously, and synthesize and secrete a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagen, proteoglycan, and glycoprotein. The structure of the cells also changes from star-shaped SCs to that of fibroblast-like cells or myofibroblasts (Majno, 1979) with well-developed rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus (Fig. 9) (Blomhoff and Wake, 1991 Sato et al., 2003 Senoo and Wake, 1985 Senoo et al., 1997).

Malignant Mesothelioma

Effusions may be due to infection (viral, bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal) other causes are malignancies, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, trauma, pancreatitis, collagen diseases, and drug reactions. Effusions may be transudative ( 3 g dL of protein) or exudative ( 3 g dL of protein). Elevated pleural fluid LDH levels may be suggestive of malignancy. Transudative pleural effusions arc commonly caused by congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome, whereas exudative pleural effusions arc caused byTB, infections, malignancy, pancreatitis, pulmonary embolus, and chylothorax (milky pleural fluid).

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Response successfully eliminates the infection, but in many cases the infection persists for life, as discussed in Section 18.2 for HBV. As far as HCV is concerned, it is estimated that about 80 per cent of individuals who become infected are unable to eliminate the infection and that about 175 million people in the world are infected. In some individuals who are persistently infected with HBV or HCV liver cirrhosis develops, and for some this eventually leads on to cancer.

Alcoholic Ethanol Hepatitis

The liver becomes large, firm, and often tender. There are fatty changes, scattered areas of necrosis, an inflammatory reaction, disorganization of the liver functions and stoppage of bile in the narrow passageways. In many sections, fine strands of connective tissue extend into the lobules. Other sections may show clear-cut signs of cirrhosis as well. d. Treatment. Treatment will include bed rest, abstaining from consumption of alcohol, providing the required diet, and supportive measures as for cirrhosis. A multivitamin preparation is usually given and should include folic acid. e. Prognosis. A considerable number of patients die after a brief illness. Some patients recover completely and others will progress to develop cirrhosis.

Infections That Cause Cancer

A simplified scheme of infection-related oncogenesis can be used to categorize the malignancies into one of two types either tumors caused by the integration of oncogenic DNA into the host cell or those induced by chronic inflammation. Basically, all types of oncogenic agents enhance cell growth. The mechanisms by which this occurs can be quite variable, however, ranging from expression of viral oncogenes for cell growth factors to stimulation of growth by inflammatory intermediaries. Agents with oncogenes, however, directly immortalize cells, while inflammatory carcinogenic agents do not. Moreover, it is thought that immunosuppression may be important for development of malignancies related to oncogene integration. This is not thought to be the case for inflammation-related malignancy in fact, immunosuppression, by lessening the inflammatory response, could potentially protect against inflammation-related cancers. This was highlighted in a recent review by Smukler and Ratner who...

The answer is a Fauci 14e pp 14511455 Massive lifethreatening hemoptysis is 100 cc of blood in 24 h The most common

The answer is a. (Goldman, 21 e, p 1003. Sapira, p 81.) Platypnea is the opposite of orthopnea. Platypnea is difficulty breathing when sitting up that is relieved in the recumbent position. This is often accompanied by orthodeoxia, which is a decrease in oxygen saturation in the erect position. Several disorders may rarely cause platypnea (pneumonia, multiple pulmonary emboli, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and cirrhosis), but the physical finding is most associated with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. This is a hereditary disorder that causes telangiectasias in the face, tongue, nose (patients often present with epistaxis), lip, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and central nervous system. Patients have platypnea due to formation of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. 135. The answer is e. (Seidel, 4 e, p 184, 371.) Clubbing is associated with cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, congenital heart disease, cirrhosis, colitis, and thyroid disease. Clubbing is due to the formation of new...

Perforated Gastric Ulcer

Alcoholic hepatitis gives rise to fibrosis ( CIRRHOSIS) of the liver, which increases portal vein resistance. With the development of portal hypertension ( 10 mmHg), there are portal-systemic anastomoses formed such as the left gastric-azygous (esophageal varices), the superior-middle and inferior rectal veins (hemorrhoids), the paraumbilical-inferior gastric (navel caput medusae), and the retroperitoneal-renal vein system.

Alanine Aminotransferase ALT Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase SGPT

Increased alanine aminotransferase levels are almost always associated with some type of liver dysfunction. When liver cells are destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Moderate to high ALT increases indicate hepatocellular disease. Mild elevations can indicate cirrhosis of the liver, metastatic liver tumor, and jaundice caused by obstructive or other liver disease. In addition to various disease processes, drugs that are toxic to the liver can also trigger an increased ALT. Liver diseases associated with increased ALP levels include obstruction of biliary ducts and obstructive jaundice, hepatitis, liver cancer, cirrhosis, and infectious mononucleosis. In order to confirm liver-related diseases, elevated alkaline phosphatase levels must be correlated with other liver function tests.

Marking Cephalic Cone

Anatomi Scistosoma Mansoni

PATHOGENESIS Embolic eggs cause more severe lesions than other schistosome splenomegaly, cellularspecies, infiltration of vital organs liver f ibrosis and cirrhosis, infiltration, ulceration. HABITAT Venules surrounding the small intestine. INTERMEDIATE HOST splenomegaly, liver cirrhosis, fibrous tissue proliferation, ulcerations. HABITAT Venules surrounding the large intestine. INTERMEDIATE HOST

Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN

Azotemia, increased BUN levels, is usually caused by inadequate excretion due to kidney diseases such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and acute tubular necrosis. Other causes of azotemia are urinary obstruction, excessive amounts of protein intake and metabolism, dehydration, myocardial infarction, and chronic gout. Decreased BUN levels are seen in liver failure, overhydration via excessive intravenous fluids, malnutrition, impaired absorption, and pregnancy.

Thiamine Diphosphate Activate The Aldehyde Is Transferred Beriberi

The answer is b. (Murray, pp 627-661. Scriver, pp3127-3164. Sack, pp 121-138. Wilson, pp 287-320.) Ferrous iron (Fe++) is the form absorbed in the intestine by ferritin, transported in plasma by transferrin, and stored in the liver in combination with ferritin or as hemosiderin. There is no known excretory pathway for iron, either in the ferric or ferrous form. For this reason, excessive iron uptake over a period of many years may cause hemochro-matosis (235200), the likely diagnosis for this man. This is a condition of extensive hemosiderin deposition in the liver, myocardium, pancreas, and adrenals. The resulting symptoms include liver cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and changes in skin pigmentation.

Dubinjohnson Syndrome

PE Normal except for mild scleral icterus no hepatosplenomegaly no signs of chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy shows acute inflammation, increased copper levels, and periportal fibrosis (macronodular cirrhosis) intracytoplas-mic hyaline bodies (Mallory bodies) seen degeneration of basal ganglia with cavitation, especially of putamen hyperplasia with glial proliferation of the lenticular nuclei.

Chronic cholangitis is also usually due to biliary

The obstruction should be dealt with on its surgical merits, because without mechanical relief chronic cholangitis may lead to biliary cirrhosis. Endoscopic stricture dilatation may be helpful in selected patients. Ursodiol (see Biliary cirrhosis) provides symptomatic and biochemical benefit but no survival advantage.

Peptic Ulcerperforated

Alcoholic hepatitis gives rise to fibrosis (cirrhosis) of the liver, which increases portal vein resistance. With the development of portal hypertension ( 10 mmHg), there are portal-systemic anastomoses formed such as the left gastric-azygous (esophageal varices), the superior-middle and inferior rectal veins

Chapter Summary continued

Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease of probable autoimmune etiology that is characterized by inflammation and granulomatous destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. Cirrhosis is an end-stage liver disease due to many etiologies characterized by disruption of the liver architecture by bands of fibrosis that divide the liver into nodules of regenerating liver parenchyma. Complications of cirrhosis include portal hypertension, ascites, hypersplenism, esophageal varices, hemorrhoids, caput medusa, hepatic encephalopathy, spider angiomata, palmar erythema, gynecomastia, hypoalbuminemia, decreased clotting factors, and hepatorenal syndrome. Acute viral hepatitis can be due to any of the hepatitis viruses. Chronic viral hepatitis can be caused by hepatitis viruses B, C and D. Hepatitis viruses vary in the nature of the virus and the manner in which they are spread. Hepatitis A virus is spread by the fecal-oral route and usually causes mild acute hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus...

The aGlucosidase Inhibitors

Acarbose is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis, whereas miglitol is not con-traindicated in patients with liver disease. a-Glucosidase inhibitors are not indicated in patients with severe renal insufficiency or in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or pre-existing bowel obstruction.

Medical consequences of longterm alcoholism Harmful effects

The principal harmful effects of heavy drinking include liver pathology (hepaptitis, hepatoma, cirrhosis), neurological complications, and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus, and breast. Medical sequelae are likely to start to present in middle age in those alcoholics and smokers who started drinking and smoking in their youth. Women achieve higher blood alcohol concentrations than men after the consumption of equivalent doses per body weight. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a lower volume of distribution of alcohol in women because the solubility of alcohol is greater in water than in fat and women tend to have proportionally more fat and less body water than men. The higher blood alcohol concentration may cause greater organ toxicity than in men. Women tend to present with more severe liver disease (particularly alcoholic hepatitis) and do so after drinking less and over a shorter period of time than men. Women are more likely than men to die from...

Disorders Of The Intestines

Cirrhosis is a disease of the liver characterized by degeneration and necrosis of liver cells with fatty deposits. Although the specific cause is unknown, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, and alcoholism definitely are causative factors and contribute to progression of the disease process. The liver has a number of vital functions in the body and, hence, cirrhosis is a serious condition. A wide variety of symptoms may be present, but treatment almost always consists of adequate rest, abstinence from alcohol, and a carefully selected diet. Vitamin supplements may be necessary for the patient. There is no cure for cirrhosis and the outlook for the improvement of the patient is not good. Only 50 percent of the patients who have cirrhosis survive beyond two years and only 35 percent survive beyond five years.

Salmonella Food Poisoning

HPI He was diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis 1 month ago, when Treatment Specific organism-sensitive antibiotics or empiric therapy (such as cefotaxime or p-lactamase-resisrarn penicillin) for gram-negative aerobic bacilli and gram-positive cocci supportive treatment for cirrhosis.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin HCG

Consistently elevated Cortisol levels are found in patients with Cushing's syndrome and those individuals under the stress of trauma or surgery. Other conditions associated with an increased Cortisol level include hyperthyroidism, adrenal adenoma, and an overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Decreased levels are seen in Addison's disease, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, hepatitis, and cirrhosis.

Computerized Tomography of the Body Body Scan

CT scans can identify a host of diseases ranging from tumors, nodules, and cysts to specific diagnoses such as cirrhosis of the liver and lymphoma. Pleural effusion, skeletal bone metastasis, and soft-tissue damage can be seen with CT scans. Abdominal aortic aneurysm, often called the silent killer, is revealed by this diagnostic technique.

General Discussion

Pleural effusions are the most common pleural pathology. Fluid accumulates when lymphatic absorption is impaired. The most common causes of pleural effusion include congestive heart failure, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and tumor. Clinically, patients may have dyspnea or chest pain. Effusions can easily obscure a significant underlying pathology. Effusions are classified as transudates or exudates according to their biochemical composition. Transudates are the results of increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased colloidal osmotic pressure and usually result from systemic causes such as congestive heart failure or hyperketonemic states such as cirrhosis. Transudates are usually homogeneous with near-water attenuation on CT and are often bilateral. Particularly, they have a low protein count, low LDH, low protein fluid-to-serum protein ratio, and low fluid-to-serum LDH ratio. Exudates are usually a result of a local inflammatory process involving

Type 2 Transglutaminase and Cell Death

In general the enzyme has a protective and stabilizing role in hepatic damage, by eliminating the infected altered cells and by contributing to tissue repair. However, under pathological condition, the uncontrolled activation of TG2 can turn its protective function to a pathological one. In some cases the stress response might be potentiated leading to pathological effects, in fact, excessive TG2 protein cross-linking can increase the resistance of ECM to breakdown and generate hepatic cirrhosis.

Gases Respiratory Care

The answer is d. (Goodnough, Am J Surg 159 602-609, 1990.) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is harbored in blood leukocytes. CMV infection is endemic in the United States, and its prevalence increases steadily with age. While acute CMV infection may cause transient fever, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly in cases of large blood donor exposures, posttransfusion CMV infection (seroconversion) is not a significant clinical problem in immunocompetent recipients, and therefore blood is not routinely tested for the presence of CMV Posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, however, not only represents the most frequent infectious complication of transfusion, but is associated with an incidence of chronic active hepatitis up to 16 and an 8-10 incidence of cirrhosis or hepatoma or both. The etio-logic agent in over 90 of cases of posttransfusion hepatitis has been identified as hepatitis C.

Lamina Propria

Cirrhosis of the liver, common in chronic alcoholics, is caused by alcohol poisoning at such frequent intervals that the hepatocytes cannot recover fully between bouts of drinking. When this happens, fibroblasts grow in place of the hepatocytes and the liver becomes irreversibly clogged with connective tissue.


HPI He was diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis one month ago, when he was admitted to the hospital with jaundice and hematcmesis. Specific organism-sensitive antibiotics or empiric therapy for gram-negative aerobic bacilli and gram-positive cocci supportive treatment for cirrhosis.

Boerhaaves Syndrome

PE Icteric skin and sclera firm mild hepatosplenomegaly no signs of portal hypertension or liver failure. Discussion Biliary atresia is the most common cause of persistent jaundice in infancy and is associated with the presence of more than one spleen (polysplenia). Differential diagnosis includes chole-dochal cyst (mass usually palpable), arantitrypsin deficiency, and neonatal hepatitis. Iflong-standing, liver cirrhosis will develop other complications include chronic cholangitis, fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, and portal hypertension.


In pathological conditions such as liver cirrhosis, their phenotype changes from that of star-shaped SCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. The 3D structure of the ECM can reversibly regulate the morphology, proliferation, and functions of the SCs. Molecular mechanisms in the regulation of the SCs by 3D structure of the ECM imply cell surface integrin binding to the matrix components followed by signal transduction processes and cytoskeleton assembly. HSCs play key roles in the regeneration of the liver. The SC system consists of hepatic and extrahepatic SCs and regulates vitamin A homeostasis of the whole body.

Items 329330

A 65-year-old male with diabetes mellitus, bronzed skin, and cirrhosis of the liver is being treated for hemochromatosis previously confirmed by liver biopsy. The patient experiences increasing right upper quadrant pain, and his serum alkaline phosphatase is now elevated. There is a 15-lb weight loss. The next step in management is d. Obtain antimitochondrial antibody to rule out primary biliary cirrhosis


These concerns will be addressed in the balance of this lesson. Hepatitis is the most important infection that attacks the liver and has been recognized as a major health problem since World War II. Hepatitis is a reportable disease in most states, so a pool of statistics is being gathered. It is estimated that at least ten percent of all patients suffer some residual hepatic damage for as long as a year after an attack of viral hepatitis and that at least two percent have hepatic damage persisting even longer. Denmark had a large epidemic of viral hepatitis in the 1940s and this country has had an increase in deaths from chronic disease of the liver in the past fifteen years. The United States has not researched the issue long enough to determine whether or not cirrhosis or other severe degeneration of the liver occurs many years after the acute onset of the disease. Viral hepatitis seems to be most prevalent in low-income areas where there is crowding and limited sanitation....

Liver Flukes

Loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, and a sensation of abdominal pressure are early symptoms. Later, there may be bile duct obstruction, sometimes producing jaundice, followed by cirrhosis, enlargement and tenderness of the liver and progressive ascites and edema.

Third stage

The eggs are now found in the liver, gut and bladder. This gives rise to fever, malaise, diarrhoea, haematuria, hepatosplenomegaly and later portal hypertension. Liver failure does not occur because the hepatic parenchyma is spared. Embolization to the lungs may cause pulmonary hypertension and to the brain may cause focal CNS signs. The diagnosis is made following demonstration of the eggs in faeces or urine.

Medical 299

The clinical presentation is most consistent with Budd-Chiari syndrome (hepatic vein obstruction), which may occur as a complication of thrombogenic and myeloproliferative disorders including polycythemia vera. The presentation illustrated is the most common alternative presentations include fulminant liver failure and cases in which intractable abdominal pain is the most prominent initial finding. Hepatic venography is the best technique of those listed to demonstrate the occlusion of the hepatic venous system. Serum iron studies (choice E) are useful when considering hemochromatosis as a cause of cirrhosis.

Hepatitis A

Recommended for parenteral or mucosal exposure to blood and for newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers. The infection is divided into the prodromal, icteric, and convalescent phases 5 proceed to chronic hepatitis with increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Unlike hepatitis A, hepatitis B has a long incubation period (3 months). Hepatitis B virus is an enveloped, partially circular DNA virus of the hepadna family that contains a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The continued presence of HBsAg after infection has clinically resolved indicates a chronic carrier state. Discussion Hepatitis C belongs to the flavivirus family and is currently the most important cause of post-transfusion viral hepatitis 90 of cases involve percutaneous transmission. Greater than 50 of cases progress to chronic hepatitis, leading to cirrhosis in 20 .

Electrolyte Tests

Hypomagnesemia, decreased plasma magnesium, is usually due to some type of chronic dietary or intestinal absorption problem. Diseases such as ulcerative colitis, chronic alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic diarrhea will exhibit decreased magnesium levels. Other situations that result in hypomagnesemia include toxemia of pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, and excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone.


Aminotransferase was elevated in 84 . A spectrophotometry test was developed by the investigators that detected pyrrolizidine metabolites in the urine. Mortality in this series was 40 .73 Chronic veno-occlusive disease presents as cirrhosis with stigmata of liver disease.


Laparoscopy is a valuable diagnostic and treatment tool that can be used to identify pathology of the listed organs, or to perform a number of surgical procedures. Diagnostic applications of laparoscopy range from evaluating unexplained abdominal pain to diagnosing cirrhosis of the liver. Laparoscopy is often used to obtain a biopsy of liver tissue. Ascites, jaundice, and metastatic cancer can be evaluated via laparoscopy. Laparoscopic Variations from Normal. Acute and chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, gallstones, and pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed using laparoscopy. Staging cancers of the liver and lymph system, as well as evaluating metastatic cancers, can also be accomplished with laparoscopic examinations.


The answers are 59-c, 60-g, 61-b. (Fitzpatrick, 3 e, pp 2, 12, 300. Sapira, pp 108-110.) Acne is an inflammation of the pilosebaceous units of the face and trunk occurring usually in adolescence. It manifests itself as comedones, papulopustules, or nodules and cysts. Rosacea is a chronic acneform disorder of the facial pilosebaceous units coupled with an increased reactivity of capillaries to heat leading to flushing and the formation of telangiectasia. Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation that occurs in sun-exposed areas, especially the face. It is common in women with brown and black skin color and may occur in pregnancy or with oral contraceptive use. Discoid lupus presents with facial plaques that may result in dyspigmentation and scarring. Red man (neck) syndrome is due to histamine release and occurs in patients who receive a rapid infusion of vancomycin. A spider angioma is a pulsatile arteriolar lesion that blanches with pressure and is seen in patients with...


Hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma) is generally associated with pre-existing liver disease. Typically, this precursor disease is cirrhosis, especially following hepatitis B or C infection or haemochromatosis. Sometimes, hepatoma may follow cirrhosis due to alcohol, -antitrypsin deficiency, methotrxate or schistosomiasis. Occasionally, it may follow hepatic damage without cirrhosis, e.g. after

Hepatic diseases

They include hepatic failure (including fulminant hepatic failure, FHF), cirrhosis, portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy and hepato renal syndrome. Some conditions of course are less common and are therefore considered in this book, including biliary cirrhosis


The ceiling for low-risk alcohol use (advocated by the US government) is one standard drink per day and no more than three drinks per occasion for women, and two standard drinks per day and no more than four drinks per occasion for men. In the USA, the standard drink is 12 g of ethanol (equivalent to one 360-ml bottle of beer (4.5 ), one 150-ml glass of wine (12.9 ), or 45 ml of 80-proof distilled spirits). In the UK, the standard drink (unit) is 8 g of ethanol, and the ceiling for safe daily drinking is set at three to four units for men and two to three units for women. A meta-analysis of cohort studies evaluating the relationship between alcohol consumption and death from all causes found that the relative risk of death (due to cirrhosis, cancer, and injury) increased significantly in women consuming two to three U.S. standard drinks per day compared with four for men.32

Host Factors

Have an underlying chronic medical illness.25-27,42,53,67,68 Those with liver disease, such as alcoholic cirrhosis or hemochro-matosis, are especially at risk. Based on the number of cases reported to the Florida Health Department between 1981 and 1992, the annual rate of illness from V vulnificus infection in adults with self-reported liver disease in Florida who ate raw oysters was 7.2 per 100,000 adults, 80 times the rate for adults without known liver disease who ate raw oysters (0.09 cases per 100,000 population).53 The risk of sepsis due to V parahaemolyticus also appears to be increased by the presence of underlying chronic illness, although the association does not appear to be as strong as that seen with V cholerae and V vulnificus. Again, there are suggestions that risk is increased in patients with decreased gastric acidity.

Liver Scan

Diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, ascites, and hepatomegaly are detected via liver scans. Benign tumors, abscesses, and cystic lesions are revealed using a liver scan. Primary and metastatic tumors can be differentiated by assessing radionuclide uptake patterns.


Abnormally elevated indirect bilirubin concentrations may also indicate liver dysfunction in that the liver is unable to convert indirect bilirubin to direct bilirubin. Hepatic diseases associated with elevated indirect bilirubin include hepatitis, cirrhosis, and extensive liver tumors.