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Memory Professor System Summary


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As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Conjunction Questions Two Questions in

A 66-year-old man has been brought to his physician's office by his wife who expresses concern that something is just not right. During neurologic examination, both recent and long-term memory appear unimpaired, However, the patient seems to have difficulty concentrating. He asks repeatedly where he is and what he is doing there. He has difficulty with simple arithmetic and in writing simple sentences. He has no difficulty outlining or reproducing presented figures, but on a discrimination task, he confuses his right and left hands. This patient is most likely suffering from lesions affecting the

Intellectual Disorders

Piaget has said that intellect is what we use when we do not know what to do.38 However, in traumatic brain injury, the untoward effects on intellectual functioning are often indirect rather than direct. In fact, intelligence testing, using instruments such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, is poor in detecting brain injury, and full-scale intellectual changes measured by similar test instruments after head injury may not be significantly different from those of normal age-matched controls. On the other hand, certain subtest scores measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-III are very likely to show diminishment following traumatic brain injury when compared with those of controls.39 In fact, measurement of IQ alone is not an appropriate yardstick when determining cognitive changes following traumatic brain injury. The predominant reason that IQ testing alone is a poor choice for injury assessment is that intelligence testing does not tap into many of the critical areas of a...

Disorders of Memory

If children have their memory measured during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury recovery, no reliable dose-response relationship between injury severity and memory function can be found. However, if children are measured 12 months or more following brain injury, this relationship is shown to develop over time. In other words, the more severe the injury, the greater the memory deficit measured at 12 months or more postinjury.63 When memory is measured implicitly and explicitly, children show more impairment of explicit memory than they do implicit memory64 (factual more than procedural).

Chaotic Neural Models

If, as we suspect, the circular, provisional nature of behavior is a pervasive design characteristic in natural systems, it is desirable to model this in mathematical form. One possibility that seems to offer suitable mathematical tools is the branch of nonlinear systems known as chaos theory (Ott, 1993 Kaplan & Glass, 1995). The word chaos is commonly associated with disorder and has negative connotations. However, here we use its precise mathematical meaning a chaotic system is one that has states that arc deterministic but not predictable. Even simple nonlinear systems, such as oscillators, exhibit chaotic behavior. The behavior of a chaotic system may be represented by a trajectory through a phase space in which one or more attractors are embedded. The trajectory may take the form of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO) around an attractor. A given UPO can represent the memory state of a system. Chaotic systems offer several advantages to the engineer. One is that chaotic systems can...

Memory and Orientation

Have others commented to you that your memory is poor The examiner should be aware that limbic-dependent memory is primarily for factual events, and it is either episodic, based upon what goes on around the individual, or declarative, semantic, explicit, and associated with the meaning of facts. On the other hand, limbic-independent memory is primarily nondeclarative, implicit, or procedural. This form of memory incorporates the skills and habits that we develop such as driving, playing golf, or cooking. However, of those who cook, it is often important to ask if the individual can remember recipes, as this would be a declarative or factual portion of memory rather than procedural. The aspects of turning on a stove, watching a pot boil, or monitoring a roast while it cooks are aspects of procedural memory.12,13 It often is useful to subtype factual or declarative memory into personal events and general facts. Episodic memory refers to specific events in one's biography, and these...

Gerald Matthews and Gregory J Funke Introduction

According to Eysenck (1992), worry has three major functions alarm, prompt, and preparation. Within his model, upon detection of an internal or external threat, the alarm function introduces information about the threat into conscious awareness. The prompt function then activates threat-related thoughts and images in long-term memory, and the preparation function supports the person's efforts to devise a solution to the problem (task-focused coping) or emotionally prepare for the expected negative consequences (emotion-focused coping). However, despite these adaptive functions, worry frequently appears to have maladaptive consequences. Worry is known to interfere with various cognitive processes that contribute to effective task performance (Zeidner, 1998). Excessive worry is also a common feature of various anxiety disorders, especially Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD Wells, 2000). especially in threatening situations. Cognitive theory (e.g., Beck & Clark, 1997 Matthews & Wells,...

Encoding and Appraisal

In long-term memory (Provencher, Freeston, Dugas & Ladouceur, 2000). Thus, the strong links between cluster elements will result in low activation thresholds for cluster elements, and spreading activation will tend to activate other nodes within the cluster following activation of the first. Spreading activation throughout cluster elements would enable worriers to generate longer chains of negative outcomes. Negative mood state may tend to maintain this catastrophizing process (Johnston & Davey, 1997).

Faceto Face Neuropsychiatrie Screening Methods for Trauma Induced Brain Injury in Adults

Concentration impairment2 Impairment of working memory2 If impaired, dorsolateral frontal lobe or semantic memory system.45 Executive function can be screened quickly by evaluating response inhibition and the ability to generate words. Table 4.13 demonstrates an easy way to measure response inhibition. This is commonly seen following orbitofrontal following traumatic closed-head injury. The frontallanguagesystemsalsoprovide word-generating capabilities. The Controlled Oral Word Association Test or FAS Test isoftenusedbyneuropsychol-ogists to determine word-generating capabilities.3 Byaskingthepatienttogenerateasmany words as possible that start with the letter F, A, or S, the dorsolateral frontal cortex or semantic memory system can be screened.1,45

Constraint Satisfaction

Given a specified issue such as a sai lor preference, a particular Navy policy, or specific job requirement, a function is defined that provides a numerical measure of the fitness of this job for this sailor with respect to this particular issue. Computationally, these functions arc diverse and often nonlinear. Most take their input from information from the sailor's personnel record or from the job requisition list that has already been written to IDA's working memory.

Nonroutine Problem Solving

The start-state for the plan described here is the current state as reported by the contents of consciousness. The goal-state is chosen so as to satisfy the failed expectation. The backward-chaining planner uses as its initial set of operators the behavior codelets that responded to the broadcast during the cycle in which the planner behavior stream was implemented. The first (backward from The goal-state) step in the plan is chosen and is then written to working memory as IDA's action during the current cycle. On subsequent cycles, additional steps are added to the plan until the start-state is reached. The completed plan becomes a behavior stream that is saved and that is likely instantiated on some forthcoming cycle for trial. This process may be repeated as necessary. Nonroutine problem solving in IDA is a type of procedural learning. The collection of behavior stream templates, together with the behavior codelets, constitutes IDA's long-term procedural memory.

Use of Conditional Mutants

Results in either an embryonic or a neonatal lethal phenotype. If the main question to answer concerns the role of different cell types in a physiologic process, the use of noninducible, cell type-specific Cre strains is presently the most pragmatic choice, as a collection of tissue-specific strains is already available. A good example of this approach is comparison of the cell type-specific inactivation of the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle, pancreas, and liver. Cell type-specific gene targeting has revealed a prime role for the liver, and not skeletal muscle, in glucose homeostasis and also the role of insulin signaling in pancreatic insulin secretion (Table 1, examples 1-3). In the selection of a Cre transgenic strain for a particular experiment, it is important to be aware of the developmental stage at which the chosen line starts to delete the target, as many of the promoter regions used for Cre expression are active before birth. To illustrate this point, two examples of...

Time and Capacity Parameters

The emphasis on cognitive limitations contrasts with architectures such as SOAR, which have given precedence to the possibility of carrying out complex intelligent behaviour, while imposing relatively few constraints on the architecture (for example, the capacity of working memory is essentially unlimited in SOAR). Compared to other architectures, CHREST strikes the observer as an austere system. However, as a dynamic system, CHREST's behaviour is governed more by the complexities of its interaction with the environment than just its built-in capabilities. In common with chaos theory, the range of behaviours achieved by this deceptively simple cognitive model can come as a surprise.

Eye Movements and the Perception Learning Cycle

A key question in cognitive science and artificial intelligence relates to the processes enabling a system to notice the relevant changes in the environment among the indefinite number of such changes. CHREST's answer to this question (sometimes known as the frame problem) has three parts. First, information from the environment is cut down by the limited capacity of the visual field second, information is further limited by the (lack of) knowledge that the system brings to bear and finally, it is further constrained by the memory capacity limits we have mentioned above. Obviously, if this description of intelligent cognitive systems is correct, these systems must have evolved powerful low-level mechanisms for extracting key features from the sensory input in order to survive complex and not necessarily friendly environments.

The Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Bases of Attention

Whereas the ARAS functions in a bottom-up fashion, the prefrontal cortices and the parietal and limbic systems mediate the top-down modulation of attentional responses. This is done in ways that are sensitive to the context of the stimulus, the motivation of the person, the acquired significance of the stimulus, and the conscious volition of the patient.35 Metabolic activation of the prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex is a common finding in almost all attentional tasks, regardless of the sensory modality or the stimulus character. The neuroimaging importance of the human prefrontal cortex to working memory was confirmed almost 30 years ago.37 This functional imaging experiment found that reverse digit span tasks requiring working memory resulted in blood flow activations that were maximal over the frontal lobes. Working memory has been functionally divided into two groups of processes (1) the online maintenance of information, and (2) the active manipulation of...

Linking Perception to Expectations

Figure 4 illustrates how CHREST learns an association between visual and verbal information. In the situation depicted, the model has been presented with a visual stimulus, and the verbal label A.'7 First, the visual stimulus is sorted through the discrimination network in long-term memory, and a pointer to the chunk retrieved is placed into the visual short-term memory. Second, the verbal stimulus is similarly sorted through long-term memory, and a pointer to the retrieved chunk is placed into the verbal short-term memory. Because the information in the different short-term memories is present simultaneously, the model learns a link between the two (marked 3 in the Figure) we call this link a naming link, because it can be used to name visual chunks.

Neuropsychological Characteristics

Detection of AD may be accomplished by using a few neuropsychological tests tapping episodic memory, semantic memory (including verbal fluency and confrontation naming), visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed 25,44-49 . A summary of the cognitive findings in AD is presented in Table 3.3. Although AD is said to be characterized by a continuous decline in global cognitive functioning, it is worth noticing that not all cognitive functions are affected. Some abilities seem to be preserved in early AD and, interestingly enough, some functions seem to be preserved even in advanced dementia. Examples of relatively preserved functions in early AD are primary memory, procedural memory and perceptual functions, as well as motor and sensory functions. The pattern of affected and preserved functions, as well as the course of change in these functions, may be understood in terms of neuropathology in AD and of brain-behaviour relationships in general. Impairment of semantic memory Intact...

The Neuropsychological Measurement of Memory

The examiner should remember, as previously noted, that diminished attention may affect memory acquisition. However, it seems to affect implicit memory more than explicit memory.87 Studies of traumatic brain injury patients suggest that initial acquisition of memory data is more compromised than its retrieval.88 By studying pure verbal learning, there is evidence that the consolidation is impaired to a greater extent than the encoding or retrieval of memory data.89 Table 6.10 lists neuropsychological tests often used for measurement of memory. 7. General memory the delayed memory capacity based upon scores from Logical Memory II, Verbal Paired Associates II, Faces II, and Family Pictures II 8. Working memory the capacity to remember and manipulate visually and orally presented information in short-term memory storage using performance data from the Spatial Span and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests

How Emotions and Motivation Relate to Cognition

Recent work with Philippe Chassy aims to add (at least some) emotions to CHREST. We are exploring several possibilities. First,emotions mediate some of the parameters of the architecture, such as the time to create new long-term memory structures or to store information into STM. Second, emotional tags are added to chunks and templates during the learning process. For example, knowledge that a physics problem is difficult may link a given chunk to

Summary Consistent Evidence

The onset of AD is related to impairment of episodic memory without any other clear cognitive symptoms, whereas the early clinical stage of AD is characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, mainly involving episodic and semantic memory, verbal functions (e.g. anomia) visuospatial functions, executive function and attention. These changes may be compensated for or supported in order to handle ADL. In the advanced stage of AD, primary memory and implicit memory related to sensory and motor performance will be clearly affected in addition to perception. During this stage, the individual requires support and help with ADL.

Consistent Evidence

Most studies employing measures which are sensitive to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and in their relatives have also shown cognitive impairments in schizotypal PD patients. Quite solid evidence exists for frontal lobe functions requiring flexibility and working memory (e.g. WCST, verbal fluency, spatial delayed response). Sustained attention (CPT) probably is also impaired in schizotypal PD. In general, where schizotypal PD and schizophrenic patients have been studied together, the neuropsycho-logical impairments of schizotypal PD patients were found to be milder in degree but qualitatively similar to those found in schizophrenic patients. On most cognitive functions examined, schizoaffective patients cannot be discriminated from schizophrenic patients.

Kiddie Continuous Performance Test

Traumatic brain injury in children often results in memory deficits. The magnitude of these deficits has been thought to be dependent upon injury severity.163 However, that dose-response relationship between severity of injury and memory deficit cannot be determined accurately early after injury. This relationship develops over time, with greater memory impairments evident for children with more severe traumatic brain injury by 12 months postinjury.171 Thus, it is probably best to wait at least a year following brain injury in a child before attempts are made to determine the level of permanent memory impairment. Anderson and others took their data and continued the studies beyond 12 months and found that at 18 months postinjury, there continued to be a dose-response relationship between injury severity and memory dysfunction.172 Another question of memory injury in young children is whether implicit memory is preserved.7 Studies suggest that, as with adults, implicit memory (memory...

Childrens Memory Scale

The General Memory Index globally measures memory function in much the same way that the full-scale IQ score of the WISC-III is viewed as a global measure of general intellectual ability. The Attention Concentration Index assesses the ability to sustain and direct attention and concentration, processing speed, and working memory. The Verbal Immediate Index measures immediate and working memory span for auditory verbal material. The Visual Immediate Index measures immediate and working memory span for visual and nonverbal material. The Verbal Delayed Index measures the ability to consolidate, store, and retrieve newly learned auditory verbal material. The Visual Delayed Index assesses the ability to consolidate, store, and retrieve newly learned visual and nonverbal material. The Delayed Recognition Index enables one to determine whether impaired performance on the Verbal Delayed Index is the result of an encoding and storage deficit or a

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning

The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) allows the examiner to evaluate a child's ability to actively learn and memorize a variety of information.175 The WRAML is normed for children ages 5 through 17 years. The structure of the test is based upon three major divisions. The first division makes a distinction between memory and learning. The second division evaluates competencies in both verbal and visual modalities. The third division evaluates delayed recall. There are three verbal, three visual, and three learning subtests that yield three indices (1) Verbal Memory Index, (2) Visual Memory Index, and (3) Learning Index. When combined, the nine subtests yield a General Memory Index. Standard scores and percentiles are derived from the subtests and allow an age-based comparison of performance. The normative data are divided into two main age groups, children ages 5 to 8 and children ages 9 and older.

Machine Perception Processes

The perception loop performs the functions of sensory perception, introspection, and reverberating short-term working memory. In Figure 3, the sensory information is preprocessed, and a flow of distributed signal arrays is generated. These signal arrays must represent generalized features of the sensed entities. The perception process combines the effect of sensory signal array S and the internally generated feedback signal array F. The resulting signal array P is called a percept signal array, as it will now be the official output from the

Optic Aphasia

Why do optic aphasics fail these more difficult tests of vision-to-semantic processing Are they really impaired in understanding the meaning of visually presented stimuli, and is this what underlies their visual naming impairment Much rides on the answers to these questions, because they imply entirely different models of the optic aphasic impairment and, by extension, normal visual naming. Although it is possible that optic aphasics are truly unable to derive a normal amount of semantic information from the visual appearance of objects, there are at least two reasons to question that conclusion. First, the everyday behavior of optic aphasic patients does not suggest impaired access to semantics from vision. In contrast, patients with semantic memory impairments (to be discussed in the next section) and visual agnosic patients are noticeably handicapped in real life by their inability to understand what they see. Furthermore, even ostensibly nonverbal tasks benefit from verbal...

Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy

HPI The patient's friends say that his diet consists mainly of alcoholic drinks. They also state that he has told detailed and believable stories about his past adventures that have subsequently been found to be untrue (CONFABULATION). His short- and long-term memory is severely impaired.

Etiology Of Worry States A Cognitive Perspective

Worry has been related specifically to the content and accessibility of threat schemas stored by the individual in long-term memory. Worry related schemas may be organized around two types of themes internal threats (e.g., negative self-evaluation) and external threats (e.g., criticism from others Vasey, 1993). In turn, once activated, these schemas may cause a heightened vigilance for threats. More specifically, worries predominantly reflect themes of personal inadequacies and insecurities in regards to social evaluations (Kendall & Ingram, 1987 Davey & Levy, 1998).

Thought Processing Defects

Neologisms are commonly seen in either psychotic patients or patients with advanced dementia.1 These are novel, idiosyncratic words and are not found commonly in traumatically brain-injured patients. They often are associated with the classical aphasias following stroke syndromes. Idiosyncratic words frequently sound elaborate and plausible. Neologisms often are associated with delusions in psychotic patients, but rarely so in brain-injured patients. Patients demonstrating echolalia repeat questions or statements made by the examiner. Sometimes, traumatically brain-injured patients will repeat the question to the examiner, as their working memory may be impaired and they must repeat or echo to catch the phrase, if you will, in order to keep it in storage long enough to answer the question. This is a different phenomenon than the echolalia often seen in manic patients. Echolalia is much more common in schizophrenia and mania, is often associated with catatonia, and occurs far less so...

Two Step Double Jump Questions

Note that you need to make two correct decisions to arrive at the correct answer, hence the name two-step. The goal is to guide you away from simple memorization in your learning. Instead the exam wants you to be able to use that information you have memorized to reason through to a correct answer.

Methods of Assessment

The WAIS and WAIS-R have been translated to many European and other languages. The WAIS batteries assess verbal function by means of six tests (Information, Digit Span, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Vocabulary, Similarities) and performance by means of five tests (Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Digit Symbol). Although the WAIS batteries include 11 tests, these tests do measure only two or three cognitive functions, when the 11 summary scores are entered into a factor analysis 10-12 . The two-factor solution corresponds to Wechsler's categorization of verbal and performance subtests, while the three-factor solution suggests a verbal comprehension factor (including four verbal subtests), a perceptual organization factor (including four performance subtests), and a freedom-of-distraction factor (including Digit Span, Arithmetic, and Digit Symbol). These factor solutions seem to hold both for the original normal...

Apathetic and Akinetic Mediofrontal Syndromes

Mediofrontal and anterior cingulate lesions may result in patients beginning a task correctly but then being unable to complete the task. Repeated prompts from the examiner may be required in order for the patient to persist. Memory function is often impaired, but it is not clear whether this is due to poor attention, motivation, or a specific defect of working memory. In general, patients are inattentive to their environment, and even if motivation is preserved, they may be unable to organize their impulses into directed behavior. Patients with mediofrontal lesions often are unable to plan or sequence. Affect is generally noticeably diminished, and a particular flatness of personality has been described. Social relations may become dysfunctional or strained due to the person's inability to initiate or maintain a friendship.96

The Neuroanatomy of Executive Function

And emotional feelings Working memory Many neurons in the prefrontal cortex respond to visual input. However, they seem to have no specificity for color, size, orientation, or movement, but they do have significant behavioral relevance for the visual stimulus.144 By exploring working memory, it appears that the prefrontal cortex can transform information access from a sequential process, where only one item of data can be managed at a given time, to another pattern where multiple items of data become concurrently accessible (parallel processing).145 If function allows the focus of attention to move from one to another, a number of variables can be attended and processed simultaneously. It is argued that when these functions are disrupted, mental impairment results, with loss of foresight, strategic thinking, and inability to manage risk.146 The orbitofrontal cortex in association with other paralimbic components of the frontal lobe enables a person to bind his thoughts, memories, and...

State Trait Anger Expression Inventory2

Believe it or not, it is difficult to find evidence that there is a significant worsening of driving skill following traumatic brain injury in those persons who are still functional enough to drive. A study from Norway found a higher number of traffic accidents after brain injury, but the difference was not significant. Those persons who did have an increased rate were generally young males who had deficits in cognitive and executive functions.61 The University of Washington Study looked at a large cohort of eligible drivers in the state of Washington from 1991 to 1993. The relative risks of any subsequent crash or receipt of a driving citation were no greater for those who sustained a stroke or traumatic brain injury than for nonhospitalized individuals, nor were the risks of experiencing two or more of these events in the 12 months after hospitalization significantly elevated. These results did not support the hypothesis that individuals who have sustained a brain injury are at...

Technical Requirements

Consideration must also be given as to how CTC datasets will be archived and how datasets may be retrieved to facilitate comparison with previous CT colonography studies. The volume of data generated for each CT colonography examination precludes hardcopy printing of all acquired images. Using a 16-slice MDCT with 3-mm slice acquisition and 1.5- mm slice overlap, a standard study with 40 cm of Z-axis coverage in both supine and prone positions will typically comprise over 600 slices. At the standard 512 512 bits of resolution each study will require over 500 MB of memory for storage. A single patient's examination, therefore, will occupy almost an entire conventional compact disc (CD) which has a memory capacity of 700 MB. An alternative to CD for archiving is DVD. While relatively inexpensive, use of DVD requires purchase of a DVD reader as most commercially available workstations come with only an integrated CD reader. The actual hard drive memory capacities of workstations vary...

Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleIII

The WAIS-III contains new index scores that were not present in the prior forms of the Wechsler Scales. These index scores are developed for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed. The Verbal Comprehension Index is composed of the Vocabulary, Similarities, and Information subtests. The Perceptual Organization Index is composed of the Picture Completion, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests. The Working Memory Index is composed of the Arithmetic, Digit Span, and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests. The Processing Speed Index is based on the Digit Symbol-Coding and Symbol Search subtests.133

Neuropsychological Tests of Attention

Visual tracking attention (excellent where English skills are lacking) Visual target vigilance Auditory working memory To further complicate the assessment of attention, many recent studies suggest that tasks thought to occupy the attentional domain in fact overlap into executive areas or executive control. For instance, the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is often seen as a measure of attention and is widely used for the clinical assessment of attention deficit disorder in children. However, recent studies suggest that it may measure executive control rather than sustained attention and, therefore, may represent functions of more than one brain system. The executive control issue has been further enlarged by consideration that traumatic brain injury patients have a working memory impairment in most instances, and it appears to be due to dysfunction of the central executive system as measured by standard neuropsychological testing.53,54 Poor performance on this test can be...

Cognitive Approach to Phobias

Thus, for example, most studies confirm the existence of an attentional bias in terms of hypervigilance to specific panic- and agoraphobia-related words in agoraphobia with panic disorder (e.g. 1 ). Moreover, agoraphobic and panic disorder patients seem particularly vigilant to their own bodily sensations. Ehlers and Bruher 2 find that subjects with panic disorder count their heartbeat with far more precision than specific phobia patients or normal controls. According to a recent review by Coles and Heimberg 3 , patients with agoraphobia and or panic disorder also show evidence of an explicit memory bias in terms of better retrieval of specific threatening information. This is particularly interesting given that no such bias is evident in, for example, generalized anxiety disorder. Interpretation biases have also been found in panic disorder and agoraphobia, and probably contribute to the persistence of this disorder. Thus, for example, McNally and Foa 4 find that agoraphobic patients...

Higher Autonomic And Behavioral Functions

For the regulation of endocrine functions, these are mediated from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus posterior lobe of the pituitary, and from the medial hypothalamus anterior lobe of the pituitary (via the vascular system). Limbic projections to the hypothalamus enable structures such as the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and septal area to modulate endocrine functions of the hypothalamus. Disruption of hypothalamic neurons may alter the mechanism for the expression of rage behavior and, likewise, affect temperature regulation, sexual behavior, feeding, drinking, and endocrine functions. Damage to neurons of the limbic system frequently leads to temporal lobe epilepsy and changes in the threshold for the expression of rage behavior i.e., when different groups of neurons in the amygdala are damaged, heightened aggressiveness or a reduction in aggression (such as the Kluver-Bucy syndrome) may ensue . Damage to the hippocampal formation can result in...

The Significance of Axis Deviation

Before you go on, take a little time now to try to figure out, on the basis of this information, what disease processes might be expected to cause axis deviation. Then compare your list with the list at the end of the chapter. With a little thought, you may find that you have guessed quite a few of them, and you will learn why understanding is a much better method of learning than memorizing.

Semantic Knowledge Impairments

Semantic knowledge refers to our general knowledge about the people, places, events, and things of the world. The word semantic has come to be used in this way following the memory researcher Endel Tul-ving's (1972) distinction between episodic memory, which is memory for specific episodes in one's life, and what he termed semantic memory, which is memory of a more general nature. When we remember that we ate oatmeal for breakfast, or that cockatoo was on a list ofwords we were to remember, we are retrieving episodic memories. When we remember that oatmeal is a breakfast food and nachos are not, or that a cockatoo is a big white bird from Australia, we are retrieving semantic memories. A number of different neurological conditions affect semantic knowledge. For example, patients with Alzheimer's disease invariably develop semantic memory impairment (see Milberg & McGlinchy-Berroth, 2003, for a review), although this is generally preceded and overshadowed by an episodic memory...

Correlations Between Neurofunctional Deficits and Schizotypal Symptoms

While ample evidence suggests that schizotypal personality traits and neuro-functional dysfunctions similar to those found in schizophrenic patients are more frequent in relatives of schizophrenics, few data are available concerning the question of whether psychopathological and neuropsycho-logical neurophysiological deviations correlate in these samples. This is important with regard to the question of whether psychopathological and neurofunctional deviations, as far as they are genetically influenced, are expressions of the same or different genes conferring susceptibility for the disease. A recent report from the New York High-Risk Project 190 , studying young adults with parents from different parental groups, found that negative (e.g. interpersonal) schizotypal personality traits were more frequent in children of schizophrenic parents compared with children of affectively disordered or healthy parents, and that these negative features correlated with verbal working memory and...

The Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Bases of Memory

As was noted in Chapter 2, memory disorders are frequent abnormal neuropsychiatric conditions following traumatic brain injury. Moreover, it was pointed out in Chapters 2 and 4 that explicit (declarative) memory is limbic dependent until it is consolidated, but not after consolidation. Explicit memory consists of episodic (autobiographical) and semantic (factual) memories. On the other hand, implicit (nondeclarative) memory is not limbic dependent. This form of memory is concerned with skills and habits and also classical conditioning. Priming memory, for example, may occur while instead of being asked to memorize words, the patient is asked to count how many A's the words contain. When presented again at a later time, the previously presented A word stimuli are more likely to be selected or to guide subsequent performance. This is called priming and is another form of implicit, non-limbic-dependent memory.73 Furthermore, when explicit (episodic or semantic) memories are encoded, they...

Recent Evidence From Studies of the DSSQ

Other recent studies have focused on the role of situational appraisal and coping factors as predictors of states of worry. These performance studies have shown some striking dissociations between distress and worry responses to task stressors (Matthews, Campbell et al., 2002). High workload tasks, such as highly time-pressured working memory tasks, produce elevated distress (anxious emotion and reduced confidence), but also suppress worry (decreased cognitive interference and self-consciousness, elevated self-esteem). In fact, state worry typically declines during performance of various tasks, in line with its supposed anticipatory function, but it remains relatively high in tasks that threaten the person's sense of competence (impossible anagrams Matthews et al., submitted) and tasks characterized by tedium and monotony (Matthews et al., 2002). These studies have also investigated the relationship between worry states and situational appraisal and coping. Table 4.1 summarizes...

Xray Exposure Terms

The nomenclature of x-ray exposure comprises various terms, which have come to be called radiographic factors. Following is a list of these radiographic factors and their related symbols. These should be memorized, as each of them influences the character of the radiographic image.


Keep your sessions short no more than an hour to an hour and a half with at least a 15-minute break. Your concentration declines significantly after an hour or so. Sitting longer will provide only minimal extra return. In addition, the break time allows the short-term memory to be consolidated into long-term memory, which, of course, is the goal. The key is not how long you spend studying, but being efficient getting the most out of the time.

Cognitive Functions

Cognitive disturbances have been described ever since the first systematic research in schizophrenia. They include a general intellectual deficit that has a special emphasis in memory and executive functions 190,191 . These dysfunctions hinder the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients independently of the other psychopathological symptoms 192 . They constitute a negative predictor for the course of the illness 193,194 . Classical neuroleptics have little influence on cognitive dysfunctions, if at all, and may lead to a deterioration of cognitive abilities 190 . This seems to be different with novel antipsychotics. Clozapine, for instance, has been shown to ameliorate various cognitive functions, especially attention and verbal fluidity 195 . An improvement of working memory has been found after treatment with risperidone 196 , while olanzapine has been shown to enhance selective attention 197 . In general, effect sizes in studies evaluating the effects of


We consider memory to be a circular process of remembering and forgetting, as memories are continually edited and revised as they are used. This circular model of memory seems to be opposed by the standard theories of short-term memory and long-term memory, in which memory is information that is stored and later retrieved. However, more support for a circular model of memory comes from three converging directions (a) at the psychological level, the social construction of memory, in which memory is seen as a dynamic social practice (Middleton & Edwards, 1990 Ncisser& Fivush, 1994) (b) at the physiological level, memory as a continual process of reconsolidation (Nader, 2003) and (c) at the neural network level, where new models based on chaotic dynamics represent memory as unstable periodic orbits that can be altered by small fluctuations (Crook et al., 2003 Crook & olde Scheper, 2002). These three independent approaches seem to converge to a common model for memory that is different...

Sleep As Rhythmic

Most animals seem to have fairly regular sleeping schedules during the nychthe-meron. We humans, tend to be most tired at night and, more often than not, sleep then. This pattern is an important example of the circadian rhythms of the body, near 24-hour cycles of behavior and physiology. Not only is our sleep influenced by circadian rhythms, but so also is our sensory processing, short term memory, cognitive performance, alertness, and many other behaviors. Likewise, our body temperature (which, as we shall see, is important for sleep), hormones, urine production, and other biological processes are also on a circadian schedule. Our internal biological clock(s) enable us to be in synchrony with the 24-hour external world just as the clocks on our walls and wrists enable us to synchronize our schedules with those of many individuals for collective work and social activities. In fact, our circadian rhythms enable us to have an internal biological (subjective) day and night that usually...


Individuals should be asked if they have noted any fluctuating awareness or difficulty paying attention to what they hear or what they see. Traumatic brain injury may preferentially interfere with visual attention more so than auditory attention, or the reverse may be true. Depending upon the age and sophistication of the adult, probing questions about auditory attention can be explored. If the patient is a college student, does the patient have difficulty paying attention to oral lectures For a working person who uses a computer or reads, the individual should be asked whether he finds it difficult to maintain visual attention while reading or if he loses his place when using a computer. However, asking a person about computer skills in an attempt to determine attention can be misleading. Much of human computer operations are served by procedural memory rather than attentional or factual memory. As has been previously noted in Chapter 2, procedural memory is usually spared in...

Word Length

Ment more precisely than Kinsbourne and Warrington's studies. First, Levine and Calvanio demonstrated that the difficulty with multiple stimuli is present even when the task does not involve naming the stimuli, but merely judging whether any two of the stimuli in an array are identical or not. This implies that the limitation is truly affecting perception per se, and not the process of labeling the percept. Second, subjects made more errors in this matching task when the letters in the display were visually similar (e.g., OCO, as opposed to OXO), again suggesting a visual locus for the processing breakdown. Finally, Levine and Calvanio contrasted the effects on subjects' performance of position cues presented just before and just after the stimulus array. If shape recognition per se is limited to just one item, then the pre-cue should improve performance because it allows the subject to recognize the one item that has been cued, but the post-cue should not, because it comes after the...


An incoming stimulus, say an e-mail message, is descended upon by a hoard of perceptual codelcts. Each of these codelcts is looking for some particular string or strings of characters, say one of the various forms of the name of the city of Norfolk. Upon finding an appropriate character string, the codelet will activate an appropriate node or node in the slipnet. The slipnet will eventually settle down. Nodes with activations over threshold and their links are taken to be the constructed meaning of the stimulus. Pieces of the slipnet containing nodes and links, together with perceptual codelcts with the task of copying the piece to working memory constitute Barsalou's perceptual symbol simulators.


As in humans, deliberation is mediated by the consciousness mechanism. Imagine IDA in the context of a behavior stream with a goal to construct a scenario to help evaluate a particular job for a particular sailor, She must first decide on a departure date within an allowable window, the first event of the scenario. Then, events for travel time often in more than one segment), leave time (occasionally in several segments), training time (with specified dates), and arrival date must be decided upon, again within an appropriate window. If the first try does not work, IDA typically starts over with a suitably adjusted departure date. If still unsuccessful after several tries, IDA will give up on that particular job and go on to another. When successful, thejob in question is so marked in working memory and becomes a candidate for voluntary selection (sec below) to be offered to the sailor. Each step in this process will require several cognitive cycles, as described below. Thus, IDA is...

Language Generation

IDA's language generation module follows the same back and forth to consciousness routine carried out over a number of cognitive cycles. For example, in composing a message offering a sailor a choice of two billets, an attention codclet would bring to consciousness the information that this type of message was to be composed and the sailor's name, pay grade, and job description. After the conscious broadcast and the involvement of the behavior net as described above, a script containing the salutation appropriate to a sailor of that pay grade and job description would be written to the working memory. Another attention codelet would bring this salutation to consciousness, along with the number of jobs to be offered. The same process would result in an appropriate introductory script being written below the salutation. Continuing in this manner, filled in scripts describing the jobs would be written, and the message would be completed. Note that different jobs may require different...

IDA Cognitive Cycle

The percept, including some of the data plus the meaning, is stored in preconscious buffers of IDA's working memory. In humans, these buffers may involve visuospatial, phonological, and other kinds of information. (For example, in the computational IDA, a percept might include a nine-digit number tagged as a social security number, or a text string tagged as a location, or the recognition of a stated preference for a particular location.) 3. Local associations. Using the incoming percept and the residual contents of the preconscious buffers as cues, local associations are automatically retrieved from transient episodic memory (Taylor, 1999 Conway, 2001 Donald, 2001, p. 137) and from long-term declarative memory. The contents of the preconscious buffers together with the retrieved local associations from transient episodic memory and long-term associative memory. Together, these roughly correspond to Ericsson and Kintsch's long-term working memory (1995)...


A perceptual memory, distinct from semantic memory but storing much the same contents, exists in humans and plays a ccntral role in the assigning of interpretations to incoming stimuli. The conscious broadcast begins and updates the processes of learning to recognize, to categorize, and to form concepts, all employing perceptual memory. 4. Procedural memory. Procedural skills are shaped by reinforcement learning operating through consciousness over more than one cognitive cycle.

Chrest Architecture

In line with its predecessor, EPAM (Elementary Perceiver And Memorizer) (Feigenbaum & Simon. 1984), CHREST models the mind as a collection of emergent properties produced by the interaction of short-term memories (STMs), long-term memory (LTM), learning, percept ion, and decision-making structures and processes. In particular, it is assumed that there is a close interaction between perception, learning, and memory. For example, the system's knowledge will direct attention and perception, and. in turn, perception will direct the learning of new information. Another important characteristic of the architecture is that it is constrained by a number of parameters, such as the capacity of visual short-term memory, the rate at which new elements can be learned, and the time to transfer information from long-term memory to short-term memory. Thus, a theme central to this approach is that the human cognitive system satisfies Simon's requirements of bounded rationality (Simon, 1969). Finally,...

Karim Qayumi

In 981 A.D., this city gave birth to a genius of the time who became one of the leaders in the expansion of knowledge for the entire world. His name was Abu Ali Ibnecina, known in the West as Avicenna. He was an extremely talented individual who memorized 30 books of the Koran by the age of 10. being in the grassroots of world civilization, he studied and learned Chinese, Greek, Roman, Indian, and Persian philosophy. He gained extensive knowledge and most of the available information. By the age of 21, he was able to categorize and classify all the knowledge and create the first encyclopedia. This encyclopedia is called Alhefa and was written in 15 books. Avicenna's talent covered all sides of knowledge from philosophy, astronomy, geometry, mathematics, and medicine to poetry and music. Although medicine was not his main area of interest, he became famous as a doctor due to the desperate need for thoughtful medical personnel in the Persian kingdom. Most of his childhood was spent in...

Physical Preparation

Although you may be tempted to study late into the night and right up to the moment before the examination, this strategy can backfire and hurt you. The brain needs rest. By shutting off factual input, you foster the assimilation of information into long-term memory and allow time for making connections that help the integration, retention, and recall of information. In the week before the exam, you should be getting at least 6 1 2 hours of sleep a night.


Estimated to occur in 40 of such patients. Psychiatric symptoms typically begin with mental slowing, followed by a decline in short-term memory, progressive dysphoria, affective lability and emotional withdrawal. Symptoms such as insomnia, decreased self-esteem and worthlessness are reported to be more common in major depressive disorder 95 . When compared to individuals with normal thyroid function, patients with subclinical hypothy-roidism have been found in one study to have a significantly higher frequency of lifetime depression, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may lower the threshold for the occurrence of depression 106 . Since most depressives are not hypothyroid, there is no necessity for a routine checking of thyroid function, unless they are under lithium prophylactic treatment. Thyroid screening should be obtained in patients with treatment refractory depression, as hypothyroidism may contribute to this condition 107 . The relationship of thyroid function and...


Neuropsychological assessment involves the observation of an individual's behaviour in relation to a given stimulus, selected for its likelihood to provoke an abnormal response in the face of damage to specific neuroana-tomical structures. The theoretical basis of neuropsychological assessment is derived, on the one hand, from cognitive psychology, which is concerned with the development of cognitive tests for the demonstration of theoretical models of normal cognitive functioning, and on the other hand, from behavioural neurology in the tradition of Luria, which aims at the classification of normal and pathological responses to cognitive stimuli with a view to screening central nervous system disorder. Ove Almkvist's review of neuropsychological assessment in dementia emphasizes the importance for diagnosis of considering both normal models of cognitive functioning, such as the dissociation of primary, episodic and procedural memory, and the features of pathological central nervous...

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