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Reverse Testicular Atrophy

Sonographic Equipment and Selection of the Appropriate Transducer Sonographic units used today can be operated with different types of transducers (see below) and are mobile for use in the sonography suite as well as in the intensive care unit or emergency room (Fig. 8.1). The transducers are generally stored on the storage shelf on the right side of the unit. Precautions should be taken when moving the sonographic unit. Avoid having a dangling transducer cable being caught on a door knob,...

Info

Areas that are hypoechoic in relation to the remaining splenic parenchyma include as possible causes all focal lymphomatous infiltrations. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, these lymphomatous infiltrations can be localized as well as diffuse throughout the spleen giving it a heterogeneous appearance. Congenital (dysontogenetic) splenic cysts are rather uncommon and do not differ sonographically from hepatic cysts (64) (Fig. 29.1), thus they are not illustrated again here. Acquired splenic cysts...

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Checklist Right Cardiac Insufficiency Dilation of the inferior vena cava to > 2.0 cm (2.5 cm in trained athletes) Dilated hepatic vein > 6 mm in the hepatic periphery Absent caval collapse with forced inspiration Possible pleural effusion, initially almost always on the right suprarenal < 2.5 cm 2.5-3.0 cm > 3 cm progressing dilation diameter > 6 cm excentric lumen saccular dilation (instead of fusiform dilation) Demonstration of portocaval collaterals at the porta hepatis Diameter of...

O 542mm

The material about the spleen presented in the preceding tained in the text, and the answer to question 5 is found on three pages should have prepared you to answer the follow- page 77. ing questions. The answers to questions 1 to 4 are con- 11 What are the diameters (maximal values) of a normal spleen 9 What structure frequently superimposes air over the spleen and how can this be remedied El What must the examiner search for in patients who have sustained a blunt abdominal trauma Q I low...

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ultrasound Teaching Manual. The Basics of Performing and Interpreting Ultrasound Scans Matthias Hofer translated by Peter F. Winter, p. cm. Rev. translation of Sono Grundkurs. 1997. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 3-13-111041-4. ISBN 0-86577-725-X (TNY) 1. Diagnosis. Ultrasonic. I. Title. DNLM 1. Ultrasonography. WN 208 H697s 1999 RC78.7.U4H6413 1999 616.07'543 dc21 DNLM DLC for Library of Congress 98-45748

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Abdominal circumference Atrial septal defect Biparietal diameter Crown-rump length Computed tomography Diameter of the aorta Diameter of the inferior vena cava Estimated fetal weight Ectopic pregnancy Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy Frontal horn ventricular index Femoral length Focal nodular hyperplasia Gastrointestinal tract Gestational sac ( chorionic cavity) diameter Head circumference Human chorionic gonadotropin Intrauterine device In...

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The returning echoes are, in reverse, converted by the crystals into electrical pulses that are then used to compute the sonographic image. The sound waves are reflected at the interfaces (A, B, C) between media of different acoustic density (i.e., different sound propagation). The reflection of the sound waves is proportionate to the difference in acoustic density a moderate difference (interface A in Fig. 6.1 a) will reflect and return a portion of the sound beam to...

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Gallbladder Hydrops

Since 80 of the patients with gallstones are asymptomatic, detected gallstones are only consequential in context with , their complications (cholecystitis, cholangitis, colics, biliary obstruction). If removal is indicated, this can be achieved by percutaneous or open cholecystectomy or, alternatively, by ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) or ERCP. Furthermore, the composition of the bile can be altered by medication and some stones regress following...

Left Lateral Flank

Left Lateral Decubitus Position

Left high flank section in right lateral decubitus position Right intercostal flank section in left lateral decubitus position Try to think which organs appear in which sonographic sections The solutions can be found overleaf. Standard Sonographie Sections with Corresponding Transducer Positions The most important organs and vessels that are seen in the various standard sonographic sections are listed here. In addition to remembering the corresponding body landmarks, the names of the...

7mm Gestational

In a cycle stimulated as part of infertility therapy, merely measuring the serum hormone levels can neither rule out hy-perstimulated ovaries (Fig. 62.5) nor reliably estimate the number of preovulatory follicles (93). It is for this reason that the number of maturing graafian follicles be monitored sonographically so that therapy can be terminated and contraceptive measures advised when more than two preovulatory follicles develop. About 5 of women have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)...

Homoeopathy Medicine For Bladder Infiltration Of Rectosigmoid Tumor

Testicles Undescended Adult

The ascending colon can be seen in the lateral sagittal section (Fig. 52.1 a). In most cases, air in the colon precludes visualization of its lumen. Large amounts of retained fecal matter (coprostasis) can occasionally be found in the colon of old patients. A transverse colon (43) without any evidence of inflammatory mural thickening (transverse section of the upper abdomen) is shown in Figures 52.1b and c. This contrasts with the thickened wall (74) found in ulcerative colitis or ischemia...

Dilated Renal Pelvis

Lobulated Renal Contour

The normal configuration of the kidney (Fig. 37.2) can show several findings that can be traced to its embryologie development. Hyperplastic columns of Bertin can protrude from the parenchyma (29) into the renal pelvis (31) and do not differ in echogenicity from the remaining renal parenchyma. An equally iso-echogenic parenchymal bridge can completely divide the collecting system. A partial or complete parenchymal gap at the same location indicates a renal duplication (Fig. 38.1) with separate...

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Not all echoes that originate at an acoustic interface return to the transducer without further reflection. If several strongly reflecting boundaries are encountered, the sound waves can be reflected back and forth before they eventually return as echo to the transducer. The resultant delay in registering these echoes leads to reverberation echoes 51 . These reverberation echoes project as several parallel lines in the anterior aspect near the transducer of the urinary bladder Figs. 10.1 and...