Gastroenterology

• Charcot triad: its presence indicates acute cholangitis in 70% of cases

1. Biliary pain

2. Jaundice

3. Fever (with chills and rigor)

• Raynold's pentad: only positive in 10% of patients with cholangitis

1-3. Charcot triad

4. Mental confusion

5. Refractory sepsis manifested by hypotension

• Common MANEUVERS/SIGNS and their associations:

1. Cullen sign, Turner sign: hemorrhagic pancreatitis

2. Murphy sign: acute cholecystitis

3. Caput medusae: liver cirrhosis

4. Courvoisier gallbladder: cancer of the biliary tract or pancreatic head

5. Kehr sign: splenic rupture

6. Obturator test, reverse psoas maneuver: retrocecal appendicitis

7. Markle sign (jar tenderness): specific for peritonitis

8. Succussion splash: intestinal obstruction or gastric dilatation

• Bedside maneuvers to detect ASCITES:

1. Inspection for bulging flanks

2. Percussion for flank dullness

3. Puddle sign

4. Shifting dullness maneuver

5. Fluid wave maneuver

Best clues to make a diagnosis of ASCITES:

1. Focused history (history of liver disease)

2. Recent weight gain

3. Ankle edema

4. Increased abdominal girth

Causes of CIRRHOSIS: mnemonic: ABCDEF

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Budd-Chiari syndrome, hepatitis B

Hepatitis C, Copper overload

Drugs

Ethanol

Fe overload

Physical findings seen in HEMOCHROMATOSIS:

1. Bronzed skin pigmentation (sun-exposed areas)

2. Hepatomegaly with or without cirrhosis

3. Degenerative arthritis of the hands and fingers (proximal PIPs)

4. Testicular atrophy

Irreversible complications of HEMOCHROMATOSIS (despite therapy):

1. Arthropathy

2. Hypogonadism

3. Cirrhosis

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Naturally Cure Your Headaches

Naturally Cure Your Headaches

Are Headaches Taking Your Life Hostage and Preventing You From Living to Your Fullest Potential? Are you tired of being given the run around by doctors who tell you that your headaches or migraines are psychological or that they have no cause that can be treated? Are you sick of calling in sick because you woke up with a headache so bad that you can barely think or see straight?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment