(elevated LDL). Heterozygous carriers present with a family history of coronary events and often have tendon xanthomas. Patients with type 3 dysbetalipoproteinemia (normal LDL with elevated IDL and VLDL) often present with palmar xanthomas and tuberous xanthomas. Hypothy-roidism, diabetes mellitus, nephrotic syndrome, and liver disease are sec ondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Arcus senilis before the age of 40 is consistent with hyperlipidemia. Physicians should be able to calculate different cholesterol levels (mg/dL) using the following simple formulas:
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