SARS Virus Treatments

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

Get My Free Ebook

Pandemic Shield Ebola Survival Plan

Pandemic Shield is an ultimate preppers guide to outbreaks and how to survive them. You will learn how past pandemics have affected our world and what you can do in case of an outbreak. You can use this clear and precise survival guide to: Prepare for the new plague, know the real truth behind the Ebola pandemic. Get your home ready for lockdown. in case of crisis learn how to prep your home for a pandemic. This extensive survival guide section will show you how to prepare your home for any crisis. what to do if the medical system fails. how to treat illness at home.gathering food and water supplies and first aid preparation among others. You will also discover how you can begin to prepare before it is even too late. with natural immune boosting strategies and ways to prevent illness. The threat of an Ebola outbreak is real and right here on your doorstep. It is only a matter of time before it affects you and those you care about and the authorities are doing nothing about it. With Pandemic Shield you will literally be ready for anything. from disease to social and economical breakdown. Whether or not the Ebola threat becomes a pandemic, this is an urgent reminder that we need to prepare ourselves and our families for any possible disaster.

Pandemic Shield Ebola Survival Plan Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Dr. James T. Harris
Price: $39.95

My Pandemic Shield Ebola Survival Plan Review

Highly Recommended

The very first point I want to make certain that Pandemic Shield Ebola Survival Plan definitely offers the greatest results.

Purchasing this ebook was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Download Now

Pandemic Survival

This eBook shows you what it takes to survive the next pandemic. There is no doubt that in the future, the world will be hit with a huge pandemic, either from natural causes or from a terrorist attack. As you look through history, you will be hard-pressed to find any pandemic in history that has killed less than 1 million people. You do not want you or your family to be among those millions. And with the help of the information in this eBook, you have a way to survive the global pandemic that will come. Wishing it won't happen doesn't do anything Preparing for it gives you the tools to survive AND thrive. This book contains the two-pronged approach of John Hartman's years of research in figuring out how pandemics work and living through a dangerous flu outbreak. This gives you the methods to both avoid getting a virus in the first place, and how to strengthen your immune system should you come down with a virus. You don't have to lay down and die. You can fight the next pandemic. More here...

Pandemic Survival Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: John Hartman
Official Website:
Price: $37.00

Ebola haemorrhagic fever

Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe acute viral illness of tropical Africa. It can also occur in travellers who have visited this region. The reservoir is unknown, and it is transmitted from person to person, including air-borne nosocomial hospital spread. Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) and is thus related to a number of other types of similar infections, due to Lassa (q.v.), Marburg and Crimean Congo viruses. Extensive endothelial cell damage is the common pathogenetic mechanism of all the viral haemorrhagic fevers. Bennet D, Brown D 1995 Ebola virus. Br Med J 310 1344. Bouree P, Bergman J-F 1983 Ebola virus infection in man. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 1465. Sanchez A, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE et al 1995 Reemergence of Ebola virus in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 1 3.

New viruses 2151 SARS coronavirus

In 2002 a new human respiratory disease emerged in southern China. The following year one of the doctors who had been treating patients travelled to Hong Kong, where he became ill and died. Subsequently, people who had stayed in the same hotel as the doctor travelled to Singapore, Vietnam, Canada and the US, taking the infectious agent with them. The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was under way. The signs and symptoms of SARS resemble those of influenza and include fever, aching muscles, sore throat, cough and shortness of breath. About 90 per Includes SARS coronavirus cent of patients recovered, but for the remainder the infection proved to be lethal. These were mainly individuals who had an underlying condition such as diabetes, heart disease or a weakened immune system. On the face of it SARS is a respiratory tract disease, but in many patients the infection spread to other parts of the body. Diarrhoea developed in some patients and the virus was shed in the...

Applications to the SARS Coronavirus

As of September 2003, over 30 Ssars sequences were posted in gene banks. To appreciate the sequence variations, one must view the data in the context of known and presumed SARS-CoV epidemiology. This virus is generally considered to be of zoonotic origin. While the natural wild or domestic animal reservoir is probably unknown, isolates strikingly similar to human SARS-CoV has been isolated from exotic animals in Guangdong, China (Guan et al., 2003). These animals included asymptomatic palm civits and raccoon dogs, all housed in a single live animal market. The collection of animal CoV sequences shows some limited diversity (18 nt differences in the 29,709 nt genomes). Speculation is that around November 2002, one or more of these zoonotic SZ viruses infected humans and generated SARS fever, dry cough, and pneumonia. Virus from the initially infected human (the true index patient) may never be available, but viruses that have been isolated from Guangdong patients have interesting...

Representing Sequence Features

This example is identical to Listing 2.1, except that we have now added additional attributes. Listing 2.3 The SARS virus, Take 3. The record now includes a single nonpositional feature, describing the direct submission to GenBank. Listing 2.4 SARS virus, Take 4. The record now includes a single positional feature. If you download the full SARS virus genome record from GenBank, you will see that it includes dozens of features. However, to keep the example more manageable, we have chosen to just include one positional feature in Listing 2.4. As you can see, this feature identifies a single coding sequence Figure 2.11 Sample screenshot of the Rescentris Genomic Workspace application. We have just loaded the SARS example from Listing 2.4. Note that our envelope protein is now included in the main sequence window (it is denoted with a single line between the markers 23,782 and 29,727). Figure 2.11 Sample screenshot of the Rescentris Genomic Workspace...

Hypochondriasis Multiple Illness Phobias F452 3007

Some illness phobias reflect currently fashionable worries about disease, so we can expect now a surge in phobias of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) just as the last few years of the 20th century saw the advent of AIDS fears and its earlier years saw many fears of tuberculosis. Some illness fears may simply reflect a failure of patient and doctor to communicate well a taciturn doctor's silence may be misinterpreted as an ominous sign of frightening information being concealed.

Dealing with outbreaks

It is important that resources for diagnosis, research and treatment of infectious diseases are available when the need arises. A useful case study is provided by the measures taken to deal with the emergence of the SARS coronavirus (Section 21.5.1). Figure 21.12 Checkpoint for monitoring the health of people crossing the Thailand-Burma border during the SARS outbreak, June 2003. Courtesy of Professor A.J.S. Whalley, Liverpool John Moores University.

Geographic Distribution

AIDS is a serious public health problem worldwide. It has been reported in more than 136 countries. In 1983 the Centers for Disease Control in the U.S. had been informed about 3,000 cases. By the end of 1989, 200,000 cases had been reported to the WHO, but they estimated that the pandemic was from 5-10 million. In 1993, 75 (371,086) of the cases that were reported worldwide were from the Americas, and of these 289,320 were in the United States and 36,481 were in Brazil. In Mexico in 1996 there were 26,651 cases (57 dead) 38,083 cases have been reported overall, and this disease occupies the 19th place in causes of mortality. Conservatively, taking into account that the epidemic has lessened, the number of people infected by HIV for each AIDS case is estimated to be 4 1. It predominates in men. In America and Europe this disease is seen in homosexuals who are 20-35 years old and in bisexuals. In the United States 10 of the adult men population is homosexual. In Africa the homosexual...

Interactions Of Viruses With Their Hosts

The interaction of viruses with their hosts is intimate and the product of a long period of evolution during which viruses coevolved with their hosts. Humans cannot survive without a functioning immune system to protect them from viruses. However, this is the result of the long evolutionary history during which hosts and viruses adapted to one another, because viruses in turn cannot survive without their hosts. The example of rabbit myxoma virus demonstrates that the virulence of a virus diminishes if it kills too large a proportion of its hosts too rapidly. We can even speculate that the exceptional virulence of the influenza virus responsible for the 1918 pandemic might have been made possible because of active warfare ongoing at the time. Very ill and dying soldiers continue to be moved about and the virus could continue to spread, perhaps could even spread more readily, if it incapacitated its hosts. On the other hand, the many examples of ways in which viruses modify the immune...

Using Ncbi Efetch and XMLSAX

To retrieve a specific nucleotide sequence record, you must append a database parameter and an ID parameter, which uniquely identifies the record. For example, the following URL retrieves the complete genome record for the SARS coronavirus, formatted in the GenBank flat file format In the URL above, the db parameter specifies the NCBI nucleotide database, rettype specifies the GenBank flat file format, retmode specifies text content, and id specifies the NCBI GI number for the SARS virus. Conveniently, the id parameter accepts both NCBI GI numbers and NCBI accession numbers. For XML content, set the retmode parameter to xml. For example, to retrieve data in the NCBI TinySeq XML format, set rettype fasta and retmode xml. To retrieve data in the more comprehensive NCBI GBSeq XML, set rettype gb and retmode xml. For example, the following URL retrieves the same SARS virus record, but this time it is formatted in GBSeq XML Definition SARS coronavirus, complete genome Organism SARS...

Species Diversity And Focality In The Tropics

This focality in the tropics also means that there are probably numerous as yet undescribed agents infecting wild vertebrates and vectors in tropical forests that have the potential to cause disease in people. In 1976, in 1995, and subsequently, Ebola virus emerged from cryptic forest foci in Zaire to cause fatal hemorrhagic human disease. These episodes are a reminder that tropical zoonotic agents may be very focal and hidden in geographically and ecologically limited transmission cycles until people intrude.

Introduction to virus vaccines

Effective vaccines are in use to protect against diseases caused by many viruses such as polio, rubella, rabies and foot and mouth disease. This chapter will describe the various categories of virus vaccine that are in medical and veterinary use, and will outline some aspects of their manufacture. Effective vaccines have yet to be developed against many other viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis C, Ebola and the herpes simplex viruses. Those involved in virus vaccine research face many difficulties, such as multiple antigenic variants of target viruses and the requirements for high standards of safety. Some vaccines that have been developed have not been accepted for widespread use because of safety concerns. The great need for new vaccines has spawned

Causes of Widespread Infections in Populations

Bubonic plague, caused by Yersiniapestis, is another disease that has shaped history, especially in Europe during the Middle Ages.31 Millions of people were affected by pandemics that spread throughout the continent. Tuberculosis, smallpox, and measles had a tremendous effect on the native populations of the Americas after Columbus's voyages to the New World. It has been estimated that 90 of the population in Mexico was killed by these pathogens, which were novel to the native residents. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents the modern pandemic that will continue to affect human history for at least decades. Other examples are cholera and influenza, which are capable of causing pandemics.32

New strains of influenza virus A

Of surface glycoprotein a haemagglutinin (H) and a neuraminidase (N). There are 16 types of H antigen and nine types of N antigen, and there are many subtypes of each type. From time to time a virus emerges with a new combination of H and N genes formed by reassortment, and causes a pandemic (see Chapter 20).

Nomenclature of viruses and taxonomic groups

The naming of individual viruses has been a rather haphazard business, with somewhat different approaches taken for viruses of different host types. Bacterial viruses were simply allotted codes, such as T1, T2 and 9X174. Viruses of humans and other vertebrates were commonly named after the diseases that they cause, e.g. measles virus, smallpox virus, foot and mouth disease virus, though some were named after the city, town or river where the disease was first reported, e.g. Newcastle disease virus, Norwalk virus, Ebola virus. Some of these original names have been adopted as the formal names of the viruses.

Viruses from the past

The ancestors of modern viruses ('virus fossils') are not readily available, but the reverse transcrip-tion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to recover and amplify genomes of at least two RNA viruses from the past influenza A virus from the 1918-19 pandemic (see Section 20.3.3.c) and tomato mosaic virus. The latter virus is very stable and it can be detected in the atmosphere. Its presence in Arctic ice was predicted, and when cores of ice between 500

Effects of Infectious Disease on Human History

America's Forgotten Pandemic The Influenza of 1918. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Kolata, G. (1999). Flu The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus that Caused It. Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, New York.

Endogenous Regulatory Elements Transgene Size

Pattern of a transgene needs to parallel that of the endogenous mouse gene, one needs to include native regulatory elements. Regulatory elements can be included that augment transgene expression, such as enhancers, which typically act in an orientation-independent manner. MARs, scaffold attachment regions (SARs), and chromosomal insulators are believed to insulate (trans)gene expression from influences of surrounding chromatin (15). LCRs confer position-independent and copy number-dependent expressional characteristics to a transgene. In addition, LCRs provide transgene expression at physiologic

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Labs CBC leukopenia Pelger-Huet anomaly of neutrophils with atypical mononuclear cells thrombocytopenia with abnormal platelet aggregation. Markedly elevated AST and ALT blood was inoculated intraperitoneally into young guinea pigs and into various tissue culture cell lines, and Ebola virus was detected by indirect immunofluorescent staining techniques. Discussion A hemorrhagic, febrile infection of humans due to infection with the Ebola and Marburg viruses, both of which are flloviruses that are structurally indistinguishable but antigenically distinct. There is strong suspicion that this disease is a zoonosis, with monkeys initially being implicated. lp.198

Roles of Vpu in HIV1 Replication

HIV-1, the virus responsible for the AIDS pandemic is a retrovirus belonging to the lentivirus genus. The viral genome consists of two copies of linear, positive-sense ssRNA approximately 9,700 nucleotides long, encoding 14 proteins. In the cytoplasm of infected cells, the viral ssRNA is copied to a dsDNA proviral molecule by viral reverse-transcriptase which is transported to the nucleus and integrated into the host cell genome.

S Functions During Coronavirus Entry

High-resolution structures are predicted for APN (Sjostrom et al., 2000 Firla et al., 2002), and are actually known for CEACAM (Tan et al., 2002). Structural homologies between these two proteins are not readily apparent. Thus, the adaptation of coronaviruses to either receptor likely involves substantial remodeling of binding sites on S proteins. In this regard, it is important to remember that Apn or Ceacam receptor usage correlates with the antigenic and genetic relationships used to divide coronaviruses into groups (Siddell, 1995). Therefore, one can reasonably infer that S variations adapt viruses to particular receptor usage, that receptor usage dictates the ecological niche of infection, and that coronaviruses in distinct niches then evolve somewhat independently to create recognizable antigenic phylogenetic groups. Suggestions that the SARS-CoV constitutes the first member of a fourth coronavirus group (Marra et al., 2003 Rota et al., 2003) may imply that this pathogen has...

Relevance to Antiviral Drug Developments

At present, there are no clinically useful anti-coronavirus drugs, however, the targets for such drugs are clearly in sight. One obvious target is the coronavirus-encoded 3CL protease, as it is essential for the post-translational processing of gene 1 polyproteins into functional subunits ((Ziebuhr et al., 1995 see Figure 4.5). Structure-based, rational anti-3CL protease drug design is at a relatively advanced stage (Anand et al., 2003) and protease inhibitors roughly analogous to those used to combat HIV infection may be forthcoming. A second target, one that is far more relevant to the topic of this chapter, is the S protein. S proteins cause a characteristic syncytial cytopathology in the lung epithelia of SARS patients (Kuiken et al., 2003), and should the S protein dissections described above link syncytial activities with pathogenicity in animal models, investigations would reasonably focus on drugs designed to block S function. Finally, recent convincing evidence that the S...

Public Health Surveillance

WHO manages global disease surveillance and response through a composite of partnerships and networks for gathering, verifying, and analyzing international disease intelligence, mainly to support global and regional efforts to eradicate certain diseases, such as polio, and to protect the global community against diseases with pandemic potential. The oldest of these networks is the global influenza surveillance network, which was established more than 50 years ago and has served as the prototype for the design and implementation of subsequent systems (see later discussion).28 A recent addition to the disease-specific surveillance approach is DengueNet, a web-based network for gathering and sharing information on dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Incidence and Geographic Distribution

A defining feature of the epidemiology of cholera viewed from a global perspective is that, because of its pandemic nature, the disease ebbs and flows across vast geographic distances over time. The Ganges delta is the ancestral home of cholera, where it has persisted in the past in interpandemic periods as Asiatic cholera. As the seventh pandemic of

Viral Glycoproteins that Modify Membrane Permeability

In addition to small hydrophobic viral proteins, there are other virus products that promote membrane permeabilization. This occurs with a number of virus glycoproteins (GP) that are known to increase cell membrane permeability, such as the human immunodeficiency virus gp41 (Chernomordik et al., 1994 Arroyo et al, 1995), the Ebola virus GP (Yang et al., 2000), the cytomegalovirus US9 protein (Maidji et al., 1996), the Vaccinia virus A38L protein (Sanderson et al., 1996), rotavirus VP7 and NS4 proteins (Charpilienne et al., 1997 Newton et al., 1997), the hepatitis C virus E1 protein (Ciccaglione et al., 1998), and the alphavirus E1 protein (Nyfeler et al., 2001 Wengler et al., 2003).

S Functions During Dissemination of Coronavirus Infections

Coronavirus genome organization. Depictions of the murine coronavirus MHV (31.2 kb GenBank accession number NC 001846) and human SARS coronavirus (29.7 kb AY278741) positive strand RNA genome. The 5' end is capped, followed by a leader (L) sequence and niranslated region (UTR). The polymerase and protease polyprotein complex is encoded along two open reading frames (1a and 1b) by a ribosomal frame-shifting mechanism and subsequently proteolytically processed into smaller fragments. Vertical lines with globular heads indicate intergenic (IG) sequences. Shaded boxes are structural proteins (sequentially HE, S, E, M, N) that incorporate into virion particles. Genomes are polyadenylated. Drawn approximately to scale. Figure 4.5. Coronavirus genome organization. Depictions of the murine coronavirus MHV (31.2 kb GenBank accession number NC 001846) and human SARS coronavirus (29.7 kb AY278741) positive strand RNA genome. The 5' end is capped, followed by a leader (L) sequence and...

Edward B Thorp and Thomas M Gallagher

Coronaviruses are widespread in the environment, infecting humans, domesticated and wild mammals, and birds. Infections cause a variety of diseases including bronchitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, and encephalitis, with symptoms ranging from being nearly undetectable to rapidly fatal. A combination of interacting variables determine the pattern and severity of coronavirus-induced disease, including the infecting virus strain, its transmission strategy, and the age and immune status of the infected host. Coronavirus pathogenesis is best understood by discerning how each of these variables dictates clinical outcomes. This chapter focuses on variabilities amongst the spike (S) proteins of infecting virus strains. Diversity of coronavirus surface proteins likely contributes to epidemic disease, an important and timely topic given the recent emergence of the human SARS coronavirus.

Examples Of Specialized Surveillance And Response Networks

World Map Simple

Established in 1952, this global network of more than 100 virus laboratories in 83 countries monitors influenza activity and collects the viral isolates that determine the composition of the following year's influenza vaccines32 (Fig. 15-2). The isolates are characterized by WHO Collaborating Centers in the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, and the United States. In addition to guiding the annual composition of recommended vaccines, the network operates as an early warning system for the appearance of influenza variants and novel strains that could signal the emergence of an influenza pandemic. GOARN was launched in 2000 as a mechanism for combating international disease outbreaks, ensuring the rapid deployment of appropriate technical assistance to affected areas, and contributing to long-term epidemic preparedness and capacity building. GOARN electronically links more than 120 partner institutions and surveillance networks, which together possess the expertise, skills, and resources...

Victor Wray and Ulrich Schubert

Knowledge describing the structure and function of the small regulatory human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein U (Vpu) has increased significantly over the last decade. Vpu is an 81 amino acid class I oligomeric integral-membrane phosphoprotein that is encoded exclusively by HIV-1. It can therefore be anticipated, that Vpu might contribute to the increased pathogenic potential of HIV-1 when compared with HIV-2 that has so far had a lower impact on the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. Various biological functions have been ascribed to Vpu first, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Vpu induces degradation of CD4 in a process involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail. In addition, there is also evidence that Vpu interferes with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation and regulates Fas mediated apoptosis. Second, Vpu augments virus release from a post ER compartment by a...

Molecular Epidemiology

Molecular biologic techniques have been applied to analyze V cholerae O1 and O139 strains in order to determine relationships and to deduce the origin or derivation of strains. The techniques include Southern blotting of restricted chromosomal DNA with specific probes, examination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, ribotyping), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE, electropherotyping), comparison of DNA sequences, polymerase chain reaction methods, and full or partial genome sequencing.37-41 Application of these molecular subtyping methods has revealed that there are four major clonal groups of V cholerae O1 El Tor strains worldwide called (1) seventh pandemic (2) U.S. Gulf Coast (3) Australia (4) Latin America. The U.S. Gulf Coast and Australian strains, each representing an environmental reservoir, are closely related. The seventh pandemic and Latin American strains are also similar. It has also been shown that the O139...

Epidemiology Incidence

V parahaemolyticus cases started to increase again around 1994 in Japan. Between 1996 and 1998, the number of cases more than doubled, with 12,346 cases in 850 incidents reported in 1998 this increase appears to be linked with the appearance of the new clonal group of pandemic V parahaemolyticus strains in serogroups O3 K6, O4 K68, O1 K25, and O1 KUT.34 Diarrheal cases attributed to strains in these groups have also been rapidly increasing in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan, and other southeast Asian countries since 1996, as well as in the United States.34-38

Getting Started with BSML

Listing 2.1 The SARS virus, encoded in BSML Listing 2.1 shows our first XML example, a bare bones BSML document. The document represents the raw sequence data for the coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The virus sequence is 29,727 base pairs in length, and we have taken the liberty of only displaying the first few hundred base pairs. Let us now examine Listing 2.1, and we will continue with a high-level overview of the document structure.

Fundamentals of XML and BSML

In this case, we are defining a new sequence for the same SARS virus as Listing 2.1, but specifying that the actual sequence data is stored in an external text file. Each Sequence element can include a number of attributes. The main attributes are defined in Table 2.3. A more complete example of the SARS virus, along with more fully detailed attributes, is also provided in Listing 2.2.


In 1976 there were outbreaks of a similar disease in Africa near the River Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and in Sudan. A virus Members are Marburg and Ebola viruses similar to Marburg virus was isolated from patients and was named Ebola virus. Since then there have been a number of outbreaks of disease caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses across central Africa, from Cote The way in which the outbreaks start has long been a mystery. There is increasing evidence that some outbreaks start when a human becomes infected as a result of contact with the blood of an infected non-human primate. It was known from the original outbreak in Germany that African green monkeys can be infected with Marburg virus. It has since been found that gorillas, chimpanzees and duikers can be infected with Ebola virus, which may be responsible for significant mortality of these species. Ebola and Marburg viruses are present in the blood of infected hosts and transmission to humans can...

Ciebov Rebov

The second filovirus known is Ebola virus. Ebola virus was first isolated during a 1976 epidemic of severe hemor-rhagic fever in Zaire and Sudan and named for a river in the region. During this epidemic, the 600 cases resulted in 430 deaths. Asymptomatic infection appears to be rare. One case of Ebola occurred in 1977, and in 1979 there were 34 cases with 22 deaths in the Sudan. In this latter epidemic, an index case was brought to the hospital and the virus spread to four people there, who then spread it to their families. After this, Ebola disease in Africa disappeared until 1994. In late 1994, a Swiss ethologist working in the Ivory Coast performed necropsies on chimps. She contracted Ebola but survived, and a new strain of Ebola was isolated from her blood. Then, in May 1995, there was an epidemic in Kikwit, Zaire, that resulted in at least 315 cases with 75 mortality. This was followed by several deaths in western Africa that resulted from consumption of a monkey that had died of...


Cholera is a severe form of contagious diarrhoea caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has been a scourge for hundreds of years, occurring in epidemic waves that rapidly affected large areas of population. The first massive outbreak occurred in 1817 when the disease spread throughout India and into Russia. The second pandemic began in Russia in 1829. It spread across the Atlantic to New York and Montreal, and eventually invaded Latin America. The current seventh cholera pandemic began in Asia in 1961 and had spread to Africa by the mid-1970s. In 1991, cholera appeared in epidemic proportions in Peru and quickly spread throughout South and Central America. Within two years, more than 450 000 cases of cholera, resulting in more than 4000 deaths, were reported in the Americas. While this illustrates the magnitude of the epidemic disease, cholera continues to exist as a constant smouldering threat, especially in Asia and Africa.

Lassa fever

Lassa fever is one of the four forms of viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted from person to person (see Ebola haemorrhagic fever). It was first recognized in 1970 in Nigeria and is known to have a rodent reservoir, with person to person spread following human ingestion of contaminated food. The pathogenesis involves viral interaction with and damage to endothelial cells and platelets, giving rise to a generalized capillary leak.

Family Filoviridae

Table 4.5 lists the known filoviruses, which are classified into two genera, the Marburg-like viruses and the Ebola-like viruses. The filovirus genome is 19 kb in size and contains seven genes, which result in the production of seven or eight proteins following infection (Fig. 4.1). The molecular biology of filoviruses is not well understood, in part because most known filoviruses are severe human pathogens that must be handled under biosafety level 4 conditions. The genomes of Ebola virus and Marburg virus have both been sequenced, and they have a genome organization similar to that of other members of the Mononegavirales. Their sequences suggest that they are most closely related to the pneumoviruses, and they are assumed to replicate in a manner similar to that for the rhabdoviruses and paramyxoviruses. The filovirus virion is enveloped, as is the case for all minus-strand viruses, but rather than being spherical, the virion is long and thread-like (whence the name filo as in...

DNA vaccines

Experimental DNA vaccines have been produced for a number of viruses, including HIV-1, SARS coronavirus, West Nile virus and foot and mouth disease virus trials have been carried out in mice, pigs, horses and humans. Before any DNA vaccine goes into clinical use some important questions about safety must be answered. There must be confidence that injection of the DNA will not trigger an anti-DNA autoimmune disease, and that the DNA will not create cancer-causing mutations by insertion into host genomes.

Virus surveillance

In order that the threats posed by emerging viruses and other agents can be dealt with effectively, it is important that world-wide surveillance systems are in place. There need to be effective systems that warn when agents such as the SARS coronavirus emerge. There was some delay in alerting the world to SARS but, once it was apparent that this virus posed a major threat, work got under way in a number of virology laboratories. The virus was isolated in February 2003 and three months later its genome had been sequenced. The following year a paper was published reporting compounds that inhibit replication of the virus, while other papers reported the cell receptor of the virus and the structure of its replicase protein. Diagnostic laboratory methods to detect evidence of SARS coronavirus in samples from patients rapidly became available tests based on immunofluorescence and RT-PCR were developed. The health of international travellers was monitored (Figure 21.12) and those found to be...


Dengue is produced by a group B arborvirus, indistinguishable in appearance from the Yellow Fever virus. It is caused by one of four related but antigenically distinct serotypes within the genus flavovirus. It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and is endemic in many tropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, Central America and West Africa, with epidemics after severe rainy seasons. The first epidemics were reported in 1779, and a global pandemic began after World War II, particularly in South East Asia. In temperate countries, it is seen only in travellers. Nowadays, it is primarily an urban disease of the tropics, with humans as the primary reservoir. It is the second most important tropical infection after malaria. Two forms of illness are seen.


Following the example provided by the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, preparations of serogroup A, C, or W-135 polysaccharide chemically conjugated to proteins have been evaluated in clinical trials.141-144 Conceptually, the conjugated product will perform as a T cell dependent antigen, which induces larger immune responses in infants, primes immuno-logic memory, and can lead to booster responses with subsequent doses. The introduction of similar conjugated vaccines into routine immunization programs in Africa appears to be the only effective way to prevent future epidemics. Indeed, this approach has already proven feasible. Chemoprophylaxis is impractical in resource-limited settings (e.g., the sub-Saharan meningitis belt) to control meningococcal disease. The first major worldwide epidemic of serogroup W-135 disease followed the hajj (the annual pilgrimage of Muslims to Mecca) in 2000 and spread throughout areas of Africa (e.g., Burkina Faso) and Europe through 2002. A...


A final component of surveillance is the ability to rapidly and reliably exchange information on disease incidence and distribution, preferably in real time. Disease intelligence relies on formal and informal networks for dissemination and sharing of timely, accurate information on occurrences and outbreaks of infectious diseases and diffusion of prevention recommendations. One of the key lessons that emerged from the 2003 global SARS epidemic was the importance of networks of laboratory scientists, clinicians, and public health experts, aided by electronic communications, in rapidly generating the Another essential component of information exchange during infectious disease outbreaks is risk communication. Any outbreak of a novel or reemerging infectious disease is likely to be characterized by scientific uncertainties and high levels of concern that public health officials will be challenged to harness and guide. Since the 2001 anthrax attacks and the 2003 global SARS outbreaks, CDC...


Three pandemics of plague have been recorded. In the Justinian pandemic (circa 542-767 ad), it is thought that plague moved from upper Egypt to the Mediterranean and spread from there to Europe and Asia Minor, ultimately causing an estimated 40 million deaths. The second plague pandemic began in Central Asia early in the 14th century, caused epidemics in China and India, and moved along caravan routes to the Near and Middle East. Entering Messina by ship in 1347, plague swept swiftly through Europe and the British Isles, receiving the epithet Black Death. Medieval plague killed a quarter or more of the affected populations at its height and was followed by successive epidemics in the European region over the next several centuries. The last global surge of plague, the third (modern) pandemic, arose in the latter half of the 19th century in Yunnan Province, China, struck Hong Kong in 1894, and spread from there by rat-infested steamships to port cities throughout the world, including...


Future challenges posed by infectious agents are difficult to predict but certainly include the continuing threat of an influenza pandemic, a recurrence of SARS, the emergence of other zoonotic agents that cross the species barrier to humans, the emergence of new bacterial strains that are more virulent or resistant to antibiotics, the possible deliberate release of pathogenic microbes by terrorists, and the likelihood of increased spread of dengue, cholera, West Nile virus, yellow fever, and foodborne diseases. The best defense against these mobile and resilient pathogens is timely and reliable infectious disease information obtained through global public health surveillance.29 The international community has made important strides in developing networks for detecting and reporting infectious disease events and enhancing capacity for