Precolumbian Mexico

In order to get into perspective, one must remember some important dates regarding ancient Mexican civilization. The beginning of agriculture has been dated back to 5000 BC. The Olmec culture in the south of Mexico unified Mesoamerica around 800 BC, the Teotihuacan Empire was established between 300-600 AD and the decline of the Mayan civilization around 900 AD. The official foundation of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) was the year 1325 and the fall of the Aztec Empire under the rule of Spanish...

References

Maestros de la Cirugia Moderna. Mexico City Editorial Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1996. 3. Toledo-Pereyra LH. Maestros de la Cirugia Contemporanea. Mexico City JGH Editores, 1999. 4. Carrel A. Man, the Unknown. New York Harper and Brothers, 1935. 5. Zimmerman LM. Great Ideas in the History of Surgery. New York Dover, 1967.

Contents

Medicine in Ancient Raman C. Mahabir, Jochen Son Hing, Alda L. Tam and Alex D. Vastardis 5. Ancient Greece Pergamum 15 17 Atilla Soren, Filiz Asian, Mukerrem Cete and Iskender Sayek 8. Early Luis H. Toledo-Pereyra and Suzanne E. Toledo Zimmerer Section II. Surgery Old Masters, Pioneers and Others 9. Galen (130 A.D.-200 A.D.) 10. Avicenna (981 A.D.-1032 11. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) 38 13. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1567) 44 17. Philip Syng Physick (1768-1837) 53 19. William Beaumont...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra

On October 21,1736, when William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808), was born in Philadelphia, Anglo-Saxon America was under British dominance, medical schools did not exist, and physicians were trained by apprenticeship.l,2 It was not a simple task to learn medical principles and to institute them in daily clinical practice. William the younger, as he has been frequently called, attended distinguished schools in the East, including Samuel Finley's school at Nottingham and Princeton College in New...

Robin Kennie

Most people know of the name Theodor Kocher due to using the forceps or incisions he is known for. What most do not know is that he was the first surgeon to win the Nobel Prize in Medicine Physiology and, for over 50 years, the only one. Theodor Kocher was born in Berne, Switzerland, on 25 August 1841. He went to medical school in Berne, from which he graduated in 1865. Dr. Kocher trained in surgery under many great surgeons, including one of the most famous of his day, Theodor Billroth, and in...

Vincent Thien

Major advances in the field of surgery took place near the end of the 19th century. These advances were spurred in part by Lister's development of the aseptic surgical technique, which now gave surgeons the opportunity to enter the peritoneal cavity safely with less fear of post-operative infection. One surgeon in particular who took full advantage of this opportunity and dramatically advanced the field of surgery was Charles McBurney. Charles McBurney was born on February 17, 1845 in Roxbury,...

Susruta Describes an Otoplasty

A surgeon well versed in the knowledge of surgery should slice off a patch of living flesh from the cheek of a person so as to have on of its ends attached to its former seat cheek . Then the part, where the artificial ear lobe is to be made, should be slightly scarified with a knife and the living flesh, full of blood and sliced off as previously directed, should be adhesioned to it so as to resemble a natural ear lobe in shape . The flap should then be covered with honey and butter and...

Tarique Qayumi

Medicine in Ancient China has been traditionally noninvasive. According to Confucian teaching, the human body is sacred and therefore it cannot be dissected. The Chinese concentrated their healing practices into harmonizing the body, which led to a vast number of internal therapies for every kind of ailment. A combination of Confucianism and superiority of internal therapy led to limited surgical knowledge and practice. Treatment in Chinese medicine was classified into five methods cure the...

Hossein Shayan

Success in transplantation the transfer of living tissue from one location to another in order to restore normal function or structure has only been achieved in the past half century. The idea of transferring body parts to strengthen the powers of the recipient, however, has been stimulating the imagination of humankind for several millennia. Ample examples of chimeric gods and heroes with organs from different species are found in the Greek mythology. There are also examples of auto...

Raman C Mahabir Jochen Son Hing Alda L Tam and Alex D Vastardis

Modern surgical practices, especially those of plastic surgery, have their origins in ancient Indian civilization. While Greece influenced medicine in the West, Arabic medicine was the authority in Europe before the 17th century. Since the Ayur Veda literature was translated into Arabic and Persian by the 11th century, it is logical to assume that the practices developed in the Indus Valley went not only East, as far as Japan, but also West, to influence medicine today. To see how these...

Sonja Kotting and Susanne Greschus

Ferdinand Sauerbruch was a great pioneer of surgery who first worked in Zurich and Munich and then from 1928 on at the Charite in Berlin. He became well known because of his inventions which lead to great progress for medicine. Examples of his epoch-making inventions are the low-pressure chamber, Sauerbruch-Arm, a new diet for patients with tuberculosis, and several operative techniques. He initially experienced difficulties with his medical superintendent, Professor von Mikulicz, who called...

Karim Qayumi

In ancient times, when the world was thought to be flat and the oceans were not discovered, the only means of travel and communication was over the land. Knowledge of the existence of exotic civilizations such as China, India, and Persia forced European explorers, businessmen, and conquerors (including Marco Polo and Alexander the Great) to reach Asian countries by a long road that extended from Europe to China and India. This road was called the Silk Road due to silk's importance and...

Medicine In Aztec Culture

Aztecs possessed a mixture of naturalistic and super naturalistic medicine common to other ancient cultures. Their knowledge of anatomy was important, although limited to experience acquired in the kitchen, in war, and at the sacrificial altar knowledge of physiology was very scarce, and they considered the heart to be the most important organ of the body believing it to be the source of feeling and thought. A concept of particular interest is that of the tonalli. This was that part of the...

Surgical Training in Turkey

Undergraduate medical education is a six-year program after which one may be qualified for post-graduate training. Each year between 4000 and 4500 doctors graduate from medical schools. The graduates are screened through a highly competitive central examination for a specialty program of their choice for placement in a post-graduate program. Approximately 2000 positions are available for post-graduate training every year. The Ministry of Health coordinates post-graduate education. Surgical...

Ahmed Shafik

The first documentation of scientific medical observations was produced about 3000 to 2500 BC (Old Kingdom) by an unknown author who some Egyptologists believe could have been the earliest known architect-physician, Imhotep. It came down to us in the shape of a 17th century BC copy of the original papyrus. The author of this treatise had already learned that in surgery and medicine a great body of observable phenomena confronted him. Systematic and scientific compilation and organization of...

Erik B Loucks

Throughout history, art has been an expression of society's thinking during each era of time. This is the case in Ambrosius Francken the Elder's portrayal of the first legendary transplantation, performed by Cosmas and Damian, the patron saints of surgery. St. Cosmas and St. Damian were twin brothers who were born in Arabia, medically trained in Syria, and practiced medicine and surgery in Cilicia and throughout Asia Minor. Throughout their lives they were dedicated to healing people and to the...

Lucretia W McClure

Imagine you are a third-year medical student in 1920 and you are listening to Harvey Cushing's clinical lecture on a case of splenic anemia. After discussing the patient who was presented to the students, Cushing begins to outline what he read before coming to the session. He not only tells the students what he read, but gives a clear description of the nature of the publications and why he selected those particular items. In the 21st century when medical students are surfing the Internet for...

Maurice Blitz

In the latter half of the 19th century, Europe was inundated with some of the great pioneers in the field of surgery. Names such as Billroth, and Courvoisier are still very much part of today's surgical lexicon. Germany specifically was a site for some of these revolutionary surgeons, contributing such notaries as Kocher and Langenbuch. Amidst these giants however, history has almost completely lost the surgeon responsible for one of the most common general surgical procedures. Carl Johann...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra and Alexander Horacio Toledo

The American Civil War was a gruesome and horrendous spectacle. While virtuous and inevitable on a philosophical plane, it was universally devastating to the generation of Americans caught in this painful struggle. For four years, more than one million Americans sustained a continuous fight against each other.1-8 The nation was divided into North and South, Union and Confederate, Federalist and NonFederalist. It was a war fought amongst brothers, friends and neighbors. Amidst this chaos,...

Hellai Sherzoi

Andreas Vesalius is arguably the founder of modern anatomy, having greatly advanced the science with his detailed descriptions and drawings of human anatomy. His greatest contribution was his major work titled De humani corporis fabricca libri septem (Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body) published in 1543, which contained not only detailed descriptions and drawings of the human anatomy, but rudiments of anthropology. Sentenced to death by the Inquisition for his new approach of the...

Herman Kwan Rod McLaren and Todd Peterson

Theodor Billroth is quite possibly one of the most remarkable surgeons of the 19th century. It was clear that he believed in the adage that art and science were created from the same source. While he has left us a legacy of surgical procedures and publications, more notable was his gift of spirit and his ability to inspire his pupils We go up the steps to gain on each step a new view. Even for the most clever climber there is always enough of the ladder left to climb, the end of which reaches...

Simon Bartley

Many medical students have studied Hunter's canal without much thought about whom this anatomic structure was named for. This is unfortunate, as John Hunter was arguably one of the most influential surgeons ever to practice medicine. His contributions to surgery, pathology, anatomy, and physiology were immense and remain today as important milestones in the development of medicine. John Hunter was born in Scotland in 1728. He grew up seven miles outside of Glasgow among ten siblings and came...

Alexander Horacio Toledo

With just cause, much has been written about a man who was the most radical of American patriots, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a leading proponent in ratifying the federal Constitution and a cofounder of the first American anti-slavery society. When not consumed with the dynamic political landscape that typified our nation's infancy, Benjamin Rush 1746-1813 served tirelessly as an advocate for many social reforms including temperance, women's rights, and humane treatment of the...

Luis H Toledo Pereyra and Suzanne E Toledo Zimmerer

In this historical essay we highlight three of the primary factors influencing early American medicine the spirituality of North American Indians, the diseases that the British brought with them to America, and the emerging scientific approach that the British began to embrace. North American Indians were content with their way of life before the Europe-ans mostly British insinuated themselves into the northeastern part of the American continent. As the British arrived, North American Indians...

Jason R Francoeur

Joseph Lister was not the first surgeon, nor was he the first scientist in fact, he was not even the first man to do both. Lister was, however, the first man to show tremendous strengths in both fields and combine them into one occupation the surgeon scientist. Joseph Lister's broad surgical skills, his inquisitive nature, and above all, his receptivity to new and foreign ideas directed him toward one of the great discoveries introduced to mankind. The mid-nineteenth century would be a turning...

Atilla Soren Filiz Asian Mkerrem Cete and Iskender Sayek

Located on two peninsulas, Anatolia and Thrace, Turkey has been heir to many civilizations and cultures the original Central Asian Turkish culture, the Arabic and Persian Islamic culture, ancient Anatolian culture of the earlier periods, and European cultures before and after the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923.1 With a population of 60 million Turkey is one of the youngest and largest countries in Europe and the Middle East. Archaeological findings including surgical instruments...

James Brooks Jonathan Chaney Dong Wu and Barend Zack

Wilder Penfield ranks among the most accomplished and internationally recognized Canadian physicians, for his achievements in wide-ranging areas of neuroscience and neurosurgery. His career was as dazzling as the list of names of the medical giants who were his teachers and mentors. Penfield's contributions include a wealth of writings in both medical and diverse nonmedical subjects undoubtedly, however, his crowning achievement was the creation of the world-famous Montreal Neurological...

Contributors

And Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey Chapter 6 Simon Bartley University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada Mukerrem Cete Ankara Numune Teaching and Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey Jonathan Chaney University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Canada Melissa Chen Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A....