The development of transgenic techniques during the 1980s has significantly broadened the range of experimental approaches to biological problems. The techniques are of particular value to complex biological systems, such as the mammalian brain, which are intractable to comprehensive analysis by classical techniques. Thus far, transgenesis has been applied to specific neuronal systems that have presented as convenient model systems. The current challenge for neuroscientists is to adopt and refine these techniques such that they become widely applicable in all areas of neuroscience.

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