Commercial Use of Transgenic Forest Trees

At present, in the majority of cases, research work with transgenic trees is at the stage of laboratory experiments or nursery tests as shown in Table 2.2. In 2002 several poplar clones were approved by the Gene Security Committee of the State Forestry Administration for commercial use after the required field testing. Some clones of transgenic forest trees were created years ago and therefore have already been tested on a larger scale in field trials, some of them also in different provinces...

Production of Insect Resistant Transgenic Forest Trees in China

Insect attacks and diseases are the main factors for economic losses in forestry (see also Chap. 12). According to incomplete statistics dating back to the 1950s, the 1960s and the 1990s, an annual increase of losses of 25 was calculated (Su et al. 2003). The present forest covers an area of 133 million hectares with the national forest cover rate of 13.92 . An area of 8.2 of the total forest area and 23.7 of the total plantation area of China was affected by insect pests or diseases, the...

The Impact of Glutathione in Stress Resistance

Glutathione (GSH) occupies a central role in defence against oxidative stress, heavy metal pollution, and xenobiotics (Rennenberg and Brunold 1994 May et al. 1998 Foyer et al. 2001). Therefore enhanced biosynthesis and high levels of GSH and or its metabolic precursor cysteine should improve stress resistance in plants. After reduction of sulphate the last steps of cysteine SO42- > > aps Cys y-Glu-Cys ATP L L (5) ATP V (y-EC) ATP Fig. 7.2 (a-c). Role of glutathione in detoxification of...

Genetic Transformation Studies 421 Banana Musa sp

Banana is a member of the genus Musa, belonging to family Musaceae. This is one of the earliest crops, cultivated since 4000 years (Purseglove 1975 Ganapathi et al. 2003). Banana (Musa sp.) is the fourth most important global food crop after rice, wheat and maize in terms of gross value of production (Moffat 1999). The East and Central Africa sub-region alone produces nearly 20 million tons of banana annually (Tripathi et al. 2004). Banana fruit is used as a staple food owing to its good...

Eucalyptus Eucalyptus sp

Eucalyptus is a large genus of family Myrtaceae comprising of evergreen aromatic trees indigenous to Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and neighboring islands. Eucalyptus must have been known from the early sixteenth century when the Portuguese colonized Timor. There are at least two indigenous species, E. alba and E. urophylla on the island. Eucalyptus came into recorded history in 1788 when the French botanist, L'H ritier de Brutelle, published Eucalyptus oblique (Brooker et al. 2002). E....

Pathogen Derived Resistance PDR

Engineered protection offers a new approach to manage virus diseases, allowing the opening of completely new avenues of protection. Increased knowledge of both the molecular genetics of plant viruses and, more recently, also of their hosts' natural defence systems have resulted in the development of a number of novel ways to control virus diseases in plants. Strategies for genetic engineering of resistance to virus are based on three types of transgenes (a) pathogen derived transgenes, (b)...

Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective

13.4.1 ABA, MAPKK, Lipases, and Transcription Factors are Involved in Transmission of the Stress Signal Perception of water deficits is complex and not yet fully understood. The identity of the primary sensor, which could be water status, bound water, (b) -2 -1 -0.5 -0.2 0.2 0.5 1 2 Fig. 13.1. Predicted changes in global precipitation patterns for the winter and the summer season. The period from 1960 to 1990 was taken as reference and changes are indicated in 1 mm day on a scale from red to...

Molecular Engineering to Improve the Performance of Plants in Phytoremediation

The effectiveness of plants for phytoextraction and phytodegradation of pollutants from soils depend on several physiological processes (1) uptake by the roots, (2) loading into the xylem, (3) transport by mass flow in the xylem to the shoot in the transpiration stream, (4) uptake into leaf tissue, 5. detoxification chelation, degradation, transformation Fig. 7.3. Several physiological mechanism for resistance against pollutants and targets for bioengineering and enhanced performance in...

Genome Instability in Plants

Environmental factors can elicit changes in the plant genome, which can broadly be classified as either abiotic (physical and chemical agents) or biotic (living organisms such as pathogens) (Kovalchuk et al. 2001). Many different abiotic factors such as ionizing and UV radiation, various chemicals, or even changes in sodium chloride concentration and light intensity were shown to destabilize the plant genome (Lebel et al. 1993 Puchta et al. 1995 Kovalchuk et al. 1998 Ries et al. 2000 Lucht et...