A General Information

(1) Properly functioning kidneys are vital to life. Remember the main functions of the kidneys maintenance of electrolyte and water balance and excretion of waste products. If the kidneys do not function properly, waste products (such as excess minerals, urea, toxins, and drugs) start to accumulate in the body. These waste products must be removed for the person to continue to live. Dialysis is a technique used to remove waste products from the blood and excess fluids from the body when the...

Genitourinary System Changes

A number of changes in the genitourinary system occur as the body ages. Look at these changes. a. Even without kidney disease, aging causes the kidneys to lose some of their ability to concentrate urine. With aging, progressively more water is needed to excrete the same amount of waste. Therefore, it is necessary for older persons to drink more water than young people. Older people eliminate larger amounts of urine (polyuria) even at night (nocturia). b. Beginning at about age 40, there is a...

Tetracycline Cyclopar

This broad-spectrum antibiotic is effective against gram-positive and negative bacteria, certain mycoplasma, rickettsiae, and protozoa. The dosage is 250 mg by mouth every six hours for 10 to 14 days. a. Adverse Reactions to Tetracycline. Adverse reactions to this drug include the following (1) Gastrointestinal disturbance. (4) Hypersensitivity to the drug. b. Contraindications to Tetracycline. Contraindications are those known to patients who have tetracycline hypersensitivity. Use of this...

Polycystic Kidney

Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder. The disease runs in families. As the name suggests, multiple, bilateral, grapelike clusters of cysts filled with fluid grow in the kidneys. These cysts cause the kidneys to enlarge, compress the kidney tissue, and finally squeeze functioning kidney tissue so that it cannot function any longer. The disease may progress slowly in adults. While polycystic kidney disease cannot be cured, life may be prolonged if associated urinary tract infections...

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

The primary function of the urinary system is to help keep the body in homeostasis by controlling the composition and volume of blood. (para 1-2) One urinary bladder. One urethra. (para 1-2) 3. You are correct if you listed any three of the following Filtration of metabolic wastes. Urine formation. Fluid and electrolyte balance. Acid base balance. Influence blood pressure. (para 1-3a) 6. Control blood concentration and volume by removing selected amounts of water and solutes. Help regulate...

General Information

Injury to the bladder is uncommon nevertheless, it may occur. A full bladder lies in an unprotected position in the lower abdomen. A blow to the lower abdomen can rupture the bladder, making immediate surgical repair necessary. Such injury typically occurs in traffic accidents. b. Another type of injury that may cause bladder disorders is injury to the spinal cord. Injury to the spinal cord may severely disrupt bladder filling and emptying. The most common causes of such injuries are...

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and the tissue of the kidney itself. This is a renal disease that may be either acute or chronic. a. Acute Pyelonephritis. This type of pyelonephritis is fairly common. It can be treated and, if the patient continues to be checked, there probably will not be extensive, permanent damage of the kidneys. (1) Etiology of acute pyelonephritis. A bacterial infection causes the inflammation. The bacteria most commonly reach the kidney by ascending...

Use Of Proprietary Names

The initial letters of the names of some products may be capitalized in this subcourse. Such names are proprietary names, that is, brand names or trademarks. Proprietary names have been used in this subcourse only to make it a more effective learning aid. The use of any name, proprietary or otherwise, should not be interpreted as endorsement, deprecation, or criticism of a product nor should such use be considered to interpret the validity of proprietary rights in a name, whether it is...

Tumors Of The Bladder

Etiology of Tumors of the Bladder. The most prevalent tumors in males over 50 are bladder tumors. They are more common than benign papillomas and various kinds of cancer. About 90 percent of bladder tumors arise from the epithelial lining. Possible causes include (1) Toxins, particularly certain aniline dyes. (Many aniline dyes are obtained from coal tar.) (2) Chronic infestations of schistosomes (blood flukes) in the bladder. (4) The presence of urinary stones. These may develop and...

Lesson Assignment

After completing this lesson, you should be able to 4-1. Identify the purposes of and indications for urinary catheterization. 4-2. Identify the procedures for performing a urinary catheterization. 4-3. Identify the proper procedures for maintaining surgical aseptic technique. After completing the assignment, complete the exercises at the end of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

Signs And Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infections

Pain, a primary symptom associated with urinary tract infection, involves the kidneys, the ureter, and the bladder. Kidney pain will be manifested as a dull ache in the flanks extending along the rib margin toward the umbilicus. (The flank is the side of the body between the ribs and the pelvis.) In the ureter, pain radiates from the costovertebral angle down the course of the ureter to the scrotum or vulva to the inner thighs. During urination, the individual experiences bladder pain that...

Afferent carry to Efferent carry away from

Each renal capsule is drained by a renal tubule. This part of the tubular system runs a long distance in a coiled formation and is called the proximal convoluted tubule. A long loop, the renal loop of Henle extends down into the medulla with two straight parts and a sharp bend at the bottom. As the tube returns to the cortex layer, it once again becomes coiled and is known here as the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule is the end of the nephron unit. (b)...

CAdditional Procedures

This is a blood test to help determine whether the kidneys are clearing the body of waste properly. The body's blood chemistry changes if the nephrons of the kidneys are not removing the body's waste products efficiently. One change in blood chemistry is a rise in the blood urea nitrogen level. (2) Cystoscopic examination. The cystoscopic examination is a direct method of bladder study and visualization by cystoscopy using a tubular lighted telescopic lens that is...

Cystitis

Definition Signs Symptoms of Cystitis. Inflammation of the bladder, called cystitis, is ten times as frequent in women as in men. Part of the reason may be that the female urethra is very short compared to the urethra of the male. Bacteria (for example, colon bacilli) ascend from the outside through the urethra into the bladder causing cystitis. The most common symptoms of cystitis are pain, urgency (a feeling of needing to void although the bladder is not full), and frequency of urination....

Exercises Lesson

Answer the following exercises by writing the answer in the space provided. After you have completed all of these exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution. 1. The genitourinary history of a patient should include trauma, infections or diseases, incontinence, physicalabnormalities, Dysuria (difficulty or pain in urination) and _. 2. Menstrual...

Laboratory Procedures For Urinary Tract Infections

Common laboratory procedures for urinary tract infection include the following routine analysis, culture sensitivity, blood tests, cystoscopic examination, and X-ray procedures. a. Routine Analysis. Routine analysis is done to check for abnormalities. A routine analysis includes a check of the following (1) Specific gravity for testing the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. (2) pH-balance to reflect the metabolic status. (3) Presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, crystals, and...

Treatment Of Stones In The Ureters

Early treatment for stones in the ureters was by barber surgeons who removed stones in the ureters, operating without anesthesia. These surgeons cut through the patient's skin and muscles of the back to remove stones from the ureters. Termed cutting for stone, this method was relatively successful even though there was no sterile technique. The reason was because by approaching the stones through the back, the peritoneal cavity was avoided, thus reducing the risk of deadly...

Male Genital System

The penis and the scrotum are the external parts of the male genital system. See figure 1-7. (1) Penis. The penis is the male organ of copulation and urination. The shaft of the penis is made up of three cylindrical masses of tissue bound together by fibrous tissue. The two back and side tissue masses are called the corpora cavernosa penis. The smaller third tissue mass is the corpus spongiosum penis located toward the middle of the shaft and containing spongy urethra....

Renal Calculi Kidney Stones

Renal calculi, more commonly known as kidney stones, are another disorder of the genitourinary system. Substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate sometimes separate from the rest of the urine solution and form a solid deposit. These formations can occur anywhere in the urinary tract, but they usually develop in the renal pelvis or the calyces of the kidneys. There may be one kidney stone or several. The size of the stones vary. Kidney stones develop in...

Etiology Of Urinary Tract Infections

The cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) can be traced to the presence of infectious microorganisms located anywhere between the kidneys and the urethral opening. The common pathogens are the gram-negative bacilli, often found in the colon, especially E. coli, klebsiella, and proteus. Microorganisms acquire access to the kidneys by ascension from the lower urinary tract beginning at the urethra. Bacterial infections of the lower urinary tract occur about 10 times...

Acute Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis, a form of nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) in which the lesions involve primarily the glomeruli, is the most common kidney disease. In this disease, antibodies formed in response to streptococci attach themselves to the glomerular membrane and injure this membrane. (Glomeruli are the small, coiled mass of blood capillaries within Bowman's capsule of the kidney.) These damaged glomeruli allow protein, especially albumin, to filter into Bowman's capsule and, ultimately,...

Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly fail to function. As a chief organ of the excretory system, the kidney is important in the elimination of some soluble waste products from the body, and the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the body. Renal failure stops these all-important functions, and disrupts the fine balance of the body's systems. Medical treatment can usually reverse this problem. If medication is unsuccessful, the condition may progress to end-stage renal...

Femal Genital System

Sores Fold Labium Minus

The vulva and its parts make up the external genitalia. The word vulva is a term that has been designated to stand for the external genitalia of the female. See figure 1-10. (1) Mons pubis. The elevated, fatty tissue covered with coarse pubic hair and which lies over the symphysis pubis is the mons pubis. Pubic hair appears at puberty. The function of the mons pubis is to protect the pelvic bone. (2) Labia majora. The labia majora are large longitudinal folds of skin and...

CMost Commonly Seen Signs and Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure As

A 91W30, you are most likely to see these signs and symptoms of renal failure (1) Mental disturbances such as confusion, lethargy, and stupor. (2) Less than 30 cc an hour urine output despite replacement. (3) Respiratory conditions such as respiratory muscle paralysis. (4) Cardiac problems such as tachycardia and dysrhythmias. d. Treatment of Acute Renal Failure. Treatment for acute renal failure in the Intensive Care Unit consists of the following (1) Initiate an IV of 0.9 percent normal...