Diabetes

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Diabetes mellitus magnifies the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetics have a two- to fourfold increase in the risk of CAD. Diabetics, particularly those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are at high risk of vascular disease because of high levels of triglycerides, LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Patients with NIDDM tend to produce small, dense LDL particles that are more vulnerable to oxidation. Other mechanisms for the adverse effects of diabetes that promote vascular disease include glycation of arterial wall proteins, enhancement of LDL oxidation, microvascular disease of the vasa vasorum, change in cellular function, promotion of thrombogenesis, and the development of renal disease and hypertension (Beckman et al., 2002).

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

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