Promoting A Sciencebased Vegetarian Food Guide

For the average consumer, selecting a nutritious dietary pattern is a daily challenge. Food processing and marketing, fast food, variety, quality, availability, cultural influences, work schedules, family structure, food-related beliefs, economics, and food habits all contribute to complex dietary patterns documented among industrialized countries. During the mid 20th century, research on vegetarian populations shifted from describ ing nutrient deficiencies to documenting health benefits...

Conclusion

The most important, well-established, diet-related risk factors for CHD are high serum cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high BMI. Compared with non-vegetarians, Western vegetarians have a lower plasma cholesterol concentration (by about 0.5 mmol l-1) and lower body mass index (by about 1 kg m2), and may have slightly lower blood pressure. The low cholesterol levels of vegetarians would be expected to cause an approximately 25 reduction in mortality from CHD, and a pooled analysis of...

Coronory Heart Disease

Vegetarianism and Coronary Risk A. Established Risk 1. Lipids and 3. Hemostatic 4. Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance 38 B. Possible Risk III. Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart A. Observational 0-8493-8508-3 01 0.00+ .50 2001 by CRC Press LLC B. Intervention Trial of a Low-Fat Vegetarian Diet 45 C. Foods, Nutrients, Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart Disease 45 IV. Topics Requiring More A. Coronary Heart Disease in B. Coronary Heart Disease in Vegetarian South Asians 47 C. Vitamin...

Osteoporosis

Table 6.1 Seventh-Day Adventist Consumption Patterns According to Vegetarian Status* Food Vegetarian Semivegetarian Nonvegetarian Table 6.1 Seventh-Day Adventist Consumption Patterns According to Vegetarian Status* Food Vegetarian Semivegetarian Nonvegetarian *All differences were significant at P < 0.001, except for salads (nonsignificant). Data were adjusted for age and sex. Vegetarians ate no meat, fish, or poultry semi-vegetarians ate meat, fish, or poultry in total < 1 time wk...

Vegetarian Children and Obesity

The physical growth and development of vegetarian children and adolescents is addressed in another chapter of this volume. In general, younger vegetarian children tend to be leaner than non-vegetarians,20 and this Figure 5.4 Mean BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians from four epidemio-logical studies. attribute also tends to be present among older vegetarian children and adolescents, although limited research data are available for older children. Lousuebsakul and Sabate21 studied...

Dietary Guidelines

Dietary guidelines are designed to provide advice for healthy individuals regarding diet and related life-style practices to promote healthful eating and reduce the risk of disease.1 Dietary guidelines differ from nutrient standards such as the Reference Dietary Intakes (RDI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA),2 or food guides such as the Food Guide Pyramid.3,4 Nutrient standards define the reference points for average daily intake of essential nutrients food guides provide a framework...

Introduction

Epidemiological data as well as clinical experience clearly suggest that relatively unrefined vegetarian diets can provide remarkable health protection for chronic disease prevention.1 Vegetarian diets typically contain higher amounts of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds2-4 with concomitantly decreased levels or elimination of refined foods and animal products (Table 6.1). Thus, in contrast to the omnivorous diet, the nutritional composition of the vegetarian diet is...

Contents

Pigments in Grapes and F. Isoprenoids and G. Fructose A. Soy B. Effects on Lipid D. Help for Menopause and Bone IV. Whole B. Contents of the V. Nuts, Seeds and A. Nuts and Heart B. The Contents of Nuts and C. Olive A. The Value of Onions and Garlic B. Protection against Heart C. Protection against

Series Preface For Modern Nutrition

The CRC Series in Modern Nutrition is dedicated to providing the widest possible coverage of topics in nutrition. Nutrition is an interdisciplinary, interprofessional field par excellence. It is noted by its broad range and diversity. We trust that the titles and authorship in this series will reflect that range and diversity. Published for a scholarly audience, the volumes in the CRC Series in Modern Nutrition are designed to explain, review, and explore present knowledge and recent trends,...

Obesity As A Public Health Problem

Obesity is rapidly becoming the scourge of modern society. Presently, at least 34 of the U.S. population is obese (20 or more above their ideal weight) and more than 55 weigh in excess of ideal.1,2 This represents the highest prevalence ever recorded in the United States.3 Nor is the 0-8493-8508-3 01 0.00+ .50 2001 by CRC Press LLC problem unique to Americans. It is estimated that there are now 250 million obese adults in the world (7 of the total population), with many more overweight.4 At the...

Components Of Vegetarian Diets That May Be Associated With Altered Cancer Risk

The vegetarian diet differs from the non-vegetarian diet in more ways than the mere absence of meat. Some vegetarians often consume vegetarian protein products (e.g., soy) as meat substitutes and also tend to consume more fruits and vegetables and more whole wheat grains, which are rich in many micronutrients thought to offer some protection against cancer. Thus, the question that remains is whether it is something in meat itself (or perhaps the cooking of meat) or the lack of protective...

Prologue

Editor's Note I would like to recognize Dr. Mervyn Hardinge, a pioneer in the field of vegetarian nutrition. His work and dedication to the scientific investigation of vegetarian diets have served as an inspiration to those who have followed. To this end, Dr. Hardinge has submitted a historical prologue to this volume, for which I wish to thank him. Historical records of ancient times reveal that each nation passes through well-defined dietary stages. When the nation is young and struggling to...

Perspective On Us Food Guides

An in-depth discussion of the development of U.S. food guides has been recorded by others.3-6 This discussion is limited to characterizing the balance of animal- and plant-based proteins during the 20th century. In the early 1900s, human life span was around 50 years of age and infectious disease was the leading cause of death. Also, malnutrition was widely documented among many young men registering for military service as well as those in lower socioeconomic groups. For most of the 1900s,...

The 19th Century

Introduction of Physical Arguments for a Vegetable Diet The moral hideousness of killing animals for food still dominated vegetarian discussions into the early decades of the 19th century. But the physical depravity of flesh food was hardly being overlooked, and by the middle of the century it would ascend to at least equal status with morality. Even Oswald recognized the unsuitability of meat for the human body. Approach, he requested, urging readers to gaze upon the scene of carnage a...

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and optimal bone health. The current U.S. DRIs for vitamin D are 5 to 15 mcg. (200 to 600 IU) depending on age. Those under 50 years. of age require 5 mcg, those 51-70 require 10 mcg, and those over 70 require 15 mcg. Most individuals can manufacture sufficient vitamin D with adequate sunlight exposure. In addition, there are some readily obtainable vitamin D-fortified foods. These include cow's milk, some cereals, and some soy beverages. Because of...

The 20th Century

Great Britain and the United States remained the centers of vegetarian philosophy and practice into the 20th century. In the former, the cause of vegetable diet was promoted with particular eloquence by Henry Salt (Mohandas Gandhi, among others, pointed to Salt as the inspiration for his own vegetarianism). Author of numerous books calling for elimination of social injustices, Salt was nevertheless best known most notorious for his advocacy of Animals' Rights, the title of an 1892 volume that...

Summary

This chapter has emphasized that a plant protein diet will give the elderly an advantage in reducing meal insulin response, which in turn decreases fat synthesis (cholesterol and triacylglycerols). The inclusion of casein from milk as an animal protein represents a disadvantage to those on the LOV diet. The inclusion of plant fat in the diet significantly aids in keeping the body content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols at a low level. A plant diet is higher in complex carbohydrate than the...

Relation With Living Nature

Living nature provides mankind with a number of services that vary from useful to vital. The provision of food is only one of these services. Others include photosynthesis, pollination, recreation, cycling of substances, control of pests, genetic resources, the generation of non-food products, and pollution control. The total value of the services that nature generates is very hard to determine. Existing estimates are, however, in the same order as the gross world product.15 Therefore, negative...

N3 Fatty Acids

The observation that Eskimos living a traditional lifestyle had low rates of CHD despite a high total fat intake led to the hypothesis that a high consumption of fish rich in n-3 fatty acids might be protective.67 Since then, many physiological and epidemiological studies have investigated the role of n-3 fatty acids in CHD. The majority of this work has concerned long chain n-3 fatty acids largely provided by fatty fish and fish oils, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and...

17TH AND 18Thcentury Vegetarianism A Thomas Tryon

It was not until the 1600s that any significant addition to the vegetarian polemic was made. But then one encounters, in the writings of Thomas Tryon, the most comprehensive brief yet, for the virtues of flesh-free diet (that an Englishman should revive vegetarianism was prophetic, for England would serve as the fountainhead of vegetarian thought well into the 19th century). Tryon, a dissenting religionist cum health reformer and sometime poet, was one of his era's better known commentators on...

New Adventist Health Study

The mortality studies of SDAs in the U.S. and elsewhere were useful in comparing risk of cancer death with non-SDA populations and for examining the relationship between diet and risk of several fatal cancers. However, the mortality studies were hindered by certain limitations. First, by restricting attention only to fatal outcomes, differences in stage at diagnosis, or differences in survival may have partly explained the differences between SDA and non-SDA populations. Second, in comparing...

Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine

Dietary intake of vitamin B12 can be low in both vegetarians and veg-ans.58-60,86 The sources of vitamin B12 in a vegetarian diet are dairy products, eggs, fortified foods (especially meat analogues, soya milks, yeast extracts, and breakfast cereals) and vitamin supplements. If none of these sources of vitamin B12 is regularly consumed, intake of this vitamin will be low and the risk of deficiency will increase. More data are needed on current intakes of vitamin B12 in vegetarians, and on...

Vegetarianism In Antiquity

The term vegetarianism was coined relatively recently in the mid-1800s when abstinence from meat began to take on the form of an organized movement. As a practice, however, it dates to quite early times in Western society, at least to Pythagoras, the Greek natural philosopher of the 6th century BC, who founded a religious community in southern Italy in which vegetarianism is supposed to have been part of the rule of life. Pythagoras' rejection of the eating of meat seems to have been based on...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

Scandinavian researchers in the 1960s were the first to demonstrate that the ability to exercise at a high intensity was related to the pre-exercise level of muscle glycogen.1 Body glycogen stores play an important role in intense exercise (70-85 of peak aerobic power) that is either prolonged and continuous (e.g., running, swimming, and cycling), or of an extended intermittent, mixed anaerobic-aerobic nature (e.g., soccer, basketball, ice hockey, or repeated exercise intervals). Endurance...

Legumes

A number of studies have shown that legumes, such as beans and lentils, lower blood cholesterol levels, improve blood sugar control, lower triglyceride levels, and lower the risk of heart disease.74-76 While beans are good sources of polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, potassium, copper, and soluble fiber, they also contain a variety of important phytochemicals such as flavonoids, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytates, and phytosterols that have cardio-protective and cancer-preventive...

Nutrient Issues

Well-planned vegetarian diets can meet the energy and nutrient needs of pregnancy and lactation.21 If, however, a diet becomes limited in the kinds or amounts of foods that are consumed, there is greater risk for inadequacy and the greater the restriction, the greater the risk. Because the increase in need for nutrients during pregnancy is greater than the increase in need for energy, care must be taken to choose nutrient-rich foods to meet energy needs. The need for protein in pregnancy...

Neurological Disorders

The aging population worldwide yields concern for an increased prevalence of dementia. Hypothetical reasons exist for lifelong dietary patterns influencing the most common forms of dementia. Harman has elucidated a theory that free radicals might be involved in the onset of dementia.97 Vegetarian diets high in antioxidants may confer protection against free radicals and thus reduce the risk of senile dementia.98 Multi-infarct dementia may also be related to the consumption of cholesterol and...

Z

Figure 16.3 Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid, Trapezoid bottom. consensus reached was that a line used to separate the core food groups from the optional food groups would facilitate the acceptance and use of the pyramid graphic by the majority of diverse vegetarians. It was also decided that a statement should appear on the graphic about the necessity of vitamin B12 supplementation for individuals consuming a strict vegan dietary pattern. The inclusion of fortified plant...

Nuts Seeds And Oils

Nuts are typically classified as tree nuts (often encased in a hard shell) or peanuts (actually a legume). For most of the year, Americans eat nuts and seeds somewhat sparingly (less than one-half ounce per day) because of their high fat content. Nuts account for only 2 to 3 of the total fat intake in the American diet.117 People in the Mediterranean countries, who are noted for their healthy diet, consume twice as many nuts per person as Americans do. A number of epidemiological studies have...

Analysis Interpretation

In general, these studies of vegetarian populations have revealed lower cancer mortality (or incidence) in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. In comparing vegetarians with the general population, in comparing vegetarians specifically with non-vegetarians, in comparing different cancer sites for different genders, ages groups, and time periods, a total of 204 SMRs or relative risks have been evaluated. More than 70 (71 ) of the Figure 4.13 Standardized incidence ratios for selected cancer...

Soy Isoflavones and Breast or Prostate Cancer Risk

The observation that both breast and prostate cancers are common in the Western industrialized nations, while relatively rare in oriental countries such as China and Japan, suggests that some component of the oriental diet may include substances that protect against these cancers. In addition, studies of migrants from these low-risk countries to the U.S. revealed that risk of breast and prostate cancer increased to the level of Caucasians in the U.S. after only a few generations. One such...

Fruits and Vegetables

The term vegetarian implies a lifestyle characterized by a diet rich in vegetable intake. A recent review based on 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies concluded that fruits and vegetables were effective in the prevention of several forms of cancer including stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.62 Twenty cohort studies (perhaps offering the strongest type of evidence) were reviewed and indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption...

Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance

People with diabetes (both non-insulin-dependent and insulin-dependent) or with impaired glucose tolerance have a higher risk of CHD than people with normal glucose tolerance.34 Some of this association is due to the coexistence of glucose intolerance with low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity, but hyperglycemia also increases CHD risk independently of these other risk factors.42 Vegetarian diets do not have a well-defined effect on glucose tolerance. Western vegetarian diets...

Acknowledgments

The publication of a book is never the work of a single individual. This is obviously the case in a contributed-chapter volume such as this. I am greatly indebted to each of the authors for their efforts. I would like to acknowledge Dr. Rosemary Ratzin-Turner for initially sharing with me her idea to create a book of this nature and initiating the contact with the publisher. Her interest in the subject and desire to see this volume published have continually motivated me. I would like to...

Whole Grains and Cancer

There is a wide range of protective substances found in whole grains that exert their effect through various mechanisms including antioxidant activity, hormonal effects, binding of carcinogens, and otherwise influencing the environment of the gut in a beneficial fashion.60 A recent review of some 40 case-control studies (involving 20 different types of cancer) found a pooled odds ratio of 0.66 (99 confidence interval 0.60-0.72) for high vs. low whole grain intake.61 Most odds ratios in this...

Editor

Joan Sabat is Professor and Chair of the Department of Nutrition and Professor of Epidemiology at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health. He is also Professor of Preventive Medicine at the university's School of Medicine. A native of Barcelona, Spain, Dr. Sabat obtained his medical degree from the Autonomous University of Barcelona. He moved to the United States with a Fulbright Scholarship to further train in Public Health Nutrition. In 1989, after completing his thesis research on...

Protein

It is recommended that American adults receive about 45-65 grams of protein. While vegetarians typically consume lower amounts of protein than omnivores, they generally have an adequate protein intake,7 provided they receive adequate calories and eat a variety of foods such as soy beans and soy products (soy burgers, tofu, soy beverages, soy nuts, etc.), other legumes, nuts and seeds, and grains. Those with greater protein needs should increase the number of servings of legumes they consume....

On The Virtues Of Vegetarianism

Sympathy is one of a class of virtues often referred to as other-regarding. The principal focus of this trait is the object of attention, but it presupposes a certain ability in the agent to engage in altruistic and empathetic dispositions. Thus, when other persons or beings are suffering, we are moved out of sympathy to respond in a fashion that would relieve their suffering. Following Hume, Edward F. Mooney writes that sympathy is the 'mechanism' whereby we sorrow in the plight of others and...

Zinc

While overt zinc deficiency is rare in the U.S., it has been commonly seen in the Middle East.41 The U.S. RDAs for zinc are 15 mg day for adult males and 12 mg for adult females, 15 mg for pregnant women and 19 mg for lactating women. The precise zinc requirements are still a matter of debate Canadian recommendations for zinc are about 35 lower than the U.S. recommendations. The absorption of zinc is quite variable (normally about 20-30 ), and the absorption of zinc does increase with a lower...

The Food Of The Gods And The Diet Of Paradise

Common to virtually all religious doctrines is a belief in a deity or deities that transcend humankind in thought, power, and practice. Spirituality demands a supernatural constituent that is worthy of worship and often fear. This requires that there be a difference, as well as a distance between the human subject and the divine overlord. While the envisioned differences have often taken strange and grotesque forms, the gods have always been anthropomorphized to some extent. This allows for...

References

Growth at Adolescence. 2nd ed., Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1962. 2. Emans, S. J. Menarche and beyond do eating and exercise make a difference Pediatr. Ann., 26(2) S137, 1997. 3. Apter, D. Development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 816 9, 1997. 4. Wildt, L., Marshall, G., and Knobil, E. Experimental induction of puberty in the infantile female rhesus monkey. Science, 207 1373, 1980. 5. Marshall, J. C. and Kelch, R. P. Low dose...

Smoking

Smoking is a major cause of CHD and the risk is linearly related to the amount smoked.51 The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the higher the risk, with an approximately threefold higher risk in heavy smokers than in non-smokers.34 Smoking tobacco in other forms such as cigars and pipes also increases risk. Studies of Western vegetarians have generally shown that they have a much lower prevalence of smoking than the general population, and also a substantially lower prevalence than...

Vegetarian Diets Descriptions And Trends

Ratzin-Turner, and Jack E. Brown II. Definition of III. Types of Vegetarian IV. Historical and Sociological V. Demographics and VI. Publication Trends in the Scientific In response to basic questions, this chapter defines who a vegetarian is and what the major forms of the vegetarian diet comprise. It also reports trends of acceptance of this dietary practice in industrialized nations as well as publication trends of vegetarian nutrition articles in the biomedical...

Obesity

Obesity has many different metabolic effects, some of which would tend to increase the risk of CHD. In particular, obesity increases serum total cholesterol while reducing HDL cholesterol, raises blood pressure, and induces glucose intolerance.44 Data from prospective studies also indicate that obesity is an important risk factor for CHD.45,46 Numerous studies have consistently found that vegetarians are, on average, thinner than comparable non-vegetarians.21,47-49 The data from four large...

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

More than 200 epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of cancer. When examining the studies of all cancer sites, more than three quarters of these studies show a significant reduction in risk for a higher intake of at least one vegetable or fruit category.3 People who eat higher amounts of fruits and vegetables have about one half the risk of cancer and less mortality from cancer.4,5 Pickled vegetables would not be included...

Dietary Pattern And Pregnancy Outcome

The first comprehensive study of pregnant vegetarians, including dietary intake, nutritional status and health history, was reported by Hardinge et al. in 1954.2 Although vegans were included in the larger study of which this was a part, none was pregnant consequently, comparisons were made between lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOVs) and omnivores. There was no difference in height, weight, or weight gained during pregnancy and there were no serious delivery complications in either group. Birth...

Minerals And The Elderly Vegetarian Or Vegan

Mineral metabolism in human nutrition still remains a subject that requires extensive study. Even routine mineral evaluation methods are lacking, particularly as an inexpensive sampling technique that will answer adequacy or deficiency questions of whole body content. For the elderly vegetarian or vegan, this chapter will confine the discussion on minerals to a short presentation on calcium metabolism, while placing the emphasis on magnesium and selenium because of their major importance and...

The Process Of Developing The Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide

Vegetarian Pyramid Pic Loma Linda

In 1995, an international group of scientists, academicians, and medical practitioners with expertise in vegetarian nutrition was identified to assist in the process of developing a de novo vegetarian food guide with a graphic. Emphasis was placed on selecting individuals who would represent diverse vegetarian traditions and practices. Those organizing the alliance were involved with program planning for the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, scheduled in 1997.35 At the two...

Epidemiological Studies of Vegetarians

Data from the Adventist Health Study (AHS) is of interest in comparing the effects of a vegetarian diet on obesity. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church doctrine promotes a healthy life-style and includes the recommendation of a vegetarian diet for its members. This study collected diet and other life-style characteristics of some 34,000 individuals, following them for several years and recording the incidence of chronic disease and death. Data recorded in 1976 indicated that about 45 of...

Summary And Conclusions

The purpose of this chapter was to assess the adequacy of vegetarian diets in maintaining normal reproductive function in women throughout their life-span. Taken together, the available data suggest few, if any, differences in reproductive function between vegetarians and omnivores, although several questions remain unanswered. Based on the literature available, the following conclusions can be reached 1. Provided that adequate energy is available to support normal growth, vegetarian diets do...

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is required for the normal maturation of red blood cells and for the synthesis of sphingomyelins, which occur in large amounts in the myelin sheath of nerve tissue. Without sufficient B12, changes will occur in nerve function, and red blood cells remain as large immature megalo-blasts, producing macrocytic anemia. Because vitamin B12 is not naturally found in any significant amounts in plant foods, some vegetarians, especially vegans, may be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency....

Body Mass Index

Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. in men (Figure 5.3). A higher proportion of meat eaters than non-meat eaters were overweight or obese (21 vs. 10 of men and 13 vs. 8 of women), whereas a lower proportion of meat eaters had a BMI < 20kg m2 (9 vs. 17 of men and 18 vs. 33 of women). No...

Natural Resources

Fishing and hunting directly exploit natural resources. Several natural resources are used in agricultural production, the most vital being land and water. Energy resources, such as mineral oil, a number of metal ores, phosphate rock, and natural gas (which is used in fertilizer production), are also important. A matter for discussion is whether these resources are used optimally, and what, if any, effect current use will have on their future availability. The natural resources that are...

Plant Based Mixed Diet Diet

High cholesterol High saturated fat High protein High heme-iron High carbohydrate High dietary fiber High antioxidants Figure 12.4 A plant-based diet is associated with a macro- and micro-nutrient profile that is conducive to both health and endurance performance. 1. Nieman, D.C. Exercise Testing and Prescription, A Health-Related Approach. Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View, CA, 1999. 2. Messina, M. and Messina, V. The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications....

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Starch or complex carbohydrates, and both soluble and insoluble fiber, are carbohydrate molecules made up of the monosaccharide glucose. Free sugars of glucose, fructose, and sucrose (a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose), along with starch, are the main source of energy in human diets, accounting for some 40 to 80 of human energy intake.75 In the starches and the fibers, the alpha- and beta-linkages at the glycoside carbon largely regulate whether the human digestive tract can digest...

Herbs

Many of the commonly used herbs contain phytochemicals, such as the carotenoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phytosterols, saponins, and phenolic acids, which are similar to those found in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, and also those associated with disease prevention (see Table 14.4). The therapeutic value of many of these herbs owe their health-promoting properties to the phytochemicals they contain.152 Table 14.4 Phytochemicals in Common Herbs also Found in Vegetables, Fruit and Whole...

Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Vegetarian Societies

As mentioned, interest in the relationship between dietary habits and human health has existed since antiquity. It was not until the early part of the 20th century, however, that systematic efforts to quantify the relation between human nutrition and cancer were undertaken. These studies were possible because death certification was becoming universal and reasonably complete for all causes of death and because of statistical and epidemiologic methods to conduct relatively sophisticated analyses...

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Vegetarian dietary practices have been associated with many health benefits, including reduced death rates from ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer,2,5-8 and decreased risk of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension.2,9-11 Vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, typically have a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, dietary fiber, antioxidant nutrients, phytochemicals, and folic acid, with a lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol,12-15 each of which has been...

Type 2 Diabetes

Dietary surfeit is a contributing factor to the disproportionately increased incidence of type 2 diabetes seen in the U.S., and is capable of precipitating the disease onset in those who are genetically susceptible. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, accounting for approximately 70 of the variance in disease prevalence.72 Therefore, plant-only and plant-based eating patterns that assist in weight management will have preventive effects in individuals at high...

The Pubertal Transition And Menarche

Menarche, the first menstrual bleeding, is understood by many to signal the onset of a woman's reproductive life. Yet, as will be described herein, the pubertal transition takes place over several years, with menarche occurring not at the onset, but relatively late in the process. Moreover, in most cases, women are not fertile (i.e., capable of becoming pregnant) until some period of time after menarche. This section will examine whether vegetarianism affects the pubertal transition, first by...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The recommended daily allowance for dietary protein intake appears to be the same for the elderly as for young adults, at 0.75 g kg of body weight for both age groups.10 This is surprising, because the protein content of the adult body diminishes with age, with apparent exchanges of fat for muscle. Changes in muscle mass are related to whole-body protein turnover and changes in the rate of protein synthesis. The recent work by Campbell et al.,11 recommends 1.0 gm kg of protein daily to maintain...